Endocrine System 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Inhibin decreases?
Circa means
outside of
Oxytocin stimulates?
Uterine contractions
An anti-inflammatory blocks?
small by comparison
Complex reflex
2+ hormones
PTH stands for?
Parathyroid hormone
Renin-angiotensin mechanism _________ BP?
Epinephrine will ______ bronchioles?
ACTH stands for?
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Inhibin is stimulated by?
Is testosteron a hormone?
Functions of Endocrine System
ADRENAL. (estrogen, progesterone). Supplement gonadal hormones. Promote development of secondary sex characteristics. Various sites of action.
during stress the ______________ translates nerve impulses into hormone secretions by endocrine glands creating "mind-body" link
FSH stands for?
Follicle stimulating hormone
T4 contains 4 ________ molecules?
Estrogen lowers?
Blood cholesterol and triglycerides
CRH increases ACTH which increases?
Cortisol ensures that available glucose gets used by the?
Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction and the adrenal cortex to release?
What gland is pea-sized?
Pituitary gland
Pituitary gland is also called?
Pituitary Gland is size of
controlled hormonally by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Does the neurohypophysis produce hormones?
_______________ occurs when a small amount of one hormone allows a second hormone to have its full effect on a target cell
examples of GI hormones
gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin
secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood. Do not have ducts, they are often called “ductless glands
endocrine glands
What hormone helps maintain blood pressure?
By decreasing reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from the bones to the blood, blood levels are?
Insulin decreases blood sugar by increasing permeability of cells to glucose and stimulating _________ in the liver and muscles?
What hormone decreases secretion of GH?
ACTH is released from the?
Anterior pituitary
What hormone is produced when metabolic rate slows?
Anterior pituitary is made of?
Glandular tissue
Stimulated the mammary gland
Anterior Pituitary Gland
Thyroid Gland - Hormones - T4
Hormone(s) of thyroid gland
T3, T4, Calcitonin
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
ANTERIOR PITUITARY.Regulates the hormonal activity of the thyroid gland.
when one hormone produces the opposite effect of another hormone. Used to “fine tune” the activity of target cells
stimulating effect on other endocrine glands, secreted by the basophils of the pars anterior
tropic hormones
group of lipid molecules that serve important and widespread integrative functions in the body but do not meet the usual definition of a hormone
stimulates the formation and activity of the corpus luteum which secretes progesterone and estrogen,
luteinizing hormones
What is secreted from the follicle cells and the placenta during pregnancy?
The pituitary gland hangs by short stalk called the infundibulum from the?
What hormone is active in all ages?
The thyroid gland is located anterior and bilateral to the?
Some hormones have an ____________ that affects tissues in an opposite way?
Antagonistic pair
Cortisol and aldosterone are secreted from the?
Adrenal cortex
Thymus Gland
**part of Endocrine & Lymphatic Systems**
what is a gland
any organ producing secretions
Hormone classification
Steroid/Lipid based and peptide (amino acid) based.
PINEAL GLAND. receives and responds to input from the visual pathway. Is at highest level at night. May effect wake/sleep cycle. Inhibits hypothalamus stimulation of hormones which stimulate the glands. delays sexual maturation.
Beta cells
ENDOCRINE PANCREAS. Act On:All body Cells. Regulates transport of glucose into cells
composed of two large lateral lobes, located in the neck just below the larynx,
thyroid gland
Any cell with one or more receptors for a particular hormone is said to be a ________ of that hormone
GH stimulates cells to produce?
IGFs (Insulin-like Growth Factor)
Estrogen promotes maturation of the?
Ovum and the endometrium
The effect of oxytocin on the uterus is to cause?
Parathyroid Glands - location
attached to thyroid gland
Pineal gland location
suspended from roof of third ventricle
located on the top of the kidneys, composed of two portions
adrenal glands
TSH is also known as?
Thyroid stimulating hormone or Thyroidtropin
What gland is divided into two parts, anterior and posterior?
Pituitary gland
Pancreatic/Islets of Langerhans are made up of 2 types of cells called?
