Endocrine System 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
to secrete
lack of iodine
Produces sperm (male)
to pass urine
Defintion: Exocrine glands
Ducted glands
Pineal Gland
Melatonin: biological clock
Secretions highest at night
________________ produces thryoxine, which regulates metabolism throughout the body.
They are lipid soluble
__________ releases thymosin, which stimulates T cell development and proper immune response.
Stimulates breast development during pregnancy and milk secretion after pregnancy
Produce hormones, regulate pituitary system
*hypothalamic-pituitary portal circulationn
*Nerve connections
Adrenal Glands
Release Epinepherine and norepinephrine which helps body respond to stress. located atop the kidneys
"anterior pituitary" comprises the anterior lobe of the pit. gland; genuinely glandular
secretory products of endocrine glands. A chemical signal or ligand
Classes of Hormones
Water-soluble hormones: cannot penetrate lipid bi-layer
Lipid-soluble hormones: carried in blood by spcific proteins
Intracellular receptors for both classes
__________ release epinephrine and norepinephrine, which help the body respond to stress.
Adrenal glands
Corpus luteum
Ths secretes progesterone and estrogen
stimulates the contractions of uterus during childbirth; releases milk in nursing mothers.
Pituitary gland
produce hormones, regulare peripheral glands
AP: Melanocyte-stimulation Hormone(MSH)
increases skin pgment melanin
derived from the amino acid, tyrosine
physical stress
threatens tissue; includes extreme heat or cold, decreased oxygen concentration, infections, injuries, prolonged heavy exercise & loud sounds. often accompanied by unpleasant or painful sensations
What is hypothyroidism in newborn infants called?
Target Cells
Specific receptor for a particular hormone
For instance: endocrine cell secretes hormone, cell has a receptor for homrone ---> cell reacts in a certain way and the response happens
What are prostaglandins?
Prostaglandins are modified fatty acids that are produced by a wide range of cells. They generally affect only nearby cells and tissues and are known as local hormones.
Follice-stimulating hormone
Stimulates maturation of the ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogens
Thyroid Gland
regulates the body's metabolism and produces thyroxine.
Growth Hormone (GH)
stimulates protein synthesis and growth in cells.
AP: Growth hormone(GH)
stimulates protein synthesis and growth in cells
tropic hormone
stimulates other endocrine glands to release hormones
type of endocrine secretion in which the hormone affects nearby cells
What are they?
Peptide hormones, steroid hormones, and amino acid-derived hormones
What does inflammation of the thyroid or iodine deficiency cause?
Definition: Endocrine glands
Ductless glands which means they secrete directly into the bloodstream
Addison's Disease
The result of hyposecretion or adrenal cortex hormones
What is located in the mediastinum?
The thymus gland
Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone (MSH)
stimulates the melanocytes of the skin, incresing their production of the skin pigment melanin.
Malfunctions of the Endocrine System
Pituitary gland
Growth Hormone (too much=giantism!)
Growth Hormone (too little=dwarfism)
The Dutch are the tallest people!
anterior Pituitary: Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH)
stimulates production of mature eggs and sperm
frequency modulated signal
produced by neurons which determines the strength of frequency signal
target cell
cell with specific receptors on which a hormone exerts its effect
What does the adrenal medulla produce?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
What are those?
They are the physiological cycles lasting 24 hours
Cell-Surface Hormones and Steroid Hormones (Lipid Soluble Hormone)
Cell-surface hormones trigger signal transduction (which means one hormonone triggers production of another hormone
Steroid hormone receptors directly regulate gene expression (the hormone/hormone receptor complex interacts with transcription)
(1)Glucagon (2)Insulin
Alpha cells release (1) while beta cells release (2)
Adrenal Cortex
the outer part of the adrenal gland. Secretes corticosteroids, adolsterone and cortisol.
Glucagon and Insulin
Work together to reglate glucose in the body.
Hormones-chemical messangers
-Produced by glands in the body and secreted into the bloodstream. They communicate regulatory messages and are effective at very low concentrations
What does this result in?
An increased basal metabolic rate
What does aldosterone stimulate?
It stimulates the secretion of potassium ion and hydrogen ion into the nephron and their subsequent excretion in urine
What does glucagons do?
It stimulates protein and fat degradation, the conversion of glycogen to glucose, and gluconeogenesis
What are glucagon’s actions in relations to those of insulin?
They are largely antagonistic
What is an example?
GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH
What does thymosin do?
It stimulates T lymphocyte development and differentiation
Communication Systems of Endocrine System
Nerve impulses: fast traveling, short lasting
Hormones: slow traveling because they travel through blood, longer lasting though
Where is the adrenal glands located?
