Elements of Poetry Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dactyllic
stressed/unstressed/unstressed
Pyrrhic
unstressed/unstressed
pentameter
five feet
octometer
eight feet
Monometer
one foot
Heptameter
seven feet
Tercet
three lines
Octet
eight lines
Versification
the writing of verse.
couplet
a stanza with two lines
septet
a stanza with seven lines
hexameter
number of metric feet:six feet
trochaic
type of metric foot: stressed/unstressed
X-lined Stanza
nine or more lines
Lyric
subjective, reflective poetry with regular rhyme scheme and meter which reveals the poet's thoughts and feelings to create a single, unique impression.
free verse
unrhymed lines without regular rhythm
euphony
the use of compatible, harmonious sounds to produce a pleasing, melodious effect
amphibrach
a foot with unstressed, stressed, unstressed syllables
half rhyme (slant rhyme)
imperfect, approximate rhyme
scansion
the analysis of the mechanical elements within a poem to determine meter. Feet are marked off with slashes (/) and accented appropriately as stressed (') or unstressed (u).
octet (octave)
types of stanzas: eight lines
Ode
elaborate lyric verse which deals seriously with a dignified theme
English(Shakespearean)
three quatrains and concluding couplet in iambic pentameter, rhyming abab, cdcd, efef, gg or abba, cddc, effe, gg.
consonance
repetition of two or more consonant sounds within a line
ballad
simple, narrative verse which tells a story to be sung or recited
sonnet
a highly formal and rigid 14-line lyric verse form, with variable structure and rhyme scheme according to type (three types)
cacophony
the use of inharmonious sounds in close conjunction for effect
alliteration
repetition of one or more initial sounds, usually consonants, in words within a line
enjambment
a run-on line, continuing into the next without a grammatical break
feminine rhyme
rhyme in which two consecutive syllables of the rhyming words correspond, the first syllable carrying the accent; double rhyme (flying, dying)
catalexis
an extra unaccented syllable at the ending of a line after the regular meter ends ( opposite of anacrusis)
Idyll
lyric poetry describing the life of the shepherd in pastoral, bucolic, idealistic terms.
haiku
Japanese verse in three lines of five, seven, and five syllables, often depicting a single image
assonance
repetition of two or more vowel sounds within a line
light verse
a general category of poetry written to entertain, such as lyric poetry, epigrams, and limericks. It can also have a serious side, as in parody or satire.
English (Shakespearean) sonnet
three quatrains and concluding couplet in iambic pentameter, rhyming abab, cdcd, efef, gg or abba, cddc, effe, gg.
Petrarchan sonnet
also known as the Italian sonnet; an octave and sestet, between which a break in thought occurs; the traditional rhyme scheme is abba, abba, cde, cde (or, in the sestet, any variation of c, d, e)
masculine rhyme
rhyme in which only the last, accented syllable of the rhyming words correspond exactly in sound; most common kind of end rhyme
stanza
a series of lines in a poem; poetic paragraph.
onomatopoeia
the use of a word whose sound suggests it meaning.
Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet
an octave and sestet between which a break in thought occurs. Traditional rhyme scheme is abba, abba, cde, cde.
rhyme
same ending sound
tone
author's attitude about subject, either stated or implied
theme
the main idea of the piece
Simile
Directly comparing two unlike things using like or as.
imagery
a representation of language using the five senses: sight, smell, taste, touch, hear
allusion
brief reference to a person, place, thing, event, or idea in literature
metaphor
a comparison of two unlike things not using like or as
Anapest
weak-weak-stress
trimeter
3 feet
dimeter
2 feet
Triplet
Three-Line Stanza
Sestet
Six-line stanza
haikui
3-line japanese verse
oxymoron
a self-contradictory phrase
quarried
to dig out (v)
Sound
The manipulation of language sounds.