Alpha cells and Beta cells
Pituitary Gland also known as
Master Gland
*controls some other glands
Thymus Gland - Location
under sternum, above heart
large in infancy/childhood, gets smaller with age
almost disappears in puberty
Freely circulating hormones are...
...faster and with short term effects.
Medulla of adrenal glands
inner portion. Activated by stress. "Flight or Fight" response.
3 distince layers of secreting cells
zona glomerulosa (outer), zona fasciculata (middle), zona reticularis (inner)
The posterior pituitary extends from the?
Nerve tissue of the hypothalamus
Release of T3 and T4 is stimulated by TSH from the?
Anterior pituitary
T or F? cAMP causes an activation of other enzymes?
Parathyroid Glands - Parathormone
main hormones secreted
raises blood calcium levels by stimulating bones to release calcium into bloodstream
Thyroid Disorders - Hypothyroidism - CRETINISM
begins in infancy
smaller in size
possible mental retardation
Location of the Pituitary
Inferior surface of brain. Beneath the hypothalamus. Surrounded by the Circle of Willis.
Example of a releasing factor
GHRF. Growth hormone releasing factor. Causes pituitary to release growth hormones. Secreted by the hypothalamus
Cells of endocrine glands respond to?
Chemical changes, other hormone, or nervous system stimulation
GH is regulated by 2 releasing hormones from the hypothalamus called?
GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone) and somatostatin
Parathyroid Glands - Disorders - Hyperfunctioning
too much calcium in blood
Regulation of Endocrine System - Negative Feedback
regulates negative feedback
ex. if a hormone level gets too low, it stimulates a chain reaction to make more
Hormones bound to transport proteins or binding proteins are...
...slower and with longer lasting effects.
Microscopic structure of the thyroid gland
contains cuboidal cells - hormone production. Follicles store hormones.
What 3 organs do not need insulin to absorb glucose?
Brain, liver, and kidneys
What is the Endocrine system
a system of glands, each of which secretes a type of hormone into the bloodstream to regulate the body
Gross Structure of the Thyroid Gland
2 lobes connected by isthmus. May contain a pyramidal lobe (superior extension)
Thyroid Disorders - Hypothyroidism - MYXEDEMA
not enough thyroid hormone, occurs in adults, weight gain, memory loss, confusion
Carbohydrates are?
enlargement of
over, excessive
many, much
Calcitonin decreases?
Blood calcium
Thyroxine is a?
toward the kidney
ADRENAL "glucocorticoid" (hydrocortisone). Regulates metabolism(glucose). Prevent/reduce inflammation. Acts on various tissues. (Side effect:reduce immune response, weight gain)
Epinephrine ________ cell respiration
Corticosteroids are modeled after?
Epinephrine wil ________ peristalsis?
Peptides include?
ADH and oxytocin
Insulin control what
Blood glucose
Anterior pituitary. Glandular portion. Produces and secretes 6 major hormones.
examples of peptide hormones
oxytocin, antidiuretic
Thyroid follicles produces?
T3 and T4
Steroid hormones combine with receptors in the?
Epinephrine ________ glucogenesis from lipids?
Gland triggers
humoral (blood)‏ hormonal (hormone)‏ neural (neurotransmitter)‏
POSTERIOR PITUITARY STORES AND SECRETES. Stimulate uterine contractions (delivery). Promotes milk ejection from breasts. (we can induce labor with drug that is similar)
only mineralocorticoid in the body that functions in the maint of K in the blood, increases water retention and promotes loss of Na
The chief glucocorticoids secreted by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex is
examples of glycoproteins
FSH(follicle stimulating hormone), TSH(thyroid stimulating hormone), LH(luteinizing hormones)
The hormone that directly increases the reabsorption of water by the kidneys is?
The pancreas is both?
Endocrine and exocrine
What causes vasoconstriction in the skin, viscera, and skeletal muscle?
Steroid hormones activates specific genes to initiate________ and then?
Transcription, translation
ADH is what type of hormone?
GH stimulates mitosis for?
Growth and repair
Estrogen and progesterone are secreted from the?
What is an enlarged thyroid called?
