EMT words part Flashcards

vocabulary
Terms Definitions
endo-
within
Strain
Overstreatching
oto-
ear
erythro-
red
hemi-
half
Thrombocytes
Platelets
Pulmonary over-pressure
shock
see hypoperfusion
metoprolol
-Lopressor (tm)-beta blocker-hypertension 1.25-5mg every 6-12hrs in pt unable to P.O.-acute M.I. 5 mg IV every 5-10 minutes up to X3
dorsalis pedis
foot artery
ana-
up; again; backward
scapula
the shoulder blade.
Respirations


Spontaneous Respirations: patient is breathing without assistance
2 Distinct phases in a 1:3 Ratio:
Inhalation 1/3 amount of time of
Exhalation (passive)
Respiration
Breathing in and out
Rotation
Turning around an axis.
ortho-
pertaining to the teeth
MAJOR EXTRACELLULAR ANION:
Cl- (chloride)


 

Medication Forms
 

Gels


 


Semiliquid substance
Orally in capsule form or through plastic tubes
Consistency of pastes or cream, but clear
What is dorsal?
Toward the spine
PPE
Personal Protective Equipment (gloves, mask, face shield, gown)
stages of labor
Dilation, expulsion, placental
Abduction
Moving away from the midline
oral
uttered by the mouth; spoken:
Most common obstructions in an unconscious patient


Tongue
Dentures
Blood
Vomitus
Mucas
Food
Foreign Objects
 
Toxin
 
Poisen. Sometimes injected by an insect like the fire ant. 
Depression
profound sadness or feeling fo melancholy. May affect major portions of the patient's life including work, relationships, weight changes, sleeping difficulties, feeling of worthlessness and guilt, and occasionally the desire to die.
Dyspnea
Shortness of breath; labored or difficult breathing.
Lumbar Spine
Vertebrae of the lower back 
Zygomatic bone
bones of the check bones
Hormone
A chemical substance that regulates the activity of body organs and tissues; produced by a gland.
lordosis
abnormal anterior convexity of the spine. Also called swayback.
“First do no harm.”
primum non nocere
ventricle
lower chamber of the heart <3
neonatal CPR
ventilate 40-60/min if heart rate lower than 100 and provide chest compressions at 120/min midsternum if the heart rate is lower than 60/min


Respirations
(Rate)


Determined by counting the # of breaths in 30 sec. X 2
Normal Adults: 12 -20 breaths/min
Children: 15 - 30 breaths/min
Infants: 25 - 50 breaths/min
Diabetes


Glucose - Primary fuel for cellular metabolism
Central Problem:
Lack or Ineffective action of insulin
Endocrine glands on the pancreas - enables glucose to enter the cells

Without insulin - cells starve
Insulin = key = let glucose into the cells
Crushing Injury
Internal Injury, where force causes broken nerves and more
Injection
placement of medication in or under the skin with a neeble and syringe
Artery
Any blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart.
Joint
The point where two bones come together.
Cricoid cartilage 
Ring-shaped structure that forms the lower larynx 
Ventricles
The two lower chambers of the heart
sensitization
The process by which antibodies are produced and attached to MAST cells after exposure to an antigen
homeostasis
the maintenance of a stable internal physiologic enviornment
critical incident
any situation that causes unusually strong emotions that interfere with the ability to function
kyphosis
abnormal curvature of the spine with convexity backways. also called slouch.
The warning signs of stress include irritability with family, friends, and coworkers; difficulty sleeping; and anxiety.

True
False
True
SARSsevere acute respiratory syndrome
potentially lifethreatening viral infection that usually starts w/ flu-like symptoms
appendix
a small tubular structure that is attached to the lower border of the cecum in the LRQ of the abdomen
waddell's triad
triad for child struck by vehicles: fractured femoral shaft, intraabdominal or intrathoracic injuries, and contralateral head injuries
Key Indicators include a quantitative objective measurement


Always include:
Patient's Respirations
Pulse
Blood Pressure 

Other Key Indicators:
Skin temperature and condition in adults
Capillary refill in children
Pupillary reaction
Level of consciousness


Common Prescribed Medications
Other Common Medications


Used to prevent osteroprosis in postmenopausal women:
alendronate (Fosamax)
raloxifene (Evista)
risedronate (Actonel)

