EMT-B A&P Flashcards

Terms Definitions
bad, disordered
spontaneous abortion.
Without air
-Brethine (tm)-sympathomimetic, bronchodilator-give 0.25 mg SC, repeat in 15 min for 0.5mg max dose-MDI 2 inhalations every 4-6 hrs
the smallest arteries
tumor or mass
lying face up.
Assisted Breathing

Too Forcefully:
Gastric Distention
Vomiting and aspiration

Decreased blood return to the heart
increased intrathoracic pressure
Chief Complaint
Reason for dispatch
Feeling wit the fingertips 
hard catheter
see rigid catheter


The therapeutic effect that a medication is expected to have on the body
condition involving gradual deveopment of memory impairment and cognitive disturbance
advanced life support- advanced lifesaving procedures, some of which are now being provided by the EMT-B
Ventricular tachycardia; very fast heart rhythm that is generated in the ventricle instead of the SA node and easily degenerates into V-Fib
The function of the body
excessive excitement or enthusiasm; craze:
Humidified oxygen is usually indicated only for long-term oxygen therapy
Neurogenic Shock
Hypoperfusion die to nerve paralysis
compounds with pH greater than 7
Any material (preferably sterile) used to cover a wound that will help control bleeding and help prevent additional contamination.
Structure that contains the vocal cords
A viral infection usually associated with swollen nasal mucous membranes and the production of fluid from the sinuses and nose.
Excessive thirst persisting for long periods of time despite reasonable fluid intake; often the result of excessive urination.
the medial bone of the forearm
active exercise during which muscles are worked through their range of motion.
upper chamber of the heart <3
START triage protocol
assess RPM method (respiratory, perfusion, mental status); rid scene of green patients (anyone that can get up and walk up; hand them green tags); then tag blacks; everyone is yellow unless you can make them a red; R greater than thirty=red, less than thirty check P and M; P no pulse or CRT>2 seconds=red, M disoriented=red
Type 1

Autoimmune problem - body becomes allergic to the insulin producing cells of the endocrine gland on the pancreas, and literally destroys them
Severity is related to how high the average blood glucose level is and how early it begins
Capillary Bleeding
Bleeding from capillaries, which is characterized by a slow oozing flow of blood
Diabetic Coma
altered mental status resulting from untreated hyperglycemia
An intestine or other internal organ protruding through a wound in the abdomen.
Lying on the stomach or face down 
Blood pressure in the arteries when the left ventricle is refilling 
A prickling of tingling feeling that indicates some loss of sensation
cranial cavity
the hollow portion of the skull
a heart rate greater than 100 bpm.
2 muscles which are striated
cardiac &amp; skeletal
indirect contact
exposure or transmission of disease from one person to another by contact w/ a contaminated object (vehicle)
the inner layer of the skin, containing hair follicles, sweat glands, nerve endings & blood vessels
Medical Director
Authorizes the EMTs in the service to provide medical care in the field
Set of written standing orders & Protocols
The ability to the alveoli to expand when air is drawn in


Medication Forms

Transcutaneous Medications


Designed to be absorbed through the skin, or transcutaneously
eg. nicotine patch, pain medications, contraceptives, nitroglycerin paste - dilate blood vessels in the skin = speec of bloodstream absorption
Usually intended for systemic effects
Finding og failure to act properly in a situation in which there was a duty to act
Chain of survival
1. Early access (911)
2. Early cpr
3. Early defib
4. Early advanced care
Ionizing Radiation
radiation that has enough energy to remove electrons from substances it passes through, forming ions
Limb presentation
When an infant's limb protrudes from the vagina before appearance of any other body part.
Cricoid Cartilage 
The ring shaped structure that forms the lower portion of the larynx 
Urgent Move
Patient move that should be done quickly yet without any compromise of spinal integrity.
hypoglycemia, conditions of
Insulin shock caused by epinephrine release
areas in the infant's skill where the sutures between the skill bones have not yet closed
a reduction of oxygen delivery to the tissues.
A pathogen is:

a disease-causing organism.

an alternative to latex gloves.

the virus which causes AIDS.

