endocrine system Flashcards

Terms Definitions
produces oxytocin
hypothalamus
synthesizes antidiuretic hormone
hypothalamus
Endocrine gland includes:
 
pituitary
thyroid
parathyroid
adrenals
pineals
thymus
secretes thyrotropin releasing hormone
hypothalamus
suppresses melanocyte stimulating hormone
dopamine
What is stimulates glucocorticoid?
ATCH
What does glucocorticoid suppress?
inflamation
produces hormones secreted by posterior pituitary gland
hypothalamus
inhibits prolactin secretion
prolactin inhibiting hormone
target of adrenocorticotropic hormone
adrenal gland
secretes prolactin releasing hormone during pregnancy
hypothalamus
What exerts control over pituitary?
hypothalamus
Amines
 
2 types
1.  thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine & Tetraiodothyronine)
 
2.  Epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal medullaand are water soluable. 
What is derived from tyrosine?
Amines
Anterior pituitary secretions
TSH
ACTH
FSH
LH
prolactin
growth hormone
MSH
stimuli for hormone release
3 types
-humoral
-hormonal
-neural
Location of pituitary gland
base of brain
nervous lobe of pituitary gland
posterior lobe
another name for posterior pituitary gland
neurohypophysis
causes secretion of gonadotropins
gonadotropin releasing hormone
inhibits the secretion of antidiuretic hormone
alcohol
thymosin 
affects production of white blood cells and lymphocytes.
Pancreas
flattened organ posterior and slightly inferior to stomach. Has both endocrine and exocrine functions. 3 cells secrete hormones:1) alpha - glucagon - increase amount of glucose in blood2) beta - insulin - decrease amount of glucose in blood3) delta - GHIH - inhibits glucagon and insulin
Diabetes Mellitus
hereditary disease characterized by high blood glucose and glucose in urine, increased urine formation (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), and excessive eating (polyphagia). Juvenile onset diabetes is insulindependent. About 90% of the diabetes is mature onset diabetes which usually occurs in people who are over 40 and overweight. Usually adult onset diabetes can be controlled through diet and exercise.
receptor proteins in cytoplasm
ex. sterioid hormones
The cortex is derived from what?
Mesoderm
1) receptor proteins in nucleus
 
(example)
thyroid hormones
Hypothalamus
"master gland" - the 9 hormones produced by it directly or indirectly affect the actions/release of other hormones
-9 hormones
-antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin, growth hormone releasing hormone, growth hormone inhibiting hormone, prolactin releasing hormone, prolactin inhibiting hormone, corticotropic releasing hormone, gonadotropic releasing hormone, thyrotropic releasing hormone
effect of melanocyte stimulating hormone
stimulates melanocyte activity
stimulates release of thyroid stimulating hormone
thyrotropin releasing hormone
causes release of adrenocorticotropic hormone
corticotropin releasing hormone
Hyperparathyroidism
1) blood calcium high2) nervous system depressed3) muscle contractions weak and sluggish4) usually caused by tumors5) bones deformed and soft due to osteoclast
anterior pituitary
adenohypophysis 75% of total weight and derived from ectoderm
Hypothalamous produces _________ which are stored in the  neurophyophysis
ADH and oxytocin
What is cause of simple goiter
no iodine
Melatonin 
hormone secreted by pineal gland that is thought to be responsible for 24 hour circadian rhythms. Melatonin production is cyclic and is only produced in the absence of light. Light inhibits its production.
Characteristics of Hypothyroidism
low metabolic rateabnormal sensitivity to coldphysical sluggishnesspoor appetiteappears mentally dullswelling of body tissue - myxedematendency to gain weight
What does hypersecretion of ADH cause?
diabetes insipidus
Paracrine Interaction
the endocrine cells releasing the hormones are neighboring cells to the target cells -> endocrine cells + target cells in same organ
-ex. in pancreas - both a pancreatic cells(secrete glucogon) and B pancreatic cells(secrete insulin)
when insulin is released one of the action of it is to bind to insulin receptors on the neighboring a cells to inhibit glucogon release

Insulin acts to stimulate cellular uptake of glucose from blood, glucogon acts to stimulate release of glucose from cells into blood - when released it binds to receptors on B cells to inhibit insulin release
Antidiuretic Hormone

