EMT Review Flashcards

vocabulary
Terms Definitions
inter-
between
hyper-
excessive
meso-
middle
cephalo-
head
-otomy
incision into
Dilate
Get larger.
Mandible
Lower jaw
lidocaine 2%
-Xylocaine (tm)-antidysrhythmic-1-1.5mg/kg IV push repeat every 3-5 min to max of 3mg/kg-for IM give 300mg of 10% solution
RLQ
Right lower quadrant
para-
beside, around, near
Posterior
Toward the back
Common Prescribed Medications
High Blood Pressure
To Lower BP by reducing blood volume, affecting the heart, or dilating blood vessels


atenolol
furosemide
hydrochlorothiazide
triamterene/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)
quinapril (Accupril)
ramipril (Altace)
valsarten (Diovan)
amlodipine/beazpril (Lotrel)
losartan (Cozaar)
valsartan/HCTZ (Diovan HCT)
benazepril (Lotensin)
clonidine 
losartan/HCTZ (Hyzaar)
Dislocation
Comming apart  at bones
Biohazard 
A potentially infectious material 
pubis
bone of the groin.
refers to good manners
Etiquette
Ischemic blood
restriction in blood flow
Thrombosis
clotting of the cerebral arteries
Exhalation 
The process of breathing out
pronation
when the palms face downward
Supine
Lying face up on back
Protocols
Described in a comprehensive guide delineating the EMT's scope of practice.


Pharmacology


Dose
The amount of medication that is given
Depends on patient's weight or age
Depends on the desired action of the medication
Arterioles
The smaller vessels that connect arteries and capillaries
Arterial Rupture
rupture of a cerebral artery.
Glottic opening
The opening to the trachea.
Objective statements 
Observable, measurable, and verifiable information 
burn classifications
superficial, partial thickness, full thickness
chromosomes
structures containing DNA within the cell's nucleus. Human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes
hypoperfusion
the insufficient delivery of oxygen and other nutrients to some of the body's cells and inadequate elimination of carbon dioxide and other wastes that results from inadequate circulation of blood. also called shock
unlawfully placing a person in apprehension of immediate bodily harm without his consent.
Assault
lumbar vertebrae
vertebrae of the lumbar spine
Electricity Sources
 
Power Lines
Live power lines, esp. high voltage behave in unpredictable ways
safety zone = 1 span of the power pole's distance
Do not approach downed wires or anything the wires have come in contact with
Wear proper protective equipment
Helmet
Turnout gear


 


 



Assess Airways
Special Considerations



 


Important to consider spinal precautions
Airway management and spinal immobilization must be performed simultaneously
Consider placing the patient in Recovery Position


 


Allergic Reaction
Insect Bites & Stings
Initial Assessment


 


General Impressions
May be present as:
Respiratory distress
Cardio-vascular distress
If anxious and in Distress - call for ALS

May have medical tag
Shock
a condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient circulation so that every body part can perform its function; also called hypoperfusion.
Paranoia
a delusion (false belief) where the patient believes he is being followed, persecuted, or harmed
Involuntary muscle
muscle that responds automatically to brain signals but cannot be consciously controlled.
Cartilage
Tough tissue that covers the joint ends of bones and helps to form certain body parts such as the ear.
Epi
Drug that helps constrict vessels and relax airways passages, it may be used to counter a severe allergic reaction 
incident command system
The standardized incident management concept that has become the standard for on scene management of disasters and MCIs; incident commander, staging unit, transport unit, treatment unit, triage unit
hypopnea
inadequate tidal volume in a breathing patient.
larynx
structure that houses the vocal cords and is located inferior to the pharynx and superior to the trachea
binds and transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
hemoglobin
subcutaneous tissue
tissue, largely fat, that lies directly under the dermis & serves as an insulator of the body
Battery
subjecting a patient to unwanted care and transport can be considered this in the court of law
Fight or Flight Manifestations
Interaction of the endocrine and nervous systems
Resulting in chemical and physical responses
 
Increased respirations and heart rate
Increased blood pressure
Dilated venous vessels near the skin surface (causes cool, clammy skin)
Dilated pupils
Tensed muscles
Increased blood glucose levels
Perspiration
Decreased blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract
 


Oxygen Tank Operating Procedures
Step 2


Attach the Regulator/flowmeter to the valve stem after clearing the opening
3 holes on 1 side - larger 1 ( on top) = true opening through which the Oxygen flows
2 smaller holes provide stability to the regulator
Pin-Indexing system - these 2 holes are unique to oxygen cylinders
Above the pins on the inside of the collar is the actual port through which oxygen flows from the cylinder to the regulator
Metal/plastic o-Ring around oxygen port to optimize air seal between collar and valve stem


