Endocrine Glands 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Aldosterone
+adrenal cortex+regulates reabsorbtion of Na+ & excretion of K+ in the kidneys (water/salt balance)
Gonads
ovaries and testes
TRH
stimulates release of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin
Insulin
+pancreas (island of langerhans)+increase glucose absorbtion & storage of glucose -in liver:glucose stored as glycogen -in body:glucose stored as fat (deacrease blood glucose levels)
Noradrenaline
+adrenal medulla+stimulation of cardiac muscles
LH
+anterior pituitary+control growth, development, & functioning o/t gonads
TSH
+anterior pituitary+stimulates tyroid gland
glucagon
liver,muscles,adipose tissue, raise glucose level
PTH
release triggered by lower extracellular calcium, triggers bone resorption, may also be regulated by phosphate
1)thyrotrophs2)gonadotrophs3)corticotrophs (or chromophobes)
name the subtypes of basophils
zona reticularis synthesizes
androgens (e.g., dehydroepiandrosterone)
Gonadotropins
glycoprotein hormones capable of promoting growth and function of the gonads
calcitonin
bones, kidneys,intestines , lowers blood calcium level
testosterone
tests, secondary male sex characteristics characteristics
acidophilic chromophils
produce growth hormone (somatotropic) and prolactin (mammotropic)
adrenal cortex
derives from mesoderm, produces steroid hormones, has 3 concentric zones
adenohypophysis
formerly Rathke's pouch, formed by pars distalis, pars tuberalis, and pars intermedia
the hypothalamus-hypophyseal feedback loop
what regulates neurosecretion?
adrenaline
promotes glycogenolysis in liver as energy source and is responsible for the production of enkephalins
somatotrophs, mammotrophs(lactotrophs)
name the subtypes of acidophils
zona fasciculata synthesizes
glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone)
Triiodothyronine (T3) & Tetraiodothyronine (T4)
thyroid hormones;stimulates metabolism in many tissues throughout the body
Panreas
exocrine and endocrine gland that lies behind the peritoneum betwen the greater curvature of the stomach and the duodenum
Lipotropin
hormones secreted from the anterior pituitary that bind to membrane-bound receptor molecules on adipose tissue cells;
cause fat breakdown and release of fatty acids into the circulatory system
Relaxin
secreted by the ovaries during pregnancy;
increases the flexibility of connective tissue of the symphysis pubis and help dilate the cervix
insulin
pancreas , liver,muscles, lowers blood glucose level promotes formation of glycogen
basophilic chromophils
produce FSH and LH (gonadotropic), corticotrophin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (corticotropic), and thyrotropin (thyrotropic)
delta cells
secrete somatostatin and less abundant than other cell types
Herring bodies
granules containing hormones from the hypothalamus, found in pars nervosa
endocrine system
this system communicates via chemical messengers in the bloodstream to target tissue containing receptors
cholesterol
what is the precursor of steroid hormones?
chromophobes
small cells that don't take acidophil or basophillic dyes, clear on H & E
Endocrine glands develop from
invaginations of surface epithelium
oxytocin is synthesized in the
paraventricular nucleus (PVN)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
also called thyrotropin;secreted by the anterior pituitary, stimulates the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland;glycoprotein consisting of alpha and beta subunits
Inhibiting hormones
tropic neurohormones secreted from the hypothalamus that acts on tissues in the anterior pituitary to decrease hormonmal secretions
Glucocticoids (cortisol)
Adrenal cortex, all tissues, raise blood glucose level; stimulate breakdown of protein
thyroid gland
located in cervical region anterior to larynx, originates from foregut endoderm near base of tongue
adrenal gland
paired organs, bean shaped, have dense connective tissue capsule that sends septa known as trabeculae through the glands, has 2 layers: cortex and medulla
insulin, glucagon, somatostatin
what endocrine hormones are secreted by pancreatic islets?