Oxytocin
ADH = vasopressin

These 2 are delivered via hypothalamic hypophyseal tract by anterograde transport to the posterior pituitary for storage and release in response to appropriate stimuli
secretes melanocyte stimulating hormone
corticotrophic cells of anterior pituitary
secreted during times of hyperglycemia
growth hormone inhibiting hormone
inhibits human growth hormone secretion
growth hormone inhibiting hormone
what is result of large production of TSH?
goiter
Thymus
Thymus - 40g. during puberty - soft, bi-lobed structure that extends from roof of neck to pericardium. It lies in mediastinum behind sternum and between lungs. Large in children, but gets smaller with age
what usually causes hypersecretions
tumors or oversecretion of ACTH
somatotropin
growth hormone - turns on body cells to grow, creates protein anabolism and fat catabolism, stimulates rate glycogen converted to glucose, controlled by GHRF and GHIF from hypothalamus. 
pituitary
small, round gland that lies in sella turcica of sphenoid bone and attaches to hypothalamus by stem, 2 lobes
1.  anterior pituitary
2.  posterior pituitary
steroids derived from cholesterol are
aldosterone, cortisol, androgen secreted by adrenal cortex
 
testosterone, estrogen and progresterone - secreted by testes and ovaries
  
 
Islets of Langerhans
consist of alpha (glucagon) and beta (insulin) cells--more than 1 million in pancreas
 
regulate carb metabolism
Justacrine interaction
the endocrine cells and target cells in close contact - juxtaposed
--the hormone binds to receptors on target cells w/o first getting into extracellular fluid
ex. in closely packed cells - placenta -> fetal-maternal exchange unit
Synergism
a group of hormones work together to bring about a biological response greater than the sum of thei individual effects
ex. hA -> 2 units of bio effect
hB -> 3 units
hC -> 4 units
hA+B+C = 20 units instead of 9
effect of thyroid stimulating hormone
stimulates thyroid hormone production in thyroid gland
Characteristics of Cushing's Disease
Decrease in proteinwasting of muscle and loss of bone tissueblood glucose elevateNa+ highpuffy skin due to water retentionfat deposited between shoulders and face making buffalo hump and moon facespindly arms and legspoor wound healing
Function of sex steriods
weak androgens (lesser estrogen) that supplement sex steriod
What are the 3 functional categories of the steroid hormones?
1. mineralocorticoid2. glucocorticoid3. sex steroids
How Hormones Interact w/ their target cells
1)classical endocrine interaction
2)paracrine interaction
3)justacrine interaction
4)autocrine interaction
two lobes of pituitary gland
anterior pituitary gland and posterior pituitary gland
stimulates the release of antidiuretic hormone
changes in blood electrolyte concentration, blood pressure, and blood volume
effect of oxytocin on non-pregnant women and men
promotes nurturing instinct and sensation of pleasure during and after intercourse
PTH - parathyroid hormone
Produces PTH - parathyroid hormone - causes increase in blood calcium and decrease in blood phosphate,
Posterior Pituitary gland
may/may not be an endocrine gland - based of definition of endocrine gland
-if they need to produce the hormones then NO
-if they need to release hormones - then YES
GnRH - gonadrtropin releasing hormone
releases FSH and LH from anterior pituitary
Name the 7 hormones produced by the anterior pituitary?
 
FLAT Miles Per Gallon
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone--ovaries and testes)
LH (luteinizing hormone--triggers ovulation and testosterone production)
ACTH (regulates endocrine activity of adrenal cortex)
TSH (thryroid stimulating hormone)
MSH (melanocyte production)
PRL (prolactin--milk production)
GH (growth hormone)
 
 
2 hormones stored in the posterior pituitary
OT - oxytocin
ADH - antidiuretic hormone
Structure of the Medulla of adrenal gland
composed of tighly packed clusters of chromaffin cells arranged around blood vessels.
Posterior pituitary
 
