Scientific Revolution Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Priestly
Existence of oxygen
logical
resoned and well thought out
Roger Bacon
created the scientific method
Vesalius
Father of anatomy, dissected humans
Ptolemy
ancient Greek thinker and astronomer, geographer, and map maker
Galileo Galilei
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
RENE DESCARTES
(1596-1650) a French scientist, mathematician, and philosopher. He discovered the laws of optics and is considered the founder of analytic geometry. He supported the method of acquiring knowledge which proceeded from the general to the specific - deductive.
See cogito ergo sum.
Allessandro Volta
(Physicist) Invented the Storage Battery
Dialogue of Copernicus
proved heliocentricism
written by Galileo
Who created the Laws Of Gravtation?
Newton
Johannes Kepler
proved that planets had elliptical orbits, mathematically backed up heliocentricity, said that the closer a planet was to the sun, the faster its orbit was, and wrote Three Laws of Planetary Motion
Empiricism
A theory of inductive reasoning that calls for acquiring evidence through observation and experimentation rather than reason and speculation.
Joseph Black
(Chemist) Discovered that air consists of several gasses
Copernicus
"On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres." New theories: motionless sun in center of universe, earth rotates around sun in circular orbit and moon rotates around earth. Shy about his beliefs.
Galileo Galilei
discovered the law of pendulum. Tested gravity, in 1610, he published a series of newsletters called Starry Messenger, which described his astonishing observations.
discourse on method
(Rene Descartes)- This written work used skepticism to come to the conclusion "I think, therefore I am" by questioning everything that anyone thinks they are certain of. Thus, the only thing we can be certain of is that we have doubt, and doubt is thought, and thought must come from a mind. He also concluded that because we know we are not perfect, there must be something perfect that gives us that knowledge, and that perfect thing is God. In this way his highly untraditional ideas did not conflict too much with Christianity.
INSTAURATIO MAGNA
(Great Renewal) written by Sir Francis Bacon in the early 17th century. It was to contain several volumes in which Bacon called for a new start in science and civilization. He only actually completed two full volumes but it's title and intent is significant because he was anticipating a complete new start - a revolution - a fresh page for all knowledge on which everything would be examined again.
Harvey
"On the Motion of the Heart and Blood." Corrected all of the errors of Galen's that Vesalius did not catch.
Obscurantism
Sci. Revo. - Obscuring of the truth, practiced by Church, ends up hurting them, example: tell Galileo to say "even though I see it, it's not true", makes Church look stupid because even after everyone believes something they still don't, refuse to compromise despite scientists attempts to prevent conflict (did not see the two as needing to be in conflict).
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres is writ
Nicolaus Copernicus
Galileo Galilei:
Italian dude. Showed that the surface of the moon was rough and uneven. Directly challenged the teachings of the RCC.
COGITO ERGO SUM
translates to 'I think therefore I am.' Rene Descartes said/wrote this in his development of a system of acquiring knowledge. In his Discourse on Method he begins by clearing the ground and doubting everything. He even doubted his own existence. Then he determined this and, using systematic reasoning, DEDUCED the existence of God.
He expressed what has become known as CARTESIAN(from DesCartes) DUALISM. This means that existence has two(dual) facets. There is the 'thinking' substance which involves the mind and is, in effect, 'spiritual.' And then there is the 'extended' substance which includes all physical or material things. In the 'extended' world Descartes considered math to be the supreme language of expression. NOTE: Cartesian Dualism therefore DOES NOT preclude the existence of God - it, in fact, explains it. Thus, science and religious faith are NOT incompatible.
scientific method
Sci. Revo. - Method advocated by Bacon and Newton, start by observation of things you can interact with with the senses and then notice connections, ask coincidence or relationship, form a hypothesis and then experiment to prove, not logical -- separates science from philosophy, starts move towards only science if quantifiable (math and numbers) and replicable (able to repeated infinitely with same results), moves away from philosophical deduction (thinking to inductive science (observation).
What Ptolemy's theroy?
Plantes and Sun revolved around a fixed sun
BIBLICAL CRITICISM
By those such as Simon in France and Spinoza in Amsterdam. Spinoza was pantheistic in his approach - some thought atheistic. He drew on scientific and humanistic thought of the day and challenged both Hebrew and Christian faith. Simon challenged the literal translation of the Bible.
Bacon
believed you need to get a lot of data to see how things work
(inductive reasoning/empiricism)
By 1300 philosophy had taken its place alongside
law, medicine, and theology
What are the 5 major factors of the scientific rev
-rise of universities-interest in the idea of huma
/ 28
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online