Russian Revolution Vocabulary for Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Russian parliament
March Revolution
russian civil war
Supported the Czar
Supported nationalist sentiments,with the hope of raising Italy up to the levels of its great Roman past
Russian secret police today
A wooden cabin in Russia.
Nicholas II
-shy christian boy
-cultural changes
-industrialization (cities and trans-siberian RxR)
councils of workers and soldiers.
Ukraine Famine
-gov't intentionally starved peasants
-not really a part of russia, but had own resistance and nat'l poli movement
-stalin needed them to be pushed down/intimidated, so starved population to death
rule over the Russian empire
Black Hundreds
para-military groups; conservative; given weapons by the tsar
communist youth organization that trained teenagers for communist party membership
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death (coincidence? I think not). (905)
Electoral law illegally changed by Tsar to limit representation of radical deputies.
(1914-1918), war between allies and central power, an attempt for nationalism, thought to be small war. behind on weapon technology, 2 mill. died in first year, makes economy worst
alexander II
stops political reforms, starts autocracy, turns Russia into police state, forces people to be orthodox, uniform Russian culturen
Menshevik Party
-more moderate Communist party following death of Alexander II
-minority side
-favored bourgeois Marxism
-had to overthrow tsarist regime to create a bourgeois society, so later a proletariat society could form
more along lines of true Marxism, but failed to Bolshevik party
-perhaps communism in USSR wouldn't have been so disastrous if they had won
unprecedented adj
first time without precedent extraordinary
the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
Bolshevik that people crossed out Stalin's name to have him lead-could have started purges
ottoman empire
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
a seven-member committee that became the leading policy-making body of the Communist Party in Russia
Concentration Camps
detention centers for civilians considered to be enemies of the state
Vladimir Lenin
NAPOLEON; founded the Menshiviks and was the creator of the Soviet Communist Party
warmth, stretching
Two purposes of dancing in Russia.
a Russian member of the left-wing majority group that followed Lenin and eventually became the Russian communist party
Reforming minister in late 19th century. In 1897 Russia went on gold standard. Began industrialization seriously. Railway network doubled, telegraph lines x 5, number of post offices tripled, and trade increased. But Russia was still dependent on Western machines and chemicals, etc. There were social changes as Middle Class and Working Class began to grow. Witte oversaw many of these developments and promoted them.
Karl Marx
socialist, communist manifesto and Das kapital; proletariat (factory workers) will overthrow capitalists exploiters of the workers
july days
1917 Petrograd, Russia, when soldiers and industrial workers in the city rioted against the Russian Provisional Government. Most significantly, the outcome of the July Days represented a temporary decline in the growth of Bolshevik power and influence in the period before the October Revolution.
V.I. Lenin
Believed that the Bolsheviks should work towards gaining control of groups and then use them to overthrow the provisional government.
Political Autocracy
-Russia previous to revolutions
-tiny educated elite, huge serfdom
-no political changes besides nationalism
-tsar, secret police force to prevent spreading of new political ideals
-like feudal theifdom
-rural, not industrial
-important b/c this made russia least likely place for a communist revolution
if Germany beats France would Britian be next
redemption n
deliverance or forgiveness for wrong doings
Bloody Sunday
1905; peaceful march by Russians turned deadly when Czar's guards fire on crowd, killing hundreds
an economic system based on state ownership of capital
political & economic system where the government controls everything
October Manifesto
(1905), issued by Nicholas II, attempted to quiet strikes, local revolts, promised freedom of speech and assembly, called the Duma into session
A body of representatives that makes laws for a nation.
the process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian empire
White Army
formed to defeat Bolsheviks, fought Bolsheviks' Red Army, made up of many different groups
how does WWI worsen russia?
strains resources
massive casualties
nicolas II offers poor leadership
-indecisive, chooses ineffective generals
-attempts to lead army himself
-while on the front, wife alexandra is left to rule, disastrous
(n) someone who spreads lies to get their own agenda across
April 27 1906
Fundamental State Laws. Published by Tsar to restate his right to autocracy. Removed powers granted in October Manifesto.
Russian populists who fled to Switzerland in 1870s. Became Marxists and in 1883 founded the RUSSIAN SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC LABOR (MARXIST) PARTY. Some populists even declared themselved Marxists in Russia, ex. Krupskaya, Lenin's future wife. Many of the populists turned into Marxists in 1890s since peasants were so quiet and industrialization was proceeding so rapidly in Russia that perhaps the revolution might come as Marx had predicted - once Russia had undergone industrialization. They were joined by Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin who were all self-declared Marxists.
october of 1917
revolution when the bosheviks stepped in for the czarists
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
joseph djzugashivili
known as "Stalin" tajes control over communist country, exiles Trotsky
October Coup
-Duma changes gov't to oppose soviets, soviets become more radical (this is all influenced/persuaded by Lenin)
-Lenin and Trotsky convince army/navy/people Duma has turned against them
-back Soviets in name of Russia
-goal = more than just power, NEW FORM OF GOV'T
-result = Duma leaves, Bolshevik put in power, lead by Lenin and Trotsky
War communism
in World War I Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control
A person of the lowest or poorest class.
