RV Myers Psychology for AP - Unit 3A Flashcards

Terms Definitions
acts as the conscious
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 600)
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
fixed-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention conscious effort
the proportion of phenotypic variation in a population attributable to genetic factors
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing sped-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 431)
binoculars cue; visual depth cue; muscles controlling eye movement as the eyes turned inward to view a nearby stimulus
Sigmund Freud
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
impaired functioning
difficulty in fulfilling appropriate and expected family, social, and work-related roles
Daniel Kahneman
an Israeli psychologist and Nobel laureate, who is notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making, behavioral economics and hedonistic psychology.
an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
Edward Thorndike
Pioneer in operant conditioning who discovered concepts in intstrumental learning such as the law of effect. Known for his work with cats in puzzle boxes.
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
echoic memory
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; sounds can be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
acoustic encoding
encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
psychedlic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perception and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
Triarchic Theory
theory proposed by Robert Sternberg that states that intelligence consists of three parts including Analytic = the ability to solve problems, Creative = the ability to deal with new situations, and Practical = the ability to adjust and cope with one's environment
located between the pons and the forebrain - relay or switching station; sends message onto the correct parts of the brain
the raw data of experience; sensory stimulation; example are eyes only register light energy and ears only register wave energy
top-down processing
Constructing perceptions based on our experiences and expectations
ideas and images of the accumulated experience of all human beings
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder involving sudden panic attacks
avoidant personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by inhibition in social situations; feelings of inadequacy; oversensitivity to criticism
Critical Thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's actions may enable imitation and empath
Sympathetic division
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies.
measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 433)
fMRI (functional MRI)
Technique for revealing bloodflow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans, fMRI scans show brain function
vestibular sense
The sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance.
Depth perception
Ability to see objects in three dimension although the image that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance
positive psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 628)
Diathesis-stress approach
Disorders are a result of predisposed, bioloogical factors triggered by the environment.
Experimental Group
in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
Declarative Memory
It refers to memories which can be consciously recalled such as facts and events.
aptitude test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 444)
size constancy
the perception of an object as the same size regardless of the distance from which it is viewed; example someone height
Oedipus [ED-uh-puss] complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 599)
sociocultural model
a way of looking at mental disorders in relation to gender, age, ethnicity, and other social and cultural factors
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
sensorineural hearing loss
Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.
(PET) Positron emission tomography scan
A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
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