Epinephrine is secreted in ______ amounts?
What secretes TSH ACTH
Posterior pituitary gland
Biorhythm is located in the
Pineal gland
hormone-like lipids, not produced by endocrine glands; act locally instead of being transported
Growth Horomone (GH)
ANTERIOR PITUITARY.Increases protein synthesis and mitosis. Regulates growth of most cells in the body.
type of hormone synthesized from cholesterol and are lipid soluble
steroid hormones
endocine and nervous system working together referred to as
neuroendocrine system
type of hormone that target reproductive tissues
sex hormones
hormones produced by pancreatic islets
glucagon, insulin, somatostatin
a gland in the mediastinum, just beneath the sternu, large in children atrophies as an adult
What are variations of the AA tryosine?
What stimulates the liver to begin glycogenolysis and use lipids and AAs for energy by glucogenesis?
Sex hormones are produced in _____ amounts?
Thirst and dizziness result and are called a?
Associated with sugar, sex and salt
Adrenal cortex
Pituitary Gland is located
at base of brain
Endocrine Gland - Ductless
Endocrine Glands are ductless
Thyroid Hormones - T3
Triodothyronine - increases metabolism
Stimulated by TSH
Iodine needed ti make T3 & T4
helps change glycogen to glucose
Thyroxine (T4)
THYROID.Found in most cells. Regulates basal metabolic rate (BMR).Like T3
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
POSTERIOR PITUITARY STORES AND SECRETES. Affects permeability of the kidney tubules to reduce excretion of water. (#vasopressin, controls blood pressure, constrict blood vessels)
Structure of pancreas
exocrine (duct travel) and endocrine(blood stream travel) portions.
Releasing factors
Secreted by the hypothalamus. Stimulate glands to secrete their specific hormones.
stimulates primary graafian follicles to grow, also stimulates follicle cells to secrete estrogen
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
examples of nonsteroidal hormone proteins
insulin, parathyroid, glucogen, calcitonin, ACTH, FSH, TSH
GH is also known as?
Growth hormone or somatotropin
The 2 lobes of the thyroid are connected via the?
The two messenger mechanism is only with?
Protein hormones
H+ are exchanged for Na+ and raises?
Blood pH
What causes a response specific to the cell based on enzymes within the cell?
In the anterior pituitary, releasing hormones are secreted through the?
Hypophyseal portal system
Structural units of the thyroid are called?
Thyroid follicles
What hormone increases secretion of FSH?
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
What are the three major steroids
Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens
Gonads - Female - Ovaries
Hormones are:
Estrogen- primary female hormone
Progesterone- steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy
Describe the blood supply of endocrine glands
well vascularized
type of hormone produced in a tissue and diffuses only a short distance to other cells within the same tissue
tissue hormone
The functions of progesterone incude?
Promotes glycogenesis, maturation of the endometrium and development of the secretory cells of the mammary glands.
TSH stimulates release of T4 and T3 from the?
Thyroid gland
What two hormones are secreted by the posterior pituitary?
ADH, oxytocin
Somatostatin is also known as?
GHIH (Growth Hormone Inhibiting Hormone)
Parathyroid Glands - function
regulates calcium & phosphorus levels
Pituitary - Posterior - Oxytocin
for uterine contractions during childbirth
Location of adrenal glands
"suprarenal" Paired glands located on superior pole of kidneys
GH affects metabolism in these ways:
Promotes protein anabolism (growth, tissue repair)
Promotes lipid mobilization and catabolism
Indirectly inhibits glucose metabolism
Indirectly increases blood glucose levels
Endocrine glands secrete directly into the?
Blood stream or interstitial space
What does insulin do to the blood sugar?
Decreases blood sugar
Prostiglandins are local meaning?
They do no circulate in the blood
Thyroid Disorders - Hyperthyroidism - Graves Disease
too much thyroid hormones
s/s (signs/symptoms)-
weight loss, feeling hot, elevated heart rate, increased blood pressure, goiter, exopthalmos (bulging eyeballs)
What are the 2 lobes of the pituitary?
adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis
What glands are included in the endocrine system?