Neurohypophysis
 
TRH
thyrotropin releasing hormone
secretes corticotropin releasing hormone
hypothalamus
secretes gonadotropin releasing hormone
hypothalamus
Hypothalamus controls ______________ through hormone regulation.
adenohypophysis
What gland secretes thymosin?
Thymus
Are hormones derived from cholesterole fat soluable?
yes
secretes growth hormone releasing hormone
hypothalamus
target of gonadotropins
gonads(ovaries or testes)
middle zona fasciculata secretes what?
glucocorticoid
four groups of hormones
Steriods
amines
protein and peptides
eicosanoids
Outer Zona glomerulosa produces what?
aldosterone
Endocrine System
-regulatory system
-involved in maintaining homeostasis
-endocrine + nervous system = 2 regulatory systems in the body
another name for anterior pituitary gland
adenohypophysis
target of thyroid stimulating hormone
thyroid gland
stores and secretes oxytocin
posterior pituitary gland
What do the parafollicular cells produce?
calcitonin
Hypothalamus releases
TRH - thyrotropin releasing hormone
CRH - corticotropin releasing hormone
GnRH - gonadotropin releasing hormone
PIH - prolactin inhibiting hormone
somatostatin
 Addison's Disease
 Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and aldosterone; Autoimmune; JFK (bronze skin)
Posterior pituitary
neurophypophysis derived from ectoderm also, but from outgrowth of hypothalamus therefore it contains axonic ends of nerve cells
What has effects similar to sympathetic nervous system but last 10 times longer?
amines
Proteins & peptides
chain of amino acids
Where is epinephrine and norepinephrine released from?
Adrenal medulla
Hormones
released from endocrine glands in response to changes in the environment(internal or external) termed stimuli
-these changes of stimuli lead to homeostatic imbalances and hormones are released to correct these stimuli
--hormones work through negative feedback mechanism
giantism
an excess of human growth hormone before epiphyseal plates have closed and the child is still growing
vessels that surround pituitary gland
circle of willis
secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone
corticotrophic cells of anterior pituitary gland
Glucagon
secreted when blood sugar falls below normal. It accelerates the conversin of glycogen to glucose, the conversion of other amino acids and lipids to glucose.
Cretinism
if infant's glands fail to produce normally - may develop
How does ADH raise blood pressure?
constricts arterioles
What happens if Addison's Disease is not treated in a few days?
death
Where is the pituitary gland located?
Sella Tursica
Classical endocrine interaction
gland releases hormone into bloodstream which transports the hormone to the target cells located a distance away
-ex. thyroid stimulationg hormone released from anterior pituitary travels through blood stream to reach its target organ - thyroid organ
TSH stimulates thyroid gland to secrete 2 thyroid hormones - T3 n T4
Neural Stimuli
activation of the nervous system stimulates endocrine glands to release hormones
Antagonism
a hormone released binds to the receptors of another hormone, blocking that hormone from accessing its own receptors
-biological effects of blocked hormone NOT observed
hormones that control anterior pituitary gland
releasing and inhibiting hormones
secreted during times of hypoglycemia
growth hormone releasing hormone
determines secretion of growth hormone releasing hormone or growth hormone inhibiting hormone
blood glucose levels
secretes thyroid stimulating hormone
thyrotrophic cells of anterior pituitary gland
Functions of Thyroxin
1. growth - stimulates protein synthesis2. promotes maturation of nervous system3. regulates metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins & lipids4. increases rate of energy utilization in body
What does Parathyroid Gland produce?
PTH - parathyroid hormone
what is structurally and functionally different of the adrenal gland?
Cortex and Medulla
What is the neurohypophysis?
Posterior lobe of pituitary
 
Does not produce hormones, only stores oxytocin and ADH (antidiuretic hormone for water retention in kidneys)
Permissiveness
a hormone released binds to its own receptors and elicits its biological effects which include stimulation of another hormone - increase in release or increase in receptors of that hormone
ex. hA -> ^release of hB and ^ #receptors of hB hence hA increases biological effects of hB
Thyrotropic releasing hormone
stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary to produce thyroid stimulating hormone - stimulates thyroid gland to produce 2 thyroid hormones T3, T4
corticotropic releasing hormone
stimulates cells in anterior pituitary to produce the hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone - stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete the glucocorticoids - these regulate glucose levels - major one in humans is cortisol
--overproduction of cortisol -> cushings syndrome
cells that secrete inhibiting and releasing hormones
neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus
effect of insulin-like growth factors
cell growth and cell reproduction
Pineal Gland
located in the roof of the third ventricle. Gland starts to calcify at puberty and produces calcium deposits called brain sand.
Hormones categorized according to location of
receptor protein of target cells
Thyroid glands - simple cuboidal cells produce what?
principle thyroid hormones
glucocorticoid is used to treat?
arthritis, organ transplanation, and sports medicine
What causes ADH and oxytocin to be released from neurophypophysis?
neuroendocrine reflex
When is growth hormone released?
when blood glucose is low
Cooperativity
at least 2 hormones work in tandem to bring about a desired biological effect
Growth hormone inhibiting hormone
stimulates same cells in anterior pituitary to inhibit growth hormone release - somatostatic
effect of oxytocin on pregnant women
stimulates contraction of smooth muscle in uterine wall which promotes labor and delivery
 