Sound device
Adds a musical quality
Meter
The measured arrangement of words
Understatement
ironic expression where something important is called to attention by being belittled
limeric
a humerous 5 line poem
Paradox
apparent contradiction that, upon further thought, is actually true
Personification
giving human-like characteristics to inanamite obects
line
sequence of words pronted separately on a page
Conceit
an extended metaphor comparing two unlike objects with powerful effect
Elegy
lament the death of an individual
caesura
speech pause occurring within a line
Repetition
Poets frequently use repetition to enrich or emphasize words, phrases, lines, or even whole verses in poems
antithesis
Balancing or contrasting one thing against another for effect
Example: Fair is foul and foul is fair.
conotation
the suggested,or implied,meaning of a word, not its strict literal meaning; an idea or feeling associated with a word
hyperbole
an incredible exaggeration, or over statement for effect.
Symbol
Something concrete used to represent something abstract.
Similie
A comparison that uses comparing words
extrametrical syllables
extra unaccented syllables added at the beginning or end of lines
Sentimentality
Overly emotional ideas or indulging in emotion for its own sake
nonfiction
prose writing that deals with real people, events, and places without changing any facts
enjambement
continuation of a syntactic unit from one line of verse into the next without pause
a repetition of vowel sounds followed by different consonant sounds
Assonance
Figurative Language
Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else or any language that goes beyond the literal meaning
16. Personification:
16. Personification: Giving human or animate qualities to nonhuman or inanimate things Example: The raindrops danced on the sidewalk.
cataloguing
the listing of words, images, or attributes
heroic couplet
iambic pentameter lines rhymed in pairs and containing a complete thought
Parallelism
the use of phrases, clauses, or sentences that are similar or complementary in meaning or in structure
satire
ridicule of human folly or vice with the purpose of bringing about reform
Limerick
5 lines, arranged in a specific rhyme and meter pattern (formal stanza)
Description
Make use of sensory details- words and phrases that describe how things look, sound, smell, taste and feel.
Symbolism
the use of one object ti suggest another, hidden object or idea
rhythm
the beat created by the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables
Vehicle
object that the subject of a metaphore is compared to
extended metaphor
A metaphor that is developed over several lines of writing
Alliteration.
the repetition of a consonant sound in a series of words
Irony
To say something but to mean something else
15. Mixed metaphor:
15. Mixed metaphor: The inconsistent mixture of two or more metaphors; a common problem in bad writing, and they can often be unintentionally funny
Repetition
the repetition of a word to produce an effect in any form of literature
Narrative Poetry
Poetry that tells a story such as ballads, epics, and verse romances
blank verse
poetry that does not rhyme, yet has meter
echo
repeating of a word or phrase to add rhythm or emphasize an idea
sonnet poem
a 14 lined lyric poem, usually written in iambic pentameter, having one of several rhyme schemes
concrete noun
names an object that can be perceived by the senses. These create images. Often make up the details of the literary work.
metrical verse
has regular meter but no rhyme scheme, but not iambic
Idiom
a common phrase made up of words that can't be understood by their literal, or ordinary, meanings. example: raining cats and dogs, lay it on thick
lyric poem
shorter than a free verse poem, but with a lot of emotion
metric feet
in one line, the number of patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables
refrain
a repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song
Synecdoche
a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part
Personifaction
" is a figure of spech in which human qualites are compared to a animal or idea."
Rhyme and Rhyme Scheme
The repetition of words that have the same ending sound. Internal rhymes are rhyming words within lines. (Sleeps and creeps)
A pattern of repeated rhymes is called the rhyme scheme. The pattern of end rhyme in a poem. (abab cdcd efef ghgh)
Anonymous
Unknown
Cinquain
5-lined stanza
diction
word choice
Tetrameter
4 feet
Alluision
A reference to something
Internal Rhyme
within a line
Narrative
Nondramatic, objective verse with regular rhyme scheme and meter which relates to a story or narrative
Half Rhyme/Slant Rhyme
imperfect, approximate rhyme
Ryhme
A correspondence in terminal sounds.
