egypt, ancient Flashcards

Terms Definitions
chaos
disaster
mastabas
flat-topped tombs
nomes
administrative districts
authority
power or influence
afterlife
life after death
Ra
God of sun
predict
tell ahead of time
Egypt
country in northeast Africa
annex
take (territory) by conquest
linen
fabric made from flax
narmer
first pharoh of unified egypt
Ankh
A symbol of everlasting life
economy
the efficient use of resources
Osiris
the god of the underworld
What are hieroglyphics?
Ancient Egyptian writing
Examples of acquired diseases
Tuberculosis

Leprosy

Schistomiasis

Smallpox

Poliomyelitis

Arthritis

Vascular disease

Anemia

Kidney stones
delta
a triangular-shaped deposit of soil near the mouth of river; a flat plain of land, usually marshy or swampy
bureaucracy
a network of appointed government officials
Aten
solar sun disc promoted by Akhenaten
Hieroglyphs
pictures and other written symbols that stand for ideas, things or sounds
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged.
Isis
goddess in Egyptian mythology, "Queen of throne"
AMARNA REVOLUTION
1st Intermediate Period, Tutankhamen born, Nefertiti was queen
pyramids
monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs.
What was the first civilization developed in Mesopotamia?
Sumer
The more powerful Nubian villages took over the weaker ones and created this kingdom. This kingdom developed close ties with Egypt.
Kerma
contribution
the act of giving or doing something
social pyramid
a diagram illustrating the division within a culture
Ramesses II
longest ruling pharaoh, hundreds of children
silt
a mixure of soil and small rocks
pyramid
a massive structure with a rectangular base and four triangular sides, like those that were built in Egypt as burial places for Old Kingdom pharaohs
What was the Pharaoh's word no longer?
law
Rosetta Stone
the key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics
sphinx
a mythical Egyptian beast with the body of a lion and the head of a human
dynasty
series of rulers from the same family
access
a means of approaching or entering; the right to enter or use
pharaohs
the title used by rulers of egypt.
settlements
places where people began to live permanently
tribute
any exacted or enforced payment or contribution.
Menes
the first pharaoh of Egypt who united Upper and Lower Egypt
His pyramid was known as the Bent Pyramid
Snefuru
Africa
On which continent is the country of Egypt located?
obelisk
A large stone monument used to honor pharaohs.
regent
someone who rules for a child until the child is old enough to rule
Shadouf
a bucket lifter used by farmers to scoop water from the canals and pour into the fields
Imhotep
later worshiped as the god of wisdom, he designed one of the first pyramids; the Step Pyramid at Saqqara. This was probably the first structure to be built according to architectural plans
Tomb
A structure for the burial of the dead
Ramses II
Ordered stone statues for himself to be built in his honor.
Upstream
In the direction against the flow of the river; at the upper part of a river
What is the sea above Turkey?
The Black sea.
step pyramid
it consisted of 6 mastabas of smaller dimensions built one on top of the other.
old kingdom
a period in Egypt in history that lasted for about 500 years from 2700 to 2200 BC
Amon-Re
The sun god The chief god of the Egyptians
Ahmose I
After the end of the MIddle Kingdom, mid 1500s BC, Ahmose declared himself King and drove the Hyksos out of Egypt. This began the New Kingdom, when Egypt reached its height of power and glory
amon ra
during the new kingdom power moved to thebes in the south. the ban priests merged their local god, aman, a creator god, with the powerful sun god ra. throughout the land, egyptians worshipped amon ra as chief god
papyrus
found at the pithy stem of a water plant
Nile River
longest river in the world 9over 4,000 miles) and most of Egypts population lived along here
Canopic Jars
Jars that the organs of dead people were placed in. Specifically it was the lungs, liver, stomach, and intestines.
Upper Nubia
A region between the Second and Sixth Cataracts of the Nile
His tomb in the Valley of the Kings was discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter
Tut
queen and king hatshepsut