Used for asthma, allergic reactions, severe arthritis, cancer, and other conditions:
prednisone
Scope fo Practice
Set of regulations and ethical considerations that define the scope or extent and limits of the EMTs job
Negligence
1. duty to act
2. breach of duty
3. damages (injury)
4. causal connection
half-life
the time required for half the amount of a drug to be eliminated from the body
Activated charcoal
A substance that absorbs many poisons and prevents them from being absorbed by the body.
Flowmeter
A valve that indicates the flow of oxygen in liter per minute.
Voluntary Muscle
Muscle under conscious control of the brain 
bradycardia
low heart rate, less than 60 in adults
hypernatremia
abnormally high level of sodium in the blood
nervous system
the body system including the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that controls the voluntary and involuntary activity of the human body.
In the depression stage of dying, the patient may become silent, distant, sad, and despairing about things left undone.

True
False
True
ligament
a band of fibrous tissue that connects bones to bones. It supports & strengthens a joint
wheeled ambulance stretcher
a specially designed stretcher that can be rolled along the ground. a collapsible undercarriage allows it to be loaded into the ambulance. also called the cot or an ambulance cot
eclampsia and treatment
seizures in pregnancy that are often associated with high blood pressure and edema; place patient in left recumbent position and administer O2, keep patient warm and handle gently
Oxygen Delivery Equipment


Used in the filed - limited to
nonrebreathing masks
BVM Devices
Nasal Cannulas
Routes of Administration
Per Rectum (PR)


By the Rectum
Delivery is frequently used w/ children because:
Easier administration
Reliable absorption
Used for nausea and vomiting
Used when a patient cannot swallow or is unconscious
Detailed Physical Exam
a very carefull detailed assesment of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, extremities, and postierior of the body to detect signs and symptoms of injuries.
The terms "right" and "left" refers to whos left and right side?
The patient's
Disaster plan
A predefined set of instructions for a community's emergency responders.
Critical Incident stress management 
(CISM teams)
Mental health professionals and peer counselors who work as a team to provide emotional and psychological support to EMS personnel who are or have been involved in a highly stressful incident 
Name 3 sources of energy.
1. Toxic Chemicals
2. Electricity
3. Heat
anatomical position
a position in which the patient is standing erect, facing forward, with arms down at the sides and palms forward
How Many Basic Components Does The Skeletal System Have
six. skull,spinal,thorax,pelvis,upper and lower extemities
liver
a large solid organ that lies in the RUQ immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores sugar for immediate use by the body, & produces many substances that help regulate immune responses
Stress and Nutrition
3 sources of fuel
 
Carbohydrates
Glucose - the quickest source of energy
stored as glycogen in the liver

Fat
Protein
Primarily from muscle

 


Medications Carried on EMS Units
Epinephrin Characteristics


Secreted naturally by the adrenal glands
Dilates passages in the lungs
Constricts blood vessels, causing increased BP
Increases heart rate and BP
properties of cardiac muscle
1. autometicity (beats on its own)2. contractivity3. conductivity (sends signals)4. excitability (responds to electrical signals)
Radial Pulse
Pulse felt at the wrist on the lateral ( thumb side)
blunt trauma
a force that impacts or is applied to the body but is not sharp enough to penetrate it, such as a blow or a crushing injury
may be charged by a patient who is transported without consent or who is restrained without proper justification or authority.
False Imprisonment:
Standing Orders
A policy or protocol issued by a MD that authorizes EMT-Bs and others to perform particular skills in certain situations.


The Role of Glucose & Insulin
Ketones


Without glucose, body turns to other fuel sources
Fat is the most abundant
Unfortunately, when fat is used as an immediate energy source, chemicals called ketones and fatty acids are formed as waste products
Difficult for the body to excrete
Flow restriction oxygen powered ventilation device
a device that uses oxygen under pressure to deliver artificial ventilations 


Opening the Airway of a patient with suspected spinal injury
Step 4
Once the patient is positioned, maintain an open airway
range of motion (ROM)
the arc of movement of an extremity at a joint in a particular direction
Baseline Vital Signs
The 1st set of vital signs obtained


Vital Sings - key signs used to evaluate the patient's condition
By periodically reassessing vital sings and comparing them to the baseline set, you will be able to identify any trends in the patient's condition, particularly whether the patient's condition is becoming worse
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