EMT-B Vocabulary Flashcards

vocabulary
Terms Definitions
epi-
upon
Hemorrhage
bleeding
necr/o-
dead
bleph/o-
eyelid
Leukocytes
WBC
Apnea
no breathing.
Clavicle
Collar bone
dopamine
-Intropin (tm)-sympathomimetic-IV infuse 2-20 mcg/kg/min to pt response
phas/o-
pertaining to speech
femur
the thigh bone
Early signs of Hypoxia


Restlessness
Irritability
Apprehension
Tachycardia (fast heart rate)
Anxiety
Positive Pressure Ventilation
Artifical Ventilation
diaphoretic
characterized by profuse sweating
thorac-
pertaining to the thorax
4 “Ts” of Trauma
Triage;
Treatment;
Transport;
Transfer


Common Prescribed Medications
Endrocine and Hormone  Medications
HRT (Thyroid or estrogen) Birth Control, control Glucose Levels in Diabetics


levothyroxine
conjugated estrogens (Premarin)
norgestimate/ethinyl estradiol (Ortho Tri-Cyclen)
glipizide (Glucotrol & Glucotrol XL)
norelgestromin/ethinyl estradriol (Ortho Evra)
rosiglitazone (Avandia)
pioglitazone (Actos)
glyburide 
metformin (Glucophhge & XR)
glimepiride (Amaryl)
glyburide/metformin (Glucovance)
 
Convulsions
full-body muscle contractions lasting up to several minutes
CME
Continuing Medical Education- assures up to date classes and information for EMTs
defamation
An intentional false communication that injures another person's reputation or good name
Prone
Lying face down on stomach
echolalia
the uncontrollable and immediate repetition of words spoken by another person.
Assisted and Artificial Ventilation


Nonbreathing patient
breathing inadequately (with some form of + pressure ventilation)
Too fast
Too Slow
Reduced Tidal Volume 
Irregular breathing pattern
Can't speak a whole sentence
 
Epi-Pen Steps
 
Recieve Order (direct or indirect)
Ensure it is patients, not expired, and clear
remove cap
tip to lateral thigh
push in - 10 sec
remove
record time and dose (.3mg adult, .15 child)
Withdrawn
pulling into oneself. Retreating from reality
Eclampsia
a severe complication of pregnancy that produces seizures and coma.
Phalanges
Bones in the fingers and toes 
Orbit
bones that form the eye sockets
Polyphagia
Excessive eating; in diabetes, the inability to use glucose properly can cause a sense or hunger.
radius
the lateral bone of the forearm.
Standards of right or honorable behavior
Ethics
perfusion
the circulation of oxygenated blood w/n an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cell's current needs
diabetic ketoacidosis S/S
extreme sluggishness, muscle wasting, fruit/acetone breath, pain in the abdomen/chest/shoulders/neck, extreme weight loss, agitation/aggression, hyperventilation, extreme thirst, constant urination


Respirations


Watch for patient's chest rise and fall
Feel for air through the mouth and nose 
Listen to breathing sounds - should be equal on both sides of the chest
Speaking patient has spontaneous respiration
Determine breathing:
Rate
Quality 
Depth


 
Hypoglycemia
(Below Normal)
Signs & Symptoms
 

 
 
Insulin Shock Occurs when:
Taken too much insulin
Taken a regular dose of insulin, but has not eaten enough, or vomits
Had an unusual amount of activity, or vigorous exercise - using up all available glucose

 
Arterial Bleeding
Bright red, rapid, profuse, difficult to control
Antidote
An antidote or counterdose is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning.
Consent
Permission from the patient for care or other action by the EMT.
Amniotic
Thev"bag of waters" that surounds the developing fetus.
Protocol 
Lists of steps, developed by the Medical Director of an EMS system, that are to be taken in different situations.
skin turgor
Skin test used to determine dehydration; skin on back of hand is lifted and if doesn't quickly return to normal patient is dehydrated
neuron
the main functional unit of the nervous system
malleolus
the knobby surface landmark of the ankle. There is a medial malleolus and a lateral malleolus.
2 sub-divisions of MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY
Cytology (cells)
Histology (tissues)
HIV infection
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virus can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
epiglottis
a thin, leaf-shaped valve that allows air to pass into the trachea but prevents food or liquid from entering
Standing Orders
The part of the Protocols and designate what the EMTs is required to do for a specific complaint or condition.
Pulse Rate


30 secs. X 2
Irregular or slow pulse - count for the full minute
Normal pulse rates:
Adults:  60 - 100
Children:  70 - 150
Infants 100 - 160