promotes milk let down reflex which promotes milk ejection
Low Iodine
low T3 & T4 in blood, low negative feedback, large production of TSH
ADH - antidiuretic hormone
causes collecting ducts of kidneys to be permeable to H2O
creates a more concentrated urine
raises blood pressure by constricting arterioles
regulated by osmoreceptors in hypothalamus
TSH - thryoid stimulating hormone
stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone (T3 and T4)
what does Zona reticularis produce?
produces sex steriods and controls the female sex drive
What are the functions of the adrenal cortex?
to secrete steriod hormones
TSH is released from the anterior pituitary gland in response to
thyroid releasing hormone from the hypothalamus and causes the synthesis and secretion of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) by the thyroid gland.
When should treatment of cretinism begin?
withine 1 month of birth to retard symptoms
endo
within
para
beside
Melatonin
Circadian Rhythms
cort
bark, rind
____________ produce testosterone.
Testis
AMP
"adenosine monophosphate"
many hormones use it as a second messenger
cAMP
"cyclic adenosine monophosphate"
enzyme that gets activated by the subunits
TSH
thyroid hormone
increases metabolic rate --> raises body temp.
PTH
Increases blood calcium level.
FSH and LH
Testes or ovaries
__________ produce estrogen and progesterone
Ovary
T-Cells
Lymphocytes that function in immunity.
Prostaglandins
hormonelike modified fatty acid produced by a wide range of cells; only affects nearby cells and tissues
neurohyphysis
"posterior pituitary"
comprises the posterior lobe of the pit. gland
What occurs?
The corpus luteum atrophies
___________ makes the hormones that control the pituitary gland.
hypothalamus
Endocrine
Communication and control system with ductless glands
Hyperthyroidism
results in nervousness, elevated body temperature, increased heart and metabolic rates, increased blood pressure and weight loss.
The Adrenal Medulla
Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. (adrenalen)
Prostaglandins effects
cause smooth muscles to contract
pheromones
secrete into environment and modify behavior & physiology
hypophysis
secretes nine major hormones regulated by the hypothalamus (pituitary gland)
What is GH secretion inhibited by?
Somatostatin
How many gastrointestinal peptides have been isolated?
Over 20
T3 and T4 abnormalities
Grave's disease: autoimmune disease
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Stimulates sperm production in the male
Anti-diuretic hormone
This accelerates the reabsorption of water from urine in kidney tubules back into the blood
Parathyroid Gland
secretes parathyroid hormone, which is important for promoting proper nerve and muscle function and bone structure.
Gonads
serves in the production of gametes and secetion of sex hormones.
Aldosterone
Cause the kidney to conserve sodium ions and water.
AP: prolactin
stimulates milk production in nursing mothers
Nonsteroid Hormones
-not lipid/cannot pass through cell membrane-binds to receptors on the cell membrane- the binding activates an enzyme on the inner surface of the membrane- the enzyme activates 2ndary messengers that carry message of the hormone inside the cell
peptide
compound composed of two or more bonded amino acids
steroids
lipids that include complex rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms
What is hyperthyroidism?
The thyroid is overstimulated, resulting in the oversecretion of thyroid hormones
What is Cortisol secretion governed by?
Negative feedback
What do alpha cells produce?
They secrete glucagons
Glucose Homeostasis
Blood glucose level falls, alpha cells of pancrease release glucagon into blood
Liver breaks down glycogen and releases glucose into blood
Blood glucose level rises, beta cells of pancreas releases insulin into blood
Insulin causes body cells and liver to take up more glucose
Cells that have receptors for a particular hormone are called _______
target cells.
Gluconeogenesis
A process that converts amino acids or fatty acids to glucose, done by liver cells
Parathyroid hormone
Causes an increase in blood calcium concentration
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water from collecting tubules.
Target Cells
cells that have receptors for a particular hormone
Adrenal Gland - Cortex
produces corticosteroids such as glucocoticoids which affect long term responses to stress
 