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, gonads(ovaries and testes). Pineal gland, thymus, secretory cells of the GI tract
Progesterone is secreted from the?
Corpus luteum and the placenta during pregnancy
Pituitary - Anterior - (ACTH) Adrenocrticotropic Horomone
growth & secretion of Adrenal CORTEX
What are the 3 Hormones produced by the thyroid gland?
thyroxine(T4), Triiodothyromine (T3), and calcitonin
Adrenal Medulla - Epinephrine & Norephinephrine
released when a host of physiological changes are activated by a stressful event
increased blood sugar, heart rate, BP, blood flow
Pituitary - Anterior - (GH) Growth Hormone
for growth & develpoment
* helps maintain blood sugar levels
What is the "master gland" and why
pituitary gland. It regulates many body activities through its action on other endocrine glands
excessive thirst
diabetes mellitus
diabetes insipidus
Adrenalcorticotropic hormone-stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol-anterior pituitary lobe hormone
Gland: post. pituitary-hypothalamusAction: targets kidneys to retain waterDiesase: hypo-diabetes insipidus
parathyroid glands
ex. parathyroid/ectormy - excision of the parathyroid glands
Adrenal medulla
Secretes catecholamines
testosterone-maturation of reproductive organs-appearance of secondary sex characteristics and drive-normal sperm production
PRE-OP: -antithyroid meds= Prophlthiodracil & Lugol's Solution, -Radioactive Iodine -Stable cardiac status, -Weight, POST OP: -VS, sighs of hemorrhage, -Semi-Fowler's, support head, -Trach, set oxygen, suction ready 48 hours, -check for extreme hoarseness, -CTDB, - Monitor for decrease Calcium -Trousseau's Sign (BP), Chovskek's Sign (face), Have Calcium Gluconate ready
circulatory complications, ranging from atherosclerosis, heart attack, and stroke and diabetic gangrene, kidney disease, diabetic neuropathy
T3, T4
Thyroid HormonesTarget-Throyid follicleMetabolism
Lipid derivatives
Cholesterol-based, steroids (testosterone, estrogen, etc.)
signals osteoclasts in bones
a hormone that triggers molting.
Prolactin (peptide). Levels rise during pregnancy, and after birth it stimulates mammary glands to synthesize milk. In males it makes testes more sensitive to LH; indirectly enhancing release of testosterone.
[increases testosterone secretion in men][casues the feeling of satisfaction following sex]
found: pituitary gland, anterior lobe
means extremity or extreme point
excessive potassium in the blood
Thyroid-stimulating hormone(TSH) orthyrotropin
Anterior Pituitary HormoneTarget-thyroid glandMetabolic rate stimulated
epinephrine and norepinephrine are released during sympathetic nervous stimulation making them ____
Adrenal cortex:
Hormones: Glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids
PA: promotes protein breakdown and conversion to glucose; promotes Na reabsorption, balance
Most hormones have common characteristics including:
parathyroid hormone
secreted by the parathyroid
targets the bone
raises blood calcium
too little thyroxine circulating in bloodstream
•slow metabolism, sluggish, overweight
endocrine gland (205)
structure that secretes substances directly into the bloodstream or body fluids; the substances may have effects on cells that have proper receptors.
Hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex are known as
In children, thyroid hormones help promote _______ and stimulate maturation of CNS.
What is Dwarfism?
-Hyposecretion of HGH-Pituitary dissorder-Slows body growth
woman in 20's with short stature and shorter 4th and 5th digits, round face, and hx of seizures
low Ca and High Phosphorous
high PTH
whats your diagnosis?
adjective describing a gland that delivers its secretions through a duct onto the skin or other epithelial surface
Exocrine and Endocrine glandthe Islets of Langerhans contain the endocrine partinsulin secreted by β-cellsglucagon secreted by α-cellssomatastatin secreted by δ-cells
Cortisol is an antagonist of ____
This stimulates protein and fat degradation, the conversion of glycogen to glucose and gluconeogenesis.
secreted by the endocrine glands, endocrine cells, and some neurons: travel via blood stream to distant cells
any pathology resuilting from excess secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
Before ovulation, small amounts of estrogen are released by... A) the ovaries. B) the corpus luteum. C) the anterior pituitary. D) the hypothalamus. E) the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus.
part of the forebrain that monitors the external environment and internal conditions of the body
Inhibiting hormone
from the hypothalamus make the anterior pituitary stop secreting hormone.
estrogen (219)
Female sex hormone that, along with progesterone, promotes the development & maturation of the 10 & 20 female sex characteristics.