Treating Insulin Shock


Acute - can develop rapidly
Very Quickly reversed by administering glucose
Patient will suffer permanent brain damage without it - Minutes count
 
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
What is superficial?
Closer to or on the skin.
Compensated shock
When the patient is developing shock but the body is still able to maintain perfusion.
EMT-P
Paramedic- An EMT who has training in advanced life support, including IV therapy, pharmacology, cardiac monitoring, and other advanced assessment and treatment skills
Respiratory Quality
Normal or abnormal ( shallow, labored, noisy) character of breathing 
laryngectomy
Full or partial removal of a person's larynx
Is alcohol a CNS stimulant or depressant?
CBS depressant
physiology
the study of the function of the living body and its parts.
clammy
a moist, or a cool and moist, condition; a skin condition often characteristic of shock
Require that the cell expend energy, usually in the form of ATP
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
deep
further inside the body & away from the skin
Articular cartilage
a thin layer of cartilage, covering the articular surface of bones in synovial joints


Providing a Coordinated Continuum of Care
 
4th Phase

 
 
Patient receives the necessary definitive specialized care
 


Pressure Regulators


After the pressure is reduced to a more workable level, the final attachment for delivering the gas to the patient is usually:
A quick-connect female fitting that will accept a quick-connect male plug from a pressure hose or ventilator, or resusitator
A flowmeter that will permit the regulated release of gas measured in L/min


Hypoglycemic Agents - Non-Insulin Type Oral Medications


These medications stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin = lowers blood glucose levels
Sometimes - these medications may lead to hypoglycemia, esp. when activity and exercise levels are too vigorous or excessive
Puncture Wound
Open wound that tears through the skin and destroys under laying tissues
Left Hemisphere Problems
Aphasia: an inability to produce or understand speech.
Receptive Aphasia: patients who cannot understand speech but can speak clearly.
Expressive Aphasia: patients understand the question but cannot produce the right sounds in order to answer. Only grunts or other incomprehensible sounds emerge.
Mobile radio
A two-way radio that is used or affixed in a vehicle.
Artificial ventilation 
Forcing air or oxygen into the lungs when a patient has stopped breathing or has inadequate breathing 
informed consent
Consent for treatment that is given by a competent patient based on full disclosure of possible risks and consequences
thoracic spine
the upper back, or the 12 thoracic vertebrae directly inferior to the cervical spine.
cell membrane/plasma membrane is the outer covering that encircles and protects the cell is
selectively permeable, or semipermeable
medial
parts of the body that lie closer to the midline; also called inner structures
_____ is the most reliable indicator of an underlying fracture.
Point tenderness
Nonrebreathing Masks
(Exhaled gas escapes through flapper valve ports, at the cheek area of the mask)


Preferred way to deliver oxygen in prehospital care to patient's experiencing difficulty breathing or showing signs of Hypoxia
Combination mask & reservoir bag system
Oxygen fill the bag
Be sure the reservoir bag is full before placing on the patient
Adjust the flow rate so bag does not fully collapse when the patient inhales (2/3 bag volume or 10 - 15 L/min)


Physiology of the Abdomen
2 Different types of nerves:
Parietal Peritoneum


Parietal peritoneum - supplied by spinal cord nerves that supply skin of abdomen
Perceives same types of sensations (pain, touch, pressure, heat, and cold)
Can easily:
identify
Localize a point of irritation

 
Arterial Gas Embolism
a condition in which gas bubbles enter the arterial system and cause damage by blocking blood flow to vital organs, most commonly the brain; which most often occurs when air passes through the walls of capillaries and alveoli into the bloodstream; also called "air embolism"
Acute Myocardial Infarction 
Condition in which a portion of the myocardium dies as a result of oxygen starvation, often called a heart attack by laypersons 
tracheostomy tube
a hollow tube that is inserted into a tracheostomy to allow the patient to breathe.
dorsalis pedis artery
the artery on the anterior surface of the foot b/w the 1st & 2nd metatarsals
Eye Protection (Blood, body fluids)


Glasses - must add removable side shields
Goggles
Paradoxial Motion
Movement of a part of the chest in the opposite direction to the rest of the chest during respiration.
What is a Conductor?
Any substance that allows a current to flow through it.