a disease transmitted by blood only.
a disease-causing organism.
the place where 2 bones come into contact
basket stretcher
a rigid stretcher commonly used in technical & water rescues that surrounds & supports the PT yet allows water to drain through holes in the bottom. also called a stokes litter
shock and three stages
shock results from the inadequate perfusion of the tissues in the body (1) compensated shock: body senses inadequate perfusion and attempts to maintain adequate perfusion by increasing pulse, increasing respirations, and redirecting flow of blood from the peripheral organs (2) decompensated shock: body can no longer compensate for low blood volume and thus the blood pressure begins to drop (3) irreversible shock: body has lost the battle to perfuse the organs adequately which may lead to death days later due to the irreparable damage of vital organs
Head Tilt-Chin Lift Manuever

With the patient in supine position, position yourself behind the patient's head
Place 1 hand on the patient's forehead, and apply firm backward pressure with your palm to tilt the patient's head back
Place the tips of your fingers of your other hand under the lower jaw
Lift the chin upward, bringing the entire lower jaw with it, helping to tilt the head back
Routes of Administration
Subcutaneous Injection (SI)

Beneath the skin
Into the tissue between the skin and the muscle
Absorbed more slowly (less blood)
Effects last longer
Given when medications cannot be given by mouth
eg. insulin
Minute Volume
Amount of air breathed in during each respiration multiplied by the number of breath per minute.
Therapeutic Index
a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxic effects
Feeding tube
A tube used to provide delivery of nutrients to the stomach. A nasogastric feeding tube is inserted through the nose adn into the stomach; a gastric feeding tube is surgically implanted through the abdominal wall and into the stomach.
Draw- Sheet Method
Method of transferring a patient from bed to stretcher by grasping and pulling the loosened bottom sheet of the bed 
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
An anxiety disorder cause dby exposure to an extremely traumatic event. Affected individuals may relive the event in nightmares or flashbacks. Symptoms may include avoidance of stimuli associate with the trauma, hyperalertness, and difficulty sleeping, remembering or concentrating.
pulmonary vein
vein that drains the lungs and returns the blood to the left atrium of the heart.
Sagittal Plane(Median Plane)
Runs length wise, divides the body into right and left segments
involuntary muscle
muscle over which a person has no conscious control. It is found in many automatic regulating systems of the body
scoop stretcher
a stretcher that is designed to be split into 2 or 4 sections that can be fitted around a PT who is lying on the ground or other relatively flat surface; also called a split litter
Other factors to consider for potential violence

Poor impulse control
The Behavior Triad - truancy, fighting, uncontrolled temper
Unstable family or job structure
Tattoos (gang)
Substance abuse
Functional disorder
Diagnosed illness (eg. bipolar depression)
2 Types of Medication Names

its original name or the name which it's given by the manufacturer
Not Capitalized

Trade Name
The brand name given by the manufacturer
Begins with a Capital Letter

What is the midaxillary line?
An imaginary vertical line drawn through the middle of the axilla (armpit) parallel to the midline.
Good Samaritan Laws
A series of laws, varying in each state, designed to provide limited legal protection for citizens and some health care personnel who are administering emergency care.
consolidated omnibus budget reconciliation act
a federal regulation that ensures the public's access to emergency health care regardless of ability to pay.
asks whether you can defend or justify your actions to others
Interpersonal Justifiability Test
imminent delivery is signaled by what contraction duration and interval
imminent delivery when contractions last for 30-60 seconds and are 2-3 minutes apart

Types of Diabetes - 2 Distinct Onset Patterns
Type 2 
Non-Insulin-Dependant (NIDD)


Usually appears later in life
Patients produce inadequate amounts of insulin
Produce a normal amount, but insulin does not function effectively
May require some insulin, most treated with diet and exercise, non-insulin type medications
Body Substance Isolation (BSI)
A form of infection control based on the presumption that all body fluids are infectious 
Steps to Ensure Correct Placement of the Nasopharyngeal Airway
Steps 1 & 2

1) Before Inserting the Airway
Be sure you have selected the proper size
Measure from the tip of the patient's nose to the earlobe
2) The Airway should be Placed in the larger nostril, with the curvature of the device following the curve of the floor of the nose
If using the right nare - the bevel should face the septum
If using the left nare - insert the airway with the tip of the airway pointing upward, which will allow the bevel to face the septum
What's required for Electricity to flow?
There must be a complete circuit between the electrical source and the ground.
Assumes that all body fluids pose a threat of Infection

Wear PPE to reduce personal risk of injury or illness
Protective gloves and eye protection are always indicated
Eye protection and masks - blood or fluids may become airborne by coughing of splattering
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