Suppress digestion
Suppress immune system
AP: Adreno-corticotropic hormone(ACTH)
stimulates release of hormones from the adrenal cortex
Pituitary Gland
Produces glands that regulate many of the other endocrine glands. located below Hypothalamus; secretes 9 hormones
down regulation
the number of receptors can rapidly decrease after exposure to certain chemical signals
adenylate cyclase
an integral membrane protein with its active site facing the inside of cell
second messengers
the biochemicals in the cell that induce the changes that are recognized as responses to the hormone
What does testosterone induce?
It induces embryonic sexual differentiation and male sexual development at puberty
What happens to the hormone’s effects with each step?
They are amplified
What is prolactin?
A hormone that stimulates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands
What is metabolism?
Metabolism is a set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials it carries out its life processes.
Type 1 Diabetes
Condition in which less glucose leaves the blood to enter the cells so blood glucose increases dramatically
Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)
stimulates the production of eggs and sperm.



Pancreas:
Type II or Adult-onset diabetes
Deficiency of insulin responsiveness of target cells (loss of sugars in urine!)
Excess body weight and lack of exercise important (typically after age of 40)
Most common, can cause ampuation and blindness!
hypophyseal portal veins
links the hypotalamus and the anterior pit.; allows communication between the two
What are steroids?
They belong to a class of lipid-derived molecules with a characteristic ring structure
What does this do?
It promotes water reabsorption and increases blood volume
What are mineralcorticoids?
They regulate plasma levels of sodium and potassium, and ultimately the total extracellular water volume
In males, where are most androgens produced?
In the testes
Where are they synthesized?
In the cytoplasm of glandular cells
What does calcitonin do?
It decreases plasma Ca2+ concentration by inhibiting the release of Ca2+ from the bone
What is testosterone secretion controlled by?
A negative feedback mechanism involving FSH and LH
What are common symptoms?
Slowed heart rate and respiratory rate, fatigue, cold intolerance, and weight gain
What is it characterized by?
Mental retardation and short stature
How else is it sensed?
When blood volume decreases, baroreceptors sense it in the circulatory system
What stops it from occurring?
A preventative mechanism called negative feedback has evolved
Hypothalamus and the Hormone Cascade Pathway
Hypothalamus recieves stimulus and secretees a releasing hormone that targets anterior pituatary or posterior pituatary
Anterior pituitary/posterior reponds by secreting the appropriate hormone
hormone receptor complex
binds to the nucleus to particular DNA sequences, either activating or inhibiting specific genes
What does growth hormone do?
Growth hormone promotes bone and muscle growth, inhibits the uptake of glucose by certain cells, and stimulates the breakdown of fatty acid, thus conserving glucose
What do exocrine glands do?
They secrete substances that are transported by ducts
How many lobes does it have?
2, the anterior and posterior
How does Cyclic AMP act?
It acts as a second messenger
How do steroids work?
They enter their target cells directly and bind to specific receptor proteins in the cytoplasm
What are progesterone and estrogen essential for?
The maintenance of the endometrium
What is insulin?
It is a protein hormone secreted in response to a high blood glucose concentration
What is luteinizing hormone (LH)?
In females, LH stimulates ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum
What are they elicited by?
The sympathetic nervous stimulation in response to stress
Nerve cells become overactive
What can happen to someone with too little blood calcium
What happens to hormone levels from here?
Progesterone and estrogen levels decline and GnRH is no longer inhibited
What does that do?
It is involved in the regulation of salt and water balance
What do the endocrine glands do?
They synthesize and secrete chemical substances called hormones directly into the circulatory system
What is menopause?
It is the period in a woman’s life, between 45-55, when menstruation first becomes irregular, and eventually stops
What does overproduction of GH in adults cause?
Acromegaly, a disorder characterized by a disproportionate overgrowth of bone, localized especially in the skull, jaw, feet, and hands
What is the endocrine system?
The endocrine system is made up of glands that release their products into the bloodstream.
Near the third ventricle of the brain
Where is the pineal gland located?
What does it do in males?
It stimulates the maturation of the seminiferous tubules and sperm production
What does this prevent?
FSH and LH secretion and the onset of a new menstrual cycle
What re the hormonal secretions of the anterior pituitary regulated by?
The hypothalamic secretions called releasing/inhibiting hormones or factors
What are the two ways in which hormones affect the activities of their target cells?
Via extracellular receptors or intracellular receptors
What are the features of steroid hormones?
Steroid hormones are produces from a lipid called cholesterol. They can cross cell membranes easily, passing directly into the cell cytoplasm and the nuclei of target cells.
What is the pituitary gland?
It is a small tri-lobed gland lying at the base of the brain
How do neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus work?
They synthesize both oxytocin and ADH and transport them via their axons into the posterior pituitary for storage and secretion
What is the pineal gland?
It is a tiny structure at the base of the brain that secretes the hormone melatonin
lact-
milk
pancreat/o
pancreas
OvaryHORMONE
Estrogenprogesteron
trop-
change influence
gluc/o
sugar, glucose
parathyroid/o
parathyroid glands
Progesterone
medroxyprogesterone (Provera)
norethindrone (Norlutin)
Depoprovera IM
krinein
to secrete; endocrine
Goiter
Enlarged thyroid gland
Posterior PituitaryHORMONE
OxytocinAnti-diuretic Hormone
ADH
Posterior Lobe Hypothalmus, Antidiuretic Hormone, Decreases amount of waterlost at kidneys• Elevates blood pressure• Release inhibited by alcohol• Hyposecretion  Diabetesinsipidus
-tropin
stimulate
 