a women pharaoh who accomplished much including building many temples like deri-el-bahri. She also brought egypt back to its former wealth by renewing foreign tarde, She also avoided war where she could. This was all illegal however because she was a women. So the rightful pharaoh, thutmose the third gathered the supporters he needed and overthrew the wueen
what was the time period of the second intermediate period
1800-1600 b.c.e.
List the order of Egyptian social classes from highest to lowest.
pharaoh, nobles, merchants, peasants
King Tut
A boy who became pharaoh at age 9 and died from unknown causes at 19.
What improvement did the middle kingdom rulers make?
Egypt expanded their borders and the arts flourished.
What does the word hippopotamus mean?
Horse of the river or river horse.
What was the order of hight in Egypt?
Pharaoh, Priest, Scribe, Crafts People and Merchants, Farmers, Slaves
What was the purpose of the Temples in Egypt?
They were considered the houses of Gods and Goddesses. Priest and priestesses performed daily rituals, washed statues of the dieties and brought them food. Also served as BANKS for valuable treasures (gold jewlery, sweet smelling oils and fine woven cloths)
Tsis
Protector god
Narmar
1st pharoh
glaciers
sheets of ice
embalm
to preserve a body
MUMMIFICATION Step 1.
Body cleaned
cataract
Rock filled rapids or waterfalls
Nubia
Neighboring southern Egyptian city, later conquered in New Kingdom.
social mobility
change in social status
Savants
Recorded Description de l'Egypte in 1809-1830
hieroglyphics
The Ancient Egyptian form of writing
mandate of heaven
divine right to rule
Displaced
Took place of somebody or something.
beeswax
honeybee wax used to build honeycombs
What is another name for Harvest
Shomu
Chief Treasurer
a government officials who looked after the pharaohs wealth
Trading Network
A group of buyers and sellers.
cultural diffusion
spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one peolpe to another
1075 B.C.E.
Egypt began decline in what year?
Thutmose
Stepson of Hatshepsut. Had large army. Conquered Syria and other lands for Egypt. Trade made the Egyptians rich.
Myths
Stories used to explain things that couldn't be understanded
pictographs
symbols that represent whole words in hieroglyphics
astronomer
scientiest who studies the stars and other objects in the sky; cientificos que estudian las estrellas y otros objetos en el cielo.
Amenhotep I
founder of 11th dynasty: 1991-1962 BCE
-campaigned against Libyans and the Asiatic in the Sinai.
-built the Wall of the Prince in Sinai to gaurd eastern borders
-built trading post in Nubia
-made his son Senusret co-ruler
-began Golden Age in Egypt
-was assasinated
Current near eastern archeology
inquisitive, not acquisitive. peer reviewed journals. position of everything is recorded
Pharaoh Khufu
ruled during the old kingdom period and built the Great Pyramid at Giza
irrigation
to supply land/crops with water by way of ditches,canals,or pipes
amulet
a trinket or piece of jewelry thought to be a protection against evil
oracle bones
Shang priests wrote questions to gods or ancestors on bones then put them in a fire, they then read the cracks in the bones as anwsers to their questions
polytheist
a person who believes in many gods; most ancient Egyptians held this belief
nation-state
region with a united group of people and single gov't
Hashepsut
1st woman to serve as pharoh; ruled for 21 years
Sahara Desert
borders the Egyptian culture to the west and served to isolate the civilization
Nomad
a person who moves from place to place with no permanent home
natron
a chemical used to embalm the body and preserve it
WHAT IS THE SOURCE OF THE WHITE NILE?
Lake Victoria
Lower Egypt
The NORTHERN part of the kingdom of Ancient Egypt
Aswan Dam
one of the world's largest dams on the Nile River in southern Egypt
Why is pharoh zozer important?
he had the first stone pyramid.
cause of 1st intermediate period
The construction of Pyramids because they represent a tremendous waste of economic and human resources.
The book of the dead
the name given to various collections of spells buried with the dead of ancient Egypt to assist their souls through judgment
"The Gift of The Nile"
Another name for Egypt as given by Greek historian Herodotus.
Where did the small farming villages grow along the nile river between?
Between the DELTA and the FIRST CATARACT
What did the leaders start to do when Egypt began to unify?
Leaders of different nomes competed for control of power and wealth
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