Villanelle
A French verse form, strictly calculated to appear simple and spontaneous, five tercets and a final quatrain, rhyming "aba aba aba aba aba abaa". Lines 1,6,12,18 and 3, 9, 15, and 19 are the refrain
Speaker
"voice" from whom the words come
denotation
the dictionary meaning of a word
contrast
a stricking difference between two things to heighten effect
narrative poem
poem that tells a story
Slant Rhyme
a rhyme-ish combination using assonance or consonance
the author's attitude about the subject; it may be stated or implied
Tone
apostrophe
addressing a person or personified object not present
Epic
A long, dignified narrative poem which gives an account of a hero important to his nation or race
elision
omission of an unstressed vowel or syllable to preserve the meter of a line of poetry
sobriety
to not drink; to be serious (n)
metonymy
the substitution of one word for another closely associated word
Pun
A play on words based on the similarity of sound between two words with different meanings
Dramatic Poetry
Poetry that uses the techniques of drama to represent the speech of one or more characters
rhyme scheme
The pattern of the repetition of sounds at the ends of lines of poetry.
lines
words in a poem are written on these
dramatic monologue
lyric poem in which the speaker addresses himself to persons around him; his speech deals with a dramatic moment in his life and manifests his character.
Lyric poetry
a short poem that expresses strong feelings of a single speaker.
example of rhythm
The cat sat on the mat.
end-stopped lines
lines in which both the grammatical structure and the sense reach completion at the end.
Terza Rima
A system of interllaced tercets linked by common rhymes.
Ex. ABA BCB CDC
parallelism
the repetition of the structure of 2 or more lines in a poem
paraphrase
the act of putting a writing into one's own words
didactic poetry
poetry with a primary purpose to teach or preach
similes
use like or as to compare two unlike things
persona
voice used by author of the poem (not necessarily the poet herself)
Dead metaphor
: a metaphor that has become so overused that we no longer realize that is a figure of speech—we simply skip over the metaphorical connection it makes.
Examples: the roof of the mouth, the eye of the storm, the heart of the matter, and the arm of a chair
mood
the feeling created in the reader by a poem or story
a word, phrase, or group of lines that repeat in a poem
Repetition/Refrain
end-stopped line
a line in which both the grammatical structure and the sense reach completion in the end; opposite of enjambment
line break
often used by poets to create a new line in a poem
end rhyme
two rhyming words are at the end of their lines; can be pure or slant rhyme
8. Simile
7. Ballad: a type of poem that is meant to be sung and is both lyric and narrative in nature
continuous form
a form of a poem in which the lines follow each other without formal grouping, the only breaks being dictated by units of meaning
stanzas
poetic paragraphs
Seset
6 lines
poetic paragraphs
Stanzas
Hexameter (Alexandriane)
6 feet
spondaic foot
/ /
antithisis
the opposite of something else
reading poetry
read aloud, follow punctuation
Hyperbole
an obvious exaggeration for effect
Antonomasia
Proper name used as a noun
onomotopoeia
words that sound like the meaning
Iamb
An unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable.  Ex. today
continuous forms
has no stanza breaks, continuous
Rhythm
the pattern of stressed and unstressed sounds in a line of poetry
form
external shape; an external pattern of a poem
Aubade
A lyric about dawn or morning serenade, a song of lovers parting at dawn
Poetry
a literary form that combines the precise meanings of words with their emotional associations, sounds, and rhythms.
iambic
an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable
concrete
these are shaped tolook like their subject. the poet arranges the lines to creatre a picture on the page
metaphors
often point out a similarity between two unlike things
apostophe
addressing someone absent or dead or something non-human as if that person or thing were present and alive and could reply to what is being said
VISUAL IMAGERY
Visual descriptions so vivid they seem to come to life in the reader's mind's when they are read.
iambic pentameter
Meter pattern of two syllables with the stress on the second syllable with a metrical line of poetry with 5 feet.
economy
poetry's unique ability to say a lot with a little
sestina
poem of 39 lines written in iambic perimeter. Its sestests repeat in an intricated and perscribed order.then there is a tercet, which uses the 6 words repeated at the end of each line, 2 per line
slant ryhmes
involve sounds that are similar but not exactly the same
perfect rhyme
the repetition of accented vowel sound and all succeeding sounds in important words
direct metaphor
directly compares two things with a verb such as "is"
eye rhyme
rhyme that appears correct from the spelling but is not from the pronunciation
Idiom
a figure of speech that is an expression common to a particular language.
Italian/Petrarchan (Sonnet)
An octave and sestet, between which a break in thought occurs. The traditional rhyme scheme is "abba abba cde cde" (or, in the sestet, any variation of c, d, and e)
exact ryhmes
two words that have endings sound that sound exactly alike
End-rhyme
the rhyming pattern at the end of each poem's line
Poet
a writer of poems (the term is usually reserved for writers of good poetry)
dactylic foot
three syllables with the stress on the first syllable
Concrete Poem
a poem with a shape that suggests its subject.
examples of similes
The baby's skin was as soft as silk.