Steps to Performing the Detailed Physical Exam
Steps 1 - 3


Step 1:
Look at the face for obvious lacerations, bruises, or deformities

Step 2:
Examine the area around the eyes and eyelids

Step3:
Examine the eyes for redness and for contact lenses
Assess the Pupils using a pen light
What does the right ventricle do
The right ventricle pumps blood from the heart to the lungs
Where did the saying "hot as a hare, blind as a bat, dry as a bone, red as a beet, and mad as a hatter" originate from?
Person who has taken an anticholinergic agent.
-paresis
weakness
neuro-
nerve
thrombo-
clot
Edema
Swelling
Epistaxis
a nosebleed
a-
absence of
Whooping Cough
(Pertussis)


Airborne disease
Signs/symptoms
Fever and Whoop cough
back
posterior or dorsal
Dilate 
To get larger 
kinesi-
pertaining to movement
severe
harsh; unnecessarily extreme:
glucagon
-hyperglycemic agent, insulin antagonist-0.5-1.0mg IM, SC or slow IV-may repeat in 20 minutes
Liability
Being held legally responsible.
proximal
nearest to the heart
Superior Plane
Above the waist


Respirations
(Quality)


Normal:  
Neither shallow nor deep
Equal chest rise
No use of accessory muscles

Shallow:  
Decreased chest or abdominal wall motion

Labored:  
Increased breathing effort
Use of accessory muscles
Posible gasping
Nasal flaring, supraclavicular intercostal reactions in infants or children

Noisy:  
Increase in sound of breathing, including snoring, wheezing, gurgling, crowing, grunting, and stridor
Superficial Burns
Burn that involves epidermis
Circumduction
Circular movement of a part.
ulna
medial bone of the forearm
palpation
feeling, as for a pulse.
4 basic types of tissue:
epithelial,
connective,
muscle,
neural
Confidentiality


Communications between you and the patient are considered confidential
Cannot be disclosed without permission from the patient or court order
Includes
Patient history
assessment findings
Treatment provided
Diagnosis
Mental or Physical conditions
magnesium sulfate
-electrolyte-for seizures assoc to pregnancy 1-4gm push over 3 minutes-for Torsades de Points 1-2gm IV push over 1-2 minutes
bone at tip of jaw
mastoid process
sclera
the white portion of the eye
Auto- Injector
Syringe, preloaded with medication, that has a spring-loaded device that pushes the needle through the skin when the tip of the device is pressed firmly against the body 
lordosis
Abnormal anterior convexity of spine; swayback
xiphoid process
inferior portion of the sternum.
Bronchi
Two main tubes of the trachea
universal precautions
protective measures that have traditionally been developed by the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) for use in dealing w/ objects, blood, body fluids, or other potential exposure risks of communicable disease
pulmonary
of or pertaining to the lungs.
Definitive Signs of Death


Obvious mortal damage (decapitation)
Dependent Lividity - blood settling to the lowest point of the body, causing discoloration to the skin
Rigor Mortis - stiffening of the body muscles between 2 & 12 hours after death)
Putrefaction - decomposition of body tissues
Routes of Administration
Transcutaneous


Through the skin
eg. nicotine patch
Jaw-Thrust 
Move Jaw forward without tilting the head or neck incase of trauma injuries.
shock position
supine with legs raised 8-12 inches
Pneumomediastinum
a collection of air in the central chest cavity
Dysrhythmia
A disturbance in heart rate and rhythm.
Aneurysm
Dilation, or ballooning, of a weakened section in the wall of an artery.
hyperglycemia, conditions of
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonkeotic Syndrome (HHNS)
Average pulse rate for an infant
100-190 bpm
bag-valve-mask device
a positive pressure ventilation device that consists of a bag with a nonrebreather valve and a mask. The bag-valve device is connected to the mask or other airway. The bag is squeezed to deliver a ventilation to the patient.
off-line medical direction
medical policies, procedures, and practices that medical direction has established in written guidelines.
Cranium
Top back and sides of the skull
refers to the conduct or qualities that characterize a practitioner in a particular field or occupation
Professionalism
zygomas
the quadrangular bones of the cheek, articulating w/ the frontal bone, the maxillae, the zygomatic processes of the temporal bone, & the great wings of the sphenoid bone
lateral
pertaining to or entailing a position, office, etc., that is different but equivalent or roughly equivalent in status, as distinguished from a promotion or demotion:
Cause
There must be a reasonable cause and effect
(eg. dropping a patient)