ex. somat/o/tropin - stimulation of the body hormones
This breaks down fats
bile
Osteitis Fibrosa
-complication of hyperparathyroidism-causes bones to soften and deform-can be caused by over production of the parathyroid hormone or from parathyroid cancer
Sex Hormones
adrenal cortex; corticolsteroid; males: androgens; females: estrogens
What is ACTH?
-Adrenocorticotropic hormone-Anterior Pituitary-stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids by adrenal glands
Ketosis
Condition resulting from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, in which the body has an abnormal concentration of ketone bodies resulting from excessive fat metabolism.
Corticotrope
Secrete ACTHUnder control of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
Male secondary sex characteristics would not develop in young males in which __________ cells did not sectrete _________________.
LeydigTestosterone
EPO
erythropoietin
- stimulates red blood cell production in bone marrow
Gigantism
-aka giantism-enlargement of the entire body due to ecess secretion of the growth hormone BEFORE puberty
androgen
stimulates the development and maintenance of the male reproductive system
insulin
secreted from pancreas. released with too much glucose
hypoglycemia
lower than normal blood glucose concentration
target of thyroid hormones
most body cells
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
anterior pituitary gland; regulates endocrine activity of cortex portion of the adrenal gland
Adrenal Hyperfunction: Hypersecretion of the adrenal gland results in:
Hypercorticalism: Cushing’s syndrome, Cushing’s Disease (also known as Hyperadrenocorticism);Hyperaldosteronism;Excessive androgen production
 
 
 
Describe the ACTH and CRH challenge test
 
 
thyroparathyroidectomy
excision of the thyroid and parathyroid glands
Downregulation
Decreasing the number of hormone receptors in response to a high level of hormone
____ increases the rate of mitosis
EPO
10% of diabetics are Type ____
I
a response to retinal ischemia resulting from blood vessel changes and RBC aggregation and is influenced by growth hormone and metabolic control

develops more rapidly in type 2 than in type 1 diabetes and occurs in 3 stages
retinopathy
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
-insulin resistant-polyphagia, polydipsia, fatigue, blurred vision, slow healing, irritability, tingling in hands and feet and recurring infections-diet, exercise and oral medication
Steroid chemical
-acts as hormone-synthesized from cholesterol-gonadal and adrenal hormonesex: cortisol, epinephrin
Corticosteroids
ACTH stimulates cells of the adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete a family of steroids called this.
 
gonadotrophic hormone (208)
 
Hormones that regulate the activity of the ovaries & testes; principally FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone).
The pitituary gland lies in the _________ bone.
Sphenoid
ADRENAL GLAND
Endocrine gland located on the superior portion of the kidney.
Thyroid Hormone
major metabolic hormone; made of thyroxine (T4) and triidothyronine (T3); controls rate of glucose metabolism; targets every cell; important in growth and development (esp reproductive and nervous systems)
Hypercorticalism: Cushing’s syndrome
Caused by administration of Glucocorticoids or ACTH as an anti-inflammatory in treatment of asthma, transplants, autoimmune diseases or allergic responses.
 