Plotted against the czars and led the revolution
Peter Stolypin
the new Prime minister that Nicholas had appointed
Who were the "Whites?
The nationalists (Conservatives, and Anti - Bolsheviks).
Revolution of 1905
Wave of political terrorism, strikes, peasant unrests, mutinies, both anti-government and undirected, that swept through vast areas of the Russian Empire, leading to the establishment of the State Duma of the Russian Empire, multi-party system and the Russian Constitution of 1906
Social Democrats
In Germany and other socialists in Europe were favoring the more gradual approach after WW I. For many, the violent revolution that Lenin had fostered was not to be emulated. Even Marxists like Bernstein and Kautsky did not have the stomach for Lenin's methods.
dictatorship of the proletariat
Marx's theory of a proletariat controlled world following the taking from the wealthy; eventually it will wither away into a classless society.
spread of this in Russia was known as "Russification"; sense of homeland: culture, language, beliefs
agricultural revolution
forces people to give up farmland now have collective farming, government eventually takes over
the revolution of 1905
Beginning with the Bloody Sunday massacre, many political parties came about, there were strikes and uprisings... they wanted to change the government and have political modernization. the revolution ended with the October Manifesto, after it was issued the govenment had help from the middle class to stop the attacks and survive as a constitutional monarchy.
Alexander I
the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825)
Five Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state. (781)
George Gapon
Orthodox Father who led a march in January, and marched on the Winter Palace.
5 Year Plans
The Five-Year Plans for the National Economy of the USSR were a series of nation-wide centralized exercises in rapid economic development in the Soviet Union. The initial five-year plans were created to serve in the rapid industrialization of the Soviet Union, and thus placed a major focus on heavy industry. Altogether, there were 13 five-year plans. Stalin outlined the first of several Five-Year Plans for the development of the Soviet Union's economy. The Five-Year Plans set impossibly high quotas, or numerical goals, to increase the output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity. To reach these targets, the government limited production of consumer goods. As a result, people faced severe shortages of housing, food, clothing, and other necessary goods.
Constitution of 1936
Socialism was thought to have proven so successful that a new constitution of the USSR was proclaimed. In this the rights of the citizen were enumerated. Went beyond civil liberties and involved right to employment, rest, leisure, economic security, comfortable old age. Racism was condemned and direct and equal universal suffrage was assured, HOWEVER, this would prove, in many ways, to be a hollow sham. At same time liberties proclaimed on paper, Stalin and party were tightening their grip and a time of internal troubles was to follow.
The Red Guard
armed factory workers who attacked the provisional government during the revolution
"Dictatorship of the proletariat"
where the government would own the major means of production (factories, mines, etc) and individuals would continue to own some property.
There were food riots and chaos in Petrograd(St. Petersburg but name changed in WW I because sounded too German) in 1917. Tsar dismissed Duma but it set up an Executive Committee which was essentially moderate, constitutionalist and relatively legal. Under pressure from the Petrograd Soviet, it set up a Provisional Government under Prince Lvov.
Peace land and bread
Lenin slogan to gain respect, Peace- to end war, Land- appeals to peasants and Bread- end to food shortages
March 1917 Revolution
city-wide trike in Petrograd due to a bread and fuel shortage
tsar nicholas II
Last Tsar of Russia and then end of the Romanov line. Was executed along with the rest of his family under the order of Lenin. In WWI ordered a partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary, forcing a chain reaction of mobilization.
Rise of Lenin
Lenin was one of the leaders of the Communist party during Russian Revolution. He rose to power by eliminating his enemies, and completely controlling society with the help of the secret police "Cheka." This was known as the rule of Red Terror
Who took over the Russian government? Was it hard to attain this power?
Bolsheviks took over Russian government. This power was not hard to attain the government was handed over to the Bolsheviks.
Provision Goverment Porgramme March, 1917
•manifesto stating the goals of the Prov Gov•envisioned a liberal democratic goverment on the Western model with proper guarantees for civil and political rights•pledged to end bureaucratic control of daily life and promised to convene a democratically elected Constituent Assembly to determine the legitimate form of the new Russian state•Also pledged to vigorously prosecute the war toward a Russian victory
What happened to the Constituent Assembly?
Lenin lost the election and the Socialist revolutionists won a majority. Bolsheviks came in second so they only had 25% of the assembly. Lenin abolished the assembly and they were going to set up a new government and the Secret police were established.
whose ideas did lenin adapt?who did lenin want to lead the revolution?who were they?
an elite group, "dictatorship of the proletariat."
the bolsheviks
What are the names of the two people that wrote the Communist manifesto?
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Did Lenin think that Socialism would happen naturally?
No Lenin believed that their needed to be a strong government leader and he thought he was the perfect man for the job.
What 2 things did WW1 do for Russia in a negative way?
Put pressure on Russia. Created a shortage of supplies.
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