End of World War Flashcards

Terms Definitions
July 28
war
axis
Germany, Italy, Japan
World War I
()
Nationalism
Pride in one's nation.
6/6/1944
When did D-Day occur?
Triple Entente
France, Britain, and Russia
armistice
an agreement to stop fighting
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungray alliance later joined by Italy
5/8/1945
When did V-E Day occur?
Mandates
territories administered by western powers
fascism
a political system based on militarism, extreme nationalism, and blind loyalty to the state and its leader
Reparations
payment for damages after a war
Allied Powers
Serbia,Britian,frnace,U.S. , Russia , Italy and Belguim
U-boats
submarines, were the worlds largest and most advanced, causing heavy losses to Allied shipping
Propoganda
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause
socialist
person who believes industries should be publicy owned and run by the goverment rather than by private individuals
Kornilov
Imperial Russian general, who was accused of attempting to overthrow the provisional government established in Russia after the February Revolution of 1917. Wanted to replace it with military dictatorship.
Woodrow Willson
This president promised Americansthat he would keep them out of the fight.
Germany
Declares war on France and Russia
Leon Trotsky
dedicated revolutionary who was the head of the Petrograd soviet
ottoman empire
who won the fight for dardanelles
Scramble for Africa
The Industrial Revolution heightened the need for materials, and there were a lot in africa.
Duckboards
Boards placed at the bottom of trenches and across other areas of muddy or waterlogged ground.
Alvin York
against war; believed killing was wrong but single handely killed 24 Germans
Stalemate
situation in which neither side of conflict can win a decscive victory
dissent
disargeements with or opposition to an opinion
triple entente contained
great brittion ,france, and rusia
blank check
promised backing for any action Austria might take. Serbia turned to "big brother" Slav Russia, which in turn got a guarantee of French support against Germany and Austria in a similar blank check
Czar Nicholas II
Leader of Russia during WWI
Lusitania
British submarine that was bombed by German torpedoes
Gallipoli
A poorly planned and badly executed Allied campaign to capture the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during 1915 in World War I. Intended to open up a sea lane to the Russians through the Black Sea, the attempt failed with more than 50 percent casualties on both sides.
Axis power
Germany and Italy formed a military alliance
Civil War: Reds vs. Whites
Communists fought Siberian anti-communists
japan
which nation joined the war on the side of the allies for imperialistic reasons?
RATIONING
a system if limiting the amount of foods and materials in use
Alliance
nations who agreed to come to each other's aid in the event of an attack
Vittorio Orlando
Italian prime minster- wanted Italy to recieve land it had been promised when it entered the war on the allied side
Imperialism
The desire for an Empire; control of overseas lands; colonialism.
March Revolution
women textile workers in Petrograd led a strike. There were five days of rioting throughout the city. Soldiers fought against the people at first but then joined them. Nicholas II was forced to abdicate his throne. The March Revolution brought down the Czar but failed to set up a strong government.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
king of germany and commander-in-chief of the army during world war 1
Princip
The man who killed the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
Self-Determination
The right for a country to influence its own future.
German domestic politics
Left wing parties, especially the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) made large gains in the 1912 German election. German government at the time was still dominated by the Prussian Junkers who feared the rise of these left wing parties.
Vladmir Lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR
total war
the channeling of a nations entire resources into a war effort.
Centeral Powers
The group of nations--led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire--that opposed the Allies
Where were the armenian children and women forced to march through?
Syrian desert
Edward Rickenbacker
He was one of the leading American aviators in World War I. First U S Ace.
cease fire
what did the weimer republic sign that ended the war
on the western front, what starts the battles?
schlieffen plan
Schlieffen Plan
Designed to avoid a 2-front war used by Germany to avoid France in the west and russia in the east so they could handle them seperatly.
Sussex Pledge
Germany makes a promise to check a ship to make sure it didn't have Americans on it.
Liberty bonds
bonds sold by the U.S. government to raise money for WWI
Alsace and Lorraine
two provinces taken by the Germans after the Franco-Prussian War. 97
Woodrow Wilson
` The president who led the nation through the hard years of World War I was Woodrow Wilson *
American Expeditionary Force
The US forces led by John Pershing
new economic policy
introduced by lenin in 1921. permitted some capitalist activity such as the ability to sell food in order to boost economy of russia.