Tachycardia - Rate greater than 100 beats/min
Bradycardia: Rate less than 60 beats/min
Routes of Administration
Intraosseous (IO)


Into the Bone
Reaches the bloodstream through the marrow
Requires drilling into the outer layer of the bone
Painful
Used in unconscious cardiac arrest patients  or extreme shock
Most commonly used w/ children who have fewer available IV sites
Abondonment
Leaving a patient after care has been initiated and before the patient has been transfered to someone with equal or greater medical training
crepitus
grating of bone on bone (can cause infection)
Auscultation
the act of listening for sounds made by internal organs such as the lungs and heart.  Also the technique used to listen for pulse sounds when obtaining a blood pressure
Conduction
The transfer of heat from one material to another through direct contact.
Medical Director
A physician who assumes the ultimate responsibility for the patient-care aspects of the EMS system
frontal plane
the plane parallel to the anterior surface of the body
expressed consent
permission that must be obtained from every conscious, mentally competent adult before emergency treatment may be provided.
The appropriate respiratory protection to be worn when tuberculosis is suspected in a patient is a(n):

surgical mask.

N95 or HEPA respirator.

self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

none of the above.
N95 or HEPA respirator.
joint capsule
the fibrous sac that encloses a joint
portable stretched
a stretcher w/ a strong rectangular tubular metal frame & rigid fabric stretched across it
incident commander, triage, MED COM, treatment area
fire chief, firefighters/engineer, first medic, second medic
Flow Restricted Oxygen Powered Ventilation Device


High incidence of gastric Distention
Possible damage to structures within the chest cavity
Not be used on:
Infants or children
COPD
Suspected Cervical spine or chest injuries

Cricoid press must be maintained
Routes of Administration
Sublingual (SL)


Under the tongue
Enter through the oral mucosa under the tongue and are absorbed into the bloodstream within minutes
Protects medications from chemicals in the digestive system (such as acids that weaken them)
Rapid Trauma Assesment
Fast assesment of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, extremities, and postierior of the body to detect signs and symptoms of any life threatening imjuries.
What is the most posterior portion of the cranium called?
The occiput.
Flail chest
Fracture of two or more adjacent ribs in two or more places that allows for free movement of the fractured segment.
gastric distention
expansion of the stomach caused by too forceful ventilation pressures, which cause excess air to enter the stomach instead of the lungs
Electrical Burns
Results of contact with high or low voltage electricity.
anatomy
the study of the structure of the body and the relationship of its parts to each other
Ventilation
Air is moved in and out of the lungs
large intestine
the portion of the digestive tube that encircles the abdomen around the small bowel, consisting of the cecum, the colon, & the rectum. It helps regulate water & eliminate solid waste
Duty to Act


You cannot deny care to a patient whom you suspect as having a communicable disease, even if you believe that the patient poses a risk to your safety
Considered abandonment
May be considered breach of duty


Medications Carried on EMS Units
Epinephrin Administration by Injection


Treatment of anaphylaxis
SC & IM injections:
SC - helpful to pinch the skin lightly to lift it away from the muscle 
SC syringe - short, thin needle, typically 1/2" - 5/8"
IM syringe - longer 1" - 1 1/2" so it can reach muscle
What is the midclavicular line?
An imaginary line drawn vertically through the middle portion of the clavicle and parallel to the midline.
Iliac Crest
Wide bony ring that can be felt near the waist 
carotid artery
one of two major arteries of the neck, which supply the brain and head with blood.
Occurs when direct orders are given to a prehospital care provider
On-Line Medical Direction
contusion
an injury, as from a blow with a blunt instrument, in which the subsurface tissue is injured but the skin is not broken; bruise.


 



Assessment of the Diabetic Patient
Focused History & Physical Exam



 


If the patient has eaten, but not taken insulin - more likely they have kenoacidosis developing
Potential Diabetic Coma
If the patient has taken insulin, but has not eaten - more likely - insulin shock
Base Station
Two way radio at a fixed site such as a hospital or dispatcher center 
5 Possible Causes of Airway Obstruction


Relaxation of the tongue in an unconscious patient
Aspirated vomitus
Foreign Object
Trauma
Blood clots
bone fragments
damaged tissue

Airway tissue swelling due to infection or allergic reaction
How does activated charcoal work?
It adsorbs or sticks to many commonly ingested poisons.


Opening the Airway of a patient with suspected spinal injury
Step 3


As you call the count to control movement, have your partner turn the patient toward you by pulling on the far shoulder and hip
Control the head and neck so that thay move as a unit with the rest of the torso
Apply the cervical collar
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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