 
 
What are the expected longterm management requirements and complications for someone who had T1DM
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Hyperosmolar nonketotic state
Hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia

Co-morbidities
Hypertension
Hyperlipidemia


Long-term complications include
Diabetic retinopathy
Diabetic neuropathy
Diabetic macro- and microvasculopathy
Diabetic nephropathy
 
 
antidiuretic hormone
(ADH)
stimulates the kidney to reabsorb water
Amplitude-modulated signals
signals that impact target tissues mainly by increases or decreases in the conc. of hormones in the body fluid; most endocrine hormones are this
Obesity is ____ in Type II diabetes.
Common
When blood volume drops the kidneys produce ____
renin
Hormones made in the Thyroid Gland
T3
T4
Calcitonin
What causes secondary hyperparathyroidism?
problems that causes hypocalcemia
Lepin
-leaves fat cells-travels to the brain to regulated food intake and energy expenditure
Epinephrine has to cross the cell membrane to bind to its receptor in the cytoplasm. A) True B) False
B
TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone)
Anterior pituitary; Stimulates the thyroid to secrete thyroxine
 
parathyroid gland(212)
 
One of four small endocrine glands embedded in the posterior portion of the thyroid gland.
Nicole was two weeks past her due date. What hormone will the doctor inject into her to induce labor?
oxytocin
Adrenal Gland
(Suprarenal Gland)
-Two glands in one
-Adrenal medulla (middle)
-Adrenal cortex (outside)
Islets of Langerhans Alpha Cells
produce glucagon
raise glucose levels
 
 
 
What is hyperaldostronism?
 
 
 
A condition in which there is hyper secretion of the mineralcorticoid Aldosterone
 
 
Aldosterone is usually made by the adrenal cortex
Retinopathy
Disease of the retina, often caused by diabetes.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Plays a key role in ovulationStimulates secretion of sex hormones (estrogen and testosterone)
Neurosecretory cells regulate pituitary gland secretions via ____.
negative feedback mechanisms and through the actions of inhibiting and relesing hormones.
What does PRL do?
-stimulates development of mamary glands
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes:
recurrent infections
prolonged wound healing
blurred vision
numbness/tingling of the extremities
fatigue
Which hormone stimulates the ovaries to develop a corpus luteum and testes to make testosterone?
luteinizing hormone (LH)
In Type II diabetes blood sugar levels remain high after a meal because A) too much insulin is released. B) the kidneys are not working. C) no insulin in released. D) muscle and liver cells do not receive a signal.
D
calcitonin
lowers calcium levels in the blood as part of calcium homeostasis
Gonadocorticoids- testosterone, progesterone
Gland: Adrenal CortexAction: small effects in adultsDisease: --
Acromegaly: signs and symptoms
Changes in appearance: thick oily skin, increased lip and nose size, protrusion of the lower jaw, increased head size, and increase head, hands and feet.Joint enlargement with pain, kyphosis, and barrel chest.Excessive sweating, hyperglycemia.Airway narrowing, enlarged heart lung and liver.**
 
 
 
Are there syndromes in which the adrenal medulla dosn't make enough catecholamines?
 
 
 
Not really because other organs make plenty
Autocrine signaling
A hormone acts on the cells that produce it
Hormones are classified on the basis of their chemical structure into two major groups:
peptide hormones
steroid hormones
Target Cell
Cells that have a receptor that will be affected by the hormone
hormones, can be stored, including amines, peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins and eicosanoids
water soluble hormones
Growth hormone
A protein of about 200 amino acids that affects a wide variety of target tissues and has both direct effects and tropic effects.
What are 3 Groups ofHormones
• amino acids - Small moleculesstructurallyrelated toIndividualamino acids• peptide & proteinhormones - Chains ofamino acids– Synthesized asprohormones - Carbon ringsand side chains,built from fattyacids orcholesterol• lipid derivatives
What action does the endocrine system perform?
chemical messengers called hormones
 
 
What usually causes Subacute Thyroiditis?
 