Iambic Unit
Each unit is called a "foot" (One foot = one unstressed and one stressed syllable)
Similes (ex)
Say our love is like the sun, not like the moon.
Sound: Rhyme, Alliteration, Assonance
The most familiar element of poetry is rhyme which is the matching of final vowel or consonants sounds in two or more words. When corresponding sounds occur at the ends of lines we have end rhymeWhen they occur within the lines we have internal rhymePart of the pleasure for the reader is anticipating and hearing a poem's echoing soundPart of the challenge for the poet is in rhyming naturally without forcing the rhythm, syntax, or the sensewhen met successfully the poem is pleasure to listen to, it sounds natural to the ear and its rhyme makes it easy to remember.Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds, especially at the beginning of wordsAssonance is the repetition of vowel sounds.
QUATRAIN
four-line stanza
Heptastich
7 lines
explicate
to unfold
quintet
five line stanza
Connotation
Feelings associated with words
horation
gentle, urbane, smiling satire
amphimacer
stressed, unstressed, stressed: ex- attitude
structure
the internal ordering of materials; the arrangement of ideas, images, thoughts, and sentences
Pastoral
Poem extolling virtues of country life
fact
something hat happened or is true
dialect
a particular variety of language spoken by an identifiable regional group or social class of persons
Lyric Poetry
expresses personal thoughts and feelings
Musical Devices
Variations of emphasis and sound qualities to give musical flow to words
fiqures of speech
make connections between dissimilar things
Canto
The main section of a long poem.
Trochee
A stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable.
Ex. carry
Diction
a writer's choice of words or expressions
Allegory
A form of extended metaphor in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative are equated with meanings that lie outside the narrative itself
figures of speech
an expression of comparison that relies on its connotations and suggestions
Anaphora
repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of a line
a comparison of two unlike things not using like or as
Metaphor
9. Metaphor
9. Metaphor: Two dissimilar things are compared WITHOUT using words such as "like," "as," "than," or "resembles"
concrete poetry
how it looks on the paper (shape)
refrain
repetition of a line or phrase that is repeated at regular intervals in a poem or song, usually at the end of a line or stanza
Antagonist
The person who tries to stop the good guy
concrete words
refer to what we perceive with our senses
example of personification
The flowing brook sang a happy song
literal language
the use of words in their ordinary sense (as opposed to figurative language)
sensory language
use of language that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, taste, touch); aka imagery
27. Onomatopoeia
The use of words that imitate the sounds they define
Example: buzz, sizzle, hiss, gurgle
Figurative Language
any language that is not intended to be interpreted in a strict, literal sense
Sound Devices
the way for poets to achieve a musical quality
Idioms
use of words in such a way that the means is lost if the expression is translated litterally
rich rhyme or identical rhyme
words with identical sounds but different meaning (stair, stare)
example of metaphor
The snow was a white blanket over the town.
Figures of Speech: Simile and Metaphor
Language can be classified as either literal or figurativeWhen we speak literally we mean exactly what each word conveywhen we speak figuratively we mean something other than the actual meaning of the wordsEX: Go jump in the lakeHyperbole- exaggeration (I'll die if I miss the game) or understatement (Being flayed alive is somewhat painful)Synecdoche- using a part to signify the whole (lend me a hand)Metonymy- substituting an attribute of a thing for the thing itself. ( step on the gas)Personification- endowing inanimate objects or abstract concepts with an animate characteristics or qualities (the lettuce was lonely without the tomatoes and cucumbers for companySimile and metaphor are the two most important for poetry. Aristotle defined metaphor as an \"intuitive perception of the similarity in dissimilarFrost said a metaphor is central to poetry and poetry is a way of \"saying one thing and meaning another\"Simile establishes the comparison explicitly with the words like or as. EX: My daughter dances like an angelThe simile is more restricted in its comparative suggestion than is the metaphor. The daughter's angelic attributes are more extensive in the unspecified and unrestricted metaphorIn the simile she only dances like an angel.
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