Nicholas II
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
Fourteen Points
a peace plan made by Wilson in January 1918 before the war ended which was ment to prevent international problems from causing another war - included having a League of Nations, ending secret agreements, freedom of the seas, free trade, a limit on arms, and support for national self-determination
daylights savings time
1st instituted during WWI in order to conserve energy
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Declaration of War 1917
Wilson finally asked congress for this on april 2, 1917, following the news that russia, the black sheep of the allies, had overthrown the tsarist regime. it was issued four days later on april 6.
Effects of Imperialism
1. Economic - Africans were hired to work the mines, plantations and factories.
2. Social Life - Europeans taught the Africans to reject their customs and beliefs, read books and clothes of Europeans. Ancient African traditions disappeared.
germany wrote a letter to mexico saying that if they join the war, they will make sure they get back what three places?
texas, new mexico, and arizona
Battle of Verdun
a battle in World War I (1916); in some of the bloodiest fighting in World War I the German offensive was stopped [syn: Verdun]
How can the Germans help Austria-Hungary?
-Germany viewed Austria-Hungary as the victim and offered them a blank check
-Germany is confident in the decision because
1. Austria-Hungary was too weak to face Russia alone
2. Convinced that Russia wouldn't help Serbia because Serbia killed a future monarch
Tension with Russia, The Bosnian Crisis
Russia seized control of the Balkan state of Bosnia In 1908
Why did the king of Italy appoint Mussolini prime minister?
he wanted to overthrow the government
new nations formed on principle of self-determination including Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Poland regained independence.
Explain what Wilson achieved at the Paris Peace Conference.
--- troops were not aloud to to march on the front likes and there were ----- black men out of ------ soldiers
400,000 and out of 3.7 million
Why was the Treaty of Brest -Litovsk a set back for the Allies?
It allowed the German army to shift 40 divisions to the Western front
Greece
Athens
luftwaffe
german airforce
D-Day
June 6, 1944
1936-1939
Spanish Civil War
british general
bernard montgomery
japan invaded
korea, manchuria,pacific islands
Kamikaze
Japanese suicide plane attacks
Axis powers
Germany, Italy, Japan
civilians
People not in the military
alliance system
defense agreement among nations
British Air Force
Royal Air Force
Nisei
American-born children of Japanese immigrants; second generation Japanese Americans.
Joesph Stalin
leader of Soviet Union
Nazism
belief in extreme nationalism, racism and militarism found in Germany during the 1930s and early 1940s.
Atlantic Charter
Aggreement between Roosevelt and Churchill where they outlined their support of war against Germany
Nonaggression Pact
1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland
FIREBOMB
incendiary bomb developed by the Germans - loaded with chemicals that would cause buildings to burn when it exploded - was used extensively in bombings of Britain
appeasement
..., Policy by which Czechoslovakia, Great Britain and France agreed to Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland in agreement for not taking any additional Czech territory.
Fronts
Europe (western and eastern), Pacific (Japan), Northern Africa
Blitzkreig
"Lighting Wars" type of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
What international organization was established after WWII?
United Nations
14 points
President Wilson's rebuilding plan for Europe
Jews
This group suffered 6 million deaths during the Holocaust.
royal air force
the __________ defended englands skies
Rome-Berlin Axis
the ________-_______ ______ was the alliance between Germany and Italy
Cold War
a period of political noncooperation after WWII between members of NATO and members of the Warsaw Pact
Totalitarian
characterized by a government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control
Anschluss
The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.
Non-Agression Pact
-signed by hitler and stalin
-agreed not to fight each other
-Hitler wanted to avoid 2 front war
-Ultimately broke it and attacked Soviet Union
Nagasaki
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
Rape of Nanking
Japanese invaded Nanking, China, massacred Chinese civilians and prisoners of war, and raped Chinese women
Nazi-Soviet Pack
agreement signed between Hitler and Stalin in 1939 in which the two dictators agreed not to attack each other
Blitzkrieg
German word meaning lightning war; the swift attacks launch by Germany in World War 2
What did Henry Kaiser do?
create liberty ships.
Mussolini
fascist leader of Italy during World War II
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)
What nation occupied Japan after WWII?
United States
31. A political philosophy in which total power is given to a dictator and individual freedoms are denied is
Fascism
Pacifism
A belief that disputes should be settled by nonviolent means.