MSH, ACTH
what is secreted by the pars intermedia?
chief cells
most abundant secretory cells of the thyroid, secrete parathormone, stain clear to light pink with dark nuclei and moderate amount of cytoplasm
anterior pituitary acidophils (2)
somatotrophs - produce somatotropin (growth hormone)mammotrophs - secrete prolactin
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
a polypeptide hormone that is important in the regulation of calcium levels in body fluids; stimulates osteoclast activity in bone and can cause the number of osteoclasts to increase, resulting in bone resorption, release of calcium and phosphate, and thus an increase in the blood-calcium levels; induces calcium reabsorpiton in the kidneys
Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)
a neurohormone released from the hypothalamus that inhibits the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland
Tropic hormones
hormones that are released from one gland and stimulate the release of hormone from a different gland which then exerts its effect on yet another tissue
Gluconeogenesis
the production of glucose in the liver from precursor molecules such as amino acids
Tropic hormones
hormones that are released from one gland and stimulate the release of hormone from a different gland which then exerts its effect on yet another tissue
epinephrine and norepinephrine
cardiac and other muscles, emergency situations to raise blood and glucose level
pancreatic islets of Langerhans
compact masses of endocrine tissue embedded within acinar exocrine tissue of pancreas, derived from epithelial outgrowth from endoderm near bile duct, surrounded by thin capsule of reticular fibers
mammotrophs (lactotrophs)
what subtype of cells in the anterior petuitary secrete prolactin?
posterior
on what side of the thyroid are the parathyroid glands?
the hypothalmus
where are the cell bodies of the neurosecretory axons (that store and release products) in the posterior petuitary?
pars tuberalis
what region of Rathke's pouch forms an extension of the anterior petuitary that froms the collar/stalk of the petuitary?
function of cortisol and corticosterone
increase carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism
Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
a major endocrine gland that secretes nine major hormones that regulate numerous body functions and the secretory activity of severtal other endocrine glands
Zona glomerulosa
a layer of the adrenal cortex that lies just deep to the capsule and is composed of small clusters of cells;
secretes mainly mineralocorticoids
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
an anterior aspect of the pituitary gland;
develops from an outgrowth of the roof of the oral cavity;
secretes numerous major hormones into the body
bone as endocrine organ
FGF23 acts at kidney to decrease function of 25OHD-1alpha-hydroxlyases and inorganic phosphate levels in serum, may also be responsible for insulin secretion and increases in testosterone production and male fertility
anterior: glandular epithelial tissueposterior: neural secretory tissue
describe the tissue of the anterior petuitary and posterior petuitary
function of LH:*females*males
*females: - ovulation - formation of the corpus luteum*males: - acts on Leydig cells to stimulate the production of testosterone
Beta cells (panreas)
compose about 75% of the islets of Langerhans;secretes a small protein hormone, insulin
Growth hormone-releasing hormoone (GHRH)
a small peptide released from the hypothalamus that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
step 4 of thyroid hormone production/storage/release
tyrosine residues of thyroglobulin are colloid lumen
primary - due to general adrenal hyperplasia, leading to excess cortisol secretion OR functional tumor of the adrenal cortex [in the adrenal cortex itself]secondary-due to high ACTH from the anterior petuitary (petuitary tumor eg adenoma or carcinoma) i
describe the differences between primary and secondary hyperadrenocorticism
1) glucocorticoids (cortisol)2) small amounts of androgens
what is secreted by the zona fasciculata?
insulin-like growth factor I & II
somatomedins similar in structure and function to insulin
the hypophyseal portal system
what is the name of the blood supply that allows communication of the petuitary with the hypothalmus
What are the 8 main regulatory functions of the endocrine system?
1) metabolism and tissue maturation2) Ion regulation3) Water Balance4) immune system regulation5) heart rate and blood pressure regulation6) control of blood glucose and other nutrients7) control of reproductive functions8) uterine contractions and milk release
TINY! it will fit in your microscope viewing window at 10x, it is 6-8 mm long
how big is the pineal gland?
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