Which of the following is not stimulated by the anterior pituitary gland?
Synthetic steroid that mimics the effect of testosterone.
All the endocrine structures develop from __________ tissue
a. epithelial
b. neural
c. muscle
d. connective 
e. none of the above
a. epithelial
What is progesterone?
-Maintains pregnacy and menstrual cycle-Ovaries and adrenal glands
What are the Neurologic symptoms of HyperCalcemia?
Lethergy, Confusion, Coma,
gonadotropic hormones
affects the male and female reproductive system
Pituitary Gland
Connected to HypothalumusMade up of Anterior and Posterior glands
These glands synthesize and secrete PTH
parathyroid glands
Fructosamine Test
measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks
Purpose of Endocrine System
Homeostasis, Growth control, metabolic control, developmental control
The adrenal cortex produces what 3 classes of hormones (example)?
mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
glucocorticoids (cortisol)
effects of glucocorticoids
stimulate protein and lipid breakdown, stimulates gluconeogenesis, imparts resistance to stress, anti-inflammatory properties, depression of immune response
Human Placental Lactogen
placenta; works with estrogen and progesterone to prepare breasts for lactation
Venous portal system
artery caries blood to a capilary.
vessel carries blood from 1st capilary to a 2nd
vein carries blood away from 2nd into venous return
Ultrasonography (US)
visualizes the pancreas and also may be used to guide biopsies of the thyroid gland
Describe the presentation of 21-hydroxylase deficiency
Describe the presentation of 11-hydroxylase deficiency
episodic acute adrenal insufficiency
Cells of the Parathyroid
Principal Cells: produce PTHOxyphil Cells: large and eosinophilic
Target cells: must important part of hormone function. Hormones do not deliver message, the cell receptor type determines the action.Control of secretion…Humoral:changes in blood chemistry leading to hormone secretions calledhumoral controlNeural:ANSHor
Feedback loops
This stimulates the stomach to release the hormone gastrin.
ingested food
What is "down-regulation"?
Down-regulation is caused by prolonged exposure to high hormone levels, and involves desensitisation/loss of receptors and reduced response to hormonal stimulation.
Name 2 examples of lipid soluble hormones.
thyroid hormone
Parathyroid Glands
-located on the surface of the posterior portion of the thyroid gland-4 glands about the size of a grain of rice-secretes parathyroid hormone
When alpha subunit binds to a calcium ion channelA) the calcium channel opens and calcium ions leave the cell. B) the calcium channel opens and calcium ions enter the cell. C) the calcium channel closes. D) the calcium ions bind to calmodulin. E) the cal
what does parathyroid hormone do?
secreted from the parathyroid gland
increases calcium in the blood by stimulating calcium reabsorption in the kidney and calcium release from the bones
The innermost zone secretes what
small amounts of sex hormones
The anterior pituitary gland produces seven hormones...what are the letter abbreviations, and the names??
GH- Growth HormoneACTH- Adrenocoricotropic hormoneTSH- Thyroid-stimulating hormoneLH-Luteinizing hormoneFSH- Follicle-stimulating hormonePRL-ProlactinMSH- Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Other Adrenal testing
CT, MRI, skull X-ray, or angiography to detect tumors or atrophy.;Urinary testing for glucocorticoid metabolite 17-hydroxycortico-steroid
What is a Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma?
Neoplasms derived from the neuroendocrine parafollicular cells (C cells) in the stroma of the thyroid from medullary carcinomas.