German Invasion
Motgomery wanted quick rapid but Eisenhower wanted slow cautious. Eisenhower won but so slow that USSR took power and battle of the bulge first
Hideki Tojo
General who became prime minister in Japan
What did Hitler like but wasn't good at?
painting
Lend-Lease Act
1941 when U.S. (FDR) gives Allies military equipment. overall negating US neutrality
Winston Churchill
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Adolf Hitler
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Eisenhower
American General who was the leader of D-Day
sitzkrieg
what did the germans call the phony war
baatan death march
japanese captured americans, made them p.o.w marched 100 miles to p.o.w camps
communism
..., a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
Enabling Act
This was the Act of Germany's Reichstag that gave Hitler all of his military power and allowed him to establish a dictatoship
Bernard Montgomery
british field marshal during ww2 who commanded british troops at the battle of alamein, a turning point in the north african campaign, and in italy and northwest europe. he is most famous for commanding all gronud forces d uring operation overlord, and for his flamboyancy and disagreements with general patton
Blitzkrieg Warfare
"lightning war" to take enemy by surprise
Afrika Korps
the German expeditionary force in the North African Campaign. Commanded by Field Marshall Erwin Rommel. Originally pushed British forces back to El Alamein in Egypt but was then driven back to Tunisia, where most of the troops surrendered
Douglas MacArthur
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
agreement between nazi Germany and Soviet Russia that they would not attack each other.
Halie Selassie
last emperor of Ethiopia, called on the league of nations for help against Italy
Iwo Jima
a bloody and prolonged operation on the island of Iwo Jima in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders (February and March 1945)
scapegoat
a person or thing carrying the blame for others
totalitarianism
The attempt by a government to control all aspects of life
inflation
when there is to much money in flow and the prices of things are raised
Manhattan Project
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
What two American generals were in charge if the pacific campaign against Japan?
Nimitz & MacArthur
Dwight D. Eisenhower
lead allies to take control against north Africa, and D-day
Rome-Berlin Axis 1936
what did hitler and mussolini jointly sign
Fireside Chats
radio talks given by FDR to encourage America during the Depression and WWII
to spread communism
purpose of Communist long march in china
Germany makes their move
Germany took austria and then chzechoslovakia
Hitler, reprimanded, declares that chzechoslovakia is his last demand and that he won't go any further.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers-marking a major turning point in the US's Pacific Campaign
Battle of Alamein
(june-Nov 1942) Turning point in the north african campaign. Hen Montgomery defeared Erwin Romel. This began the allies offensive pushing the axid powers back to turning and up to Italy
dictator
A ruler who has complete power over a country
Wannsee Conference
Jan. 1942- they had millions of people in these camps and didn't know what to do with them, so they had a conference to discuss what they were gonna do with these prisoners and this is when they came up with the idea of death camps
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
Atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki because Japan refused to surrender
Battle of the Bulge
A 1944-1945 battle in which Allied forces turned back the last major German offensive of World War II.
Oil and Iron embargo
us supplies japan with oil and iron
Battle Of Britain
an aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Erwin Rommel
Also known as the "Desert Fox" for his crazy defeat of the Allies in the North African desert. But then the Allies got back their land by 1943, so it was all good.
Russian Social Democrats
A party for the Proletariat. It helped plan the beginnings of the 1917 Revolution before the party split into the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks.
Sinking of Essex and Sussex
German U-Boats sank the passenger ships Essex and Sussex, killing Americans in the process. Woodrow Wilson addressed Congress on Aril 19 1916, condemning German action.
British and French Declaration of War
After Hitler signed the Non-Aggression Pact with the Soviets, he attacked Poland. This led Poland's two western allies to declare war on Germany and start WWII.
What was the Atlantic Charter?
FDR and Winston Churchill, issued the Atlantic Charter. The 2 leaders decided that they did not want any territorial gain from the war and they wanted people to have the right to choose their own government.
Battle of the Coral Sea
A battle between Japanese and American naval forces that stopped the Japanese advance on Australia.
Start of World War I
archduke of Austria killed in Serbia - Austria attacks Serbia
Philippines: Luzon and Bataan Death March
the Japanese attacked the americans on the island of Luzon and the death march was when the Japanese surrounded the americans (who couldn't surrender) and forced them to live under bad conditions
21.Japan formally surrendered to the US on September 2, 1945,
days after the second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki
Why was the attack on Tokyo so significant?
It attacked the Japanese idea that the homeland was impregnable
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