Assess Mental Status
Responsiveness
AVPU
Unresponsive


The patient does not respond spontaneously
The patient does not respond to verbal stimuli
The patient does not respond to painful stimuli
The patient usually have no cough or gag reflex and lack the ability to protect their airway
Assume the worst and treat
What two factors determine Pulse Quality?
Rhythm and Force
Temporal regions of the cranium
Sides of the skull
Inhaled Bronchodilators
medication used to open up bronchioles that are constricted due to respiratory disease such as asthma
Abandonment
Leaving a patient after care has been initiated and before the patient has been transferred to someone with equal or greater medical training.
Coronary Arteries 
Blood vessels that supply the muscle of the heart 
distal
located away from the trunk of the body and toward the free end of an extremity
midaxillary line
an imaginary line that divides the body into anterior and posterior planes; the imaginary line from the middle of the armpit to the ankle.
right plane
everything to the right of the midline.
Fowlers
Lying on back with upper body elevated 45-60 degrees
exposure control plan
a comprehensive plan that helps employees to reduce their risk of exposure to or acquisition of communicable diseases
fallopian tube
long, slender tube that extends from the uterus to the region of the ovary on the same side, & through which the ovum passes from ovary to uterus
infant
a child during the earliest period of its life, esp. before he or she can walk; baby.
Right to Refuse Treatment
 
You must assess whether the patient's mental condition is impaired
If impaired:
You cannot assume that the refusal is an informed refusal

 


Focused Physical Exam
Head, Neck, and Cervical Spine
Step 1

 
 
Inspect for abnormalities of the head, neck, and cervical spine
Gently palpate the head and back of the neck for any pain, deformity, tenderness, crepitus, and bleeding
Ask a responsive patient if he/she feels any pain or tenderness
Check the neck for signs of trauma, swelling, or bleeding
Palpate the neck for subcutoneous emphysema, as well as any abnormal lumps or masses
 
Penetrating Trauma(Definition)(Classified how?)(2 ways it causes damage?)
Injury caused by an object that passes through the skin or other body tissue.Classified by velocity or speed of penetrating objectCan cause damage by: Directly from projectile and/or Pressure related damage or capitation
hemopneumothorax
the presence of air and blood in the pleaural space.
 
 
Dorsal
Referring to the back of the body or the back of the hand or foot. This is a synonym for posterior.
EMT-B
EMT Basic- an EMT who has training in basic life support, including automated external defibrillation, use of a definitive airway adjunct, and assisting patients with certain medications
Hazardous- Material incident 
The release of a harmful substance into the environment 
sagittal plane
a vertical plane that is parallel to the midline and divides the body into unequal left and right parts
extension posturing
a posture in which the patient arches the back and extends the arms straight out parallel to the body. A sign of serious head injury. Also called decerebrate posturing.
general adaptation syndrome
the body's 3-stage response to stress. 1st stress causes the body to trigger an alarm response, followed by a stage of rxn & resistance & then recovery or if the stress is prolonged, exhaustion
urinary bladder
a sac behind the pubic symphysis made of smooth muscle that collects & stores urine
SIN Haz Mat Response
saftey, isolate and deny entry, notify fire department


Identify Priority Patients and Make Transport Decisions


Some patients benefit by remaining on scene and receiving continuing care:
Older patients with chest pain - administer nitroglycerin - wait for ALS transport
May need to rendezvous with ALS to hasten transport
minute volume
the amount of air breathed in over the course of one minute (tidal volume * breaths per minute)
Irreversible shock
When the body has lost the battle to maintain perfusion to vital organs. Even if adequate vital signs return, the patient may die days later due to organ failure.
on-line medical direction
Direct orders from a physician to a prehospital care provider given by radio or telephone.
Iliac Crest
On each side of the pelvis, forms the "wings"
Open fracture
any break in the bone in which the overlying skin has been damaged as well


Assessing Common Chief Complaints
Abdominal Pain


Look for trauma to the abdomen or Distention
Palpate the abdomen for tenderness, rigidity, and patient guarding
3 parts of the brain
-The brain stem: controls the most basic functions of the body (breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, and pupil constriction. -The cerebellum: Controls muscle and body coordination. Located just behind the cerebellum. Complex tasks with multiple muscle coordination (standing, walking, writing, etc...). -The cerebrum: divided down the middle into left and right hemispheres. Each controls the activities of the opposite side of the body. Front controls emotion and thought, middle controls touch and movement. The back processes sight.
The critical elements of the infection control plan required by Title 29 Code of federal regulation 1910.1030 are...
infection exposure control plan, adequate education and training, hepatitis B vaccination,personal protective equiptment, method of control, housekeeping, labeling, postexposure evaluation and follow up.
pleuritic pain or pleurisy
a sharp or sticking pain caused by the normally smooth surfaces sliding on one another
Do not use a PASG if any of these conditions exist
-pregnancy-Pulmonary edema-acute heart failure-penetrating chest injuries-groin injuries-major head injuries-a transport time of less than 30 minutes
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Term:
Definition:
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