Secrete calcitonin
Can also secrete carcinoembryonic antigen, somatostatin, serotonin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
Some tumors occur in the setting of the MEM type 2 syndromes
Mutations in the RET protooncogene
Target Cell
Message is read by _______ which has receptors to
bind and translate the hormonal message
What are the uses for progesterone
threatened abortions/preterm labor, amenorrhea, conraception, maintenance of pregnancy
Peptide Derivatives
- chains of amino acids
- LH, FSH, ACTH, PRL, GH, TSH, MSH,ADH, Oxytocin
- Indirect acting
Which hormone targets all tissues and organs and cause them to grow? It stimulates cell-turnover rate and is especially important in childhood and adolescence.
growth hormone (GH)
plasma mebrane-cytoplasm-nucleus; plasma membrane
What are the two methods or directions a hormone can trigger activites in target cells?
What causes the release of hormones?
-Visceral Efferent (GVE) pathways [neural]
-Hormones triggering other hormones [hormonal]
-Blood levels of an agent [humeral]
Addisonian Crisis: Life threatening event--What can cause it?
Usually when someone with adrenal insufficiency experiences a stressor such as surgery, severe infection, or trauma
fasting blood sugar 
a blood test to determine the amount of glucose in the blood after fasting for 8-10 hours
Nervous Stimuli - trigger of hormone release
released on the endocrine cell (ex: nerves innervate
some glands stimulation of sympathetic ns causes nor and epinephrine release
from the adrenal medulla)
What are the uses for Glucocorticoids
Replacment therapy for addison's disease, Anti-inflammatory- RA, Lupus, M.S
head trama or surgery, shock/trama, respiratory disorder
Direct Acting Hormones:
Steroid Hormone
1. Diffuse through membrane
2. bind to hormone receptor
3. bind hormone to DNA
4. Activate Gene
5. Transcription and production of mRNA
6. Translation and protien synthesis
7. Target Cell response
Steroid hormones and direct gene activation
-steroid diffuses through cell membrane-steroid binds to receptor-chaperone complex-receptor-hormone complex binds to a specific DNA associated receptor, turning the gene on or deactivating the gene-protein code is synthezied
The only hormone to target all cells to some degree is
a. insulin
b. luteinizing hormone (LH)
c. growth hormone (GH)
d. thyroid hormone
e. none of the above
c. growth hormone (GH)
How do  you test for GDM?
And How do you Treat?
Risk assessment
A screening test with a 50 gram oral glucose challenge with plasma glucose determinations
Oral glucose tolerance test
Insulin therapy (controversial)
Exercise (moderate only)
Monitor their Ketones and their blood glucose
these are the direct hormones of the anterior pituitary
growth hormone (GH, somatotropin)

What are the functions of PTH?
Increase Ca2+ concentration in body fluids (antagonist to calcitonin) by:
-stimulating osteoclasts
-inhibiting osteoblasts
-enhancing the reabsorption of Ca2+ at the kidneys
Structural formulas of hormones
Cortisol - Steroid 4 complex rings of carbon / hydrogen (4 rings are cholesterol rings)
Prolactin (PRL), also called lactogenic hormone
secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland PRL stimulates the growth and development of the mammary glands. It also causes each mammary gland in the breasts to produce milk after childbirth
Secretin is released by the small intestine when
acidic food enters from the stomach
What is a "tropic" hormone?
A Tropic hormone is a hormone which regulates the function of another endocrine organ.
Which of the following does not apply to C cells?
a. they lie among the cuboidal follicle cells in the thyroid gland
b. their secretions assist the function of parathyroid hormone
c. these cells do not stain as clearly as do the follicular cells
d. th
b. their secretions assist the function of parathyroid hormone
What are the nursing implications for sulfonylureas
Caution with NSID's, ASA and beta blockers- can lead to hypoglycemia, cross sensitivity w/sulfa allergies
How would you manage someone with Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Follow-up levels of TSH
Prevention and Health Promotion:
Compliance issues
Pregnancy issues
Dosage adjustment in the elderly
Myxedema coma
Myxedema heart
Cardiac disease of hypothyroidism
Anemia of hypothyroidism
Where in the body is the thymus gland and what hormone(s) does it secrete?
In the midchest area. It secretes lymphocytes.
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