 
 
What usually causes Acute Thyroiditis
 
Viral infections or post viral inflamation via cellular mimicry
 
 
Bacterial or fungal infection, radiation therapy or drug therapy (amiodarone)
Inner portion of Adrenal glands
Medulla- activated by stress, prepares for \"fight or flight\" response
What are the serious effects of estrogen
hypertension, thrombophlebitis, MI, embolism, CVA, breast cancer
Renal Compensation
- If ECF is acidic, then secrete more hydrogen ions and reabsorb more HCO3-

- If ECF is alkaline, then reabsorb more hydrogen ions and secrete more HCO3-
Fasting Blood Sugar Test
measures glucose levels in the blood after the patient hasn't eaten for 8 to 10 hrs.used to test for diabetes
What is the function of the Endocrine System
Communicatebetween cells andintegrate cellularactivity to maintainbody homeostasis
 
 
Explain the BUN test
The most common cause of an elevated BUN, azotemia, is poor kidney function, 
A greatly elevated BUN (>60 mg/dL) generally indicates a moderate-to-severe degree of renal failure. Impaired renal excretion of urea may be due to temporary conditions such as dehydration or shock, or may be due to either acute or chronic disease of the kidneys themselves.
An elevated BUN in the setting of a relatively normal creatinine may reflect a physiological response to a relative decrease of blood flow to the kidney (as seen in heart failure or dehydration) without indicating any true injury to the kidney. However, an isolated elevation of BUN may also reflect excessive formation of urea without any compromise to the kidneys.
Increased production of urea is seen in cases of moderate or heavy bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract (e.g. from ulcers). The nitrogenous compounds from the blood are resorbed as they pass through the rest of the GI tract and then broken down to urea by the liver. Enhanced metabolism of proteins will also increase urea production, as may be seen with high protein diets, steroid use, burns, or fevers.
When the ratio of BUN to creatinine (BUN:Cr) is greater than 20, the patient is suspected of having prerenal azotemia. This means that the pathologic process is unlikely to be due to intrinsic kidney damage.
A low BUN usually has little significance, but its causes include liver problems, malnutrition (insufficient dietary protein), or excessive alcohol consumption. Overhydration from intravenous fluids can result in a low BUN. Normal changes in renal bloodflow during pregnancy will also lower BUN.
Urea itself is not toxic. This was demonstrated by Johnson et al. by adding large amounts of urea to the dialysate of hemodialysis patients for several months and finding no ill effects.[1]. However, BUN is a marker for other nitrogenous waste. Thus, when renal failure leads to a buildup of urea and other nitrogenous wastesuremia), an individual may suffer neurological disturbances such as altered cognitive function (encephalopathy), impaired taste (dysgeusia) or loss of appetite (anorexia). The individual may also suffer from nausea and vomiting, or bleeding from dysfunctional platelets. Prolonged periods of severe uremia may result in the skin taking on a grey discolouration or even forming frank urea crystals ("uremic frost") on the skin.
Because multiple variables can interfere with the interpretation of a BUN value, GFR and creatinine clearance are more accurate markers of kidney function. Age, sex, and weight will alter the "normal" range for each individual, including race. In renal failure or chronic kidney disease (CKD), BUN will only be elevated outside "normal" when more than 60% of kidney cells are no longer functioning. Hence, more accurate measures of renal function are generally preferred to assess the clearance for purposes of medication dosing.
in absence of sufficient dietary iodide, T and T cannot be made and levels are lowlow t4 and t3 don't provide negative feedback and TSH levels go upbecause TSH is a trophic hormone, thyroid gland growsresulting in goiter
Describe humoral control of hormone secretion`
What are the two hormones secreted by the hypothalamus to control the anterior pituitary?
Both regulatory hormones:
-releasing hormone (RH)
-inhibiting hormone (IH)
What is the acute but rare condition associated with hyperthryoidism?
thyroid storm (thyrotoxic crisis)
There are also other organs that have some endocrine funciton like _________, ________, __________, and _____________.
Pineal, liver, stomach, small intestine
what can you say about pharmacological dosages? Half-life of a hormone?
high pharmacological doses can cause number of side effects (probably by binding to receptors of other hormones)Half-life is time required for blood level to be reduced by half (ranges from minutes to hours for most...days for thyroid hormones)
Where are the adrenal glands located?
The adrenal glands are located atop the kidneys.
Parathyroid (size of a grain of sand) secretes
parthyroid hormone - keeps calcium level in blood where it needs to be, for heart and brain (not bone)
The thyroid is important in both children and adults? How in each
children - are essential for growth and development

adult - essential for maintenance of metabolic stability
What happens if you withhold water from pts with diabetes insipidus?
they will continue to put out huge amounts of water; the body isn't saving itself/conserving what they need
 
 
How do you test for DKA?
 
 
Plasma glucose level
Plasma electrolytes (anion gap)
Plasma chemistry, BUN and creatinine
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