On top of the kidneys
What is ACTH regulated by?
The release of the hormone corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF)
Where are they produced?
By the testes, ovaries, placenta, and adrenal cortex
What do they do?
They stimulate the rate of cellular respiration and the rate of protein and fatty acid synthesis and degradation in many tissues
What are symptoms of it?
Increased metabolic rate, feelings of excessive warmth, profuse sweating, palpitations, weight loss, and protruding eyes
What does the posterior pituitary do?
It does not synthesize hormones
What do the interstitial cells produce?
They produce and secrete androgens
What does overproduction of insulin cause?
Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels)
Pituatary Gland's Lobes and Stuff
Has two lobes: anterior and posterior pituatary
Neurons that produce hormones released from posterior pituitary
Provides nutrients for microorganisms and increased susceptibility to infection
What happens when there's more glucose in the interstitial fluid?
What is the luteal phase?
LH induces the ruptured follicle to develop into the corpus luteum, which secretes estrogen and progesterone
What is TSH regulated by?
It is regulated by releasing the hormone thyroid regulating hormone (TRH)
What are hypothalamic releasing hormones?
They are hormones that stimulate or inhibit the secretions of the anterior pituitary
What does it do?
It stimulates the uptake of glucose by muscle and adipose cells and the storage of glucose as glycogen in muscle and liver cells, thus lowering blood glucose levels
What happens during the second trimester?
HCG levels decline, but progesterone and estrogen levels rise
Net water loss from body. Thirst (Polydipsia)
What happens when water follows glucose into urine by osmosis?
What does oversecretion of hormones do?
It is potentially harmful to an organism
What is an example of this?
When plasma levels of adrenal cortical hormones reach a critical level, the hormones themselves exert an inhibitory effect on the pituitary and on the hypothalamus
What are the adrenal glands?
They are situated on top of the kidneys and consist of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla
What is menstruation?
It is what occurs if the ovum is not fertilized
What do epinephrine and norepinephrine do to the heart?
They both increase the rate and strength of the heartbeat
What is the thyroid gland?
It is a bi-lobed structure located on the ventral surface of the trachea
What can the menstrual cycle be divided into?
The follicular phase, ovulation, the luteal phase, and menstruation
What is the hypothalamus?
It is part of the forebrain and is located directly above the pituitary gland
Sphenoid bone section called sella turcica
The pituitary gland lies deep in the cranial cavity in a small depresion of the....
What happens to the thymus by adulthood?
It atrophies, after the immune system has fully developed
What happens to the thyroid in both disorders?
It often enlarges, forming a bulge in the neck called a goiter
male, maleness
(K) (kal/i)
extremites, height
Thyroid hormones
Reproductive hormones
assemble gather together
Synthesized from cholesterol.
Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Anterior PituitaryLocation
Under Hypothalamus
promotes female secondary characteristics and thickens endometrial lining
insulin-like growth factors, synthesized & released by liver
Secrete prolactintargets mammaryUnder control of PRH
cAMP is inactivated by
-growth hormone-aka somatotropic hormone-stimulates the growth of bones and muscles-anterior pituitary gland hormone
parathyroid hormone
RAISES blood Ca+ levels
adult hypo in thyroid calcitonin
Parathyroid hormone helps homeostasis of what element?
What is estrogen?
-ovaries-females-responsible for growth and development of reproductive organs-Males-unknown
resembling a normal functioning thyroid
Luteninizing Hormone (LH)
Anterior Pituitary HormoneTarget-gonadssecretion of estrogen and progesterone, ovulation, interstital cells in testes to devlop and make testosterone
Hypothyroidism in adults causes _________________.
Stimulates Ca2+ absorption in digestive tract
(works with parathyroid hormone)
excessive mammary development in men
antidiuretic hormone
aka vasopressin, this hormone regulates water intake by nephrons
hormone that influences mineral salt metabolism; secreted by adrenal cortex; aldsterone is the chief mineralocorticoid
secretes thyroid stimulating hormone
anterior pituitary gland
Hormone secreted by the pancreatic islets that causes the release of glucose from glycogen.
hyper secretion of adrenal cortex; excessive water and sodium retention; elevated blood pressure and edema; potassium loss that affects muscle and heart funtion
influence how blood circulates and determines mental vigor and sex drive
A solitary nodule of the thyroid is termed a
Toxic adenoma
Hormone secreted by the pineal gland
this increases the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver and muscle tissue
How is hypothyroidism treated?
lifelong thyroid replacement
any hormone that stimulates the gonads
The enzyme α-kinase adds ________ to proteins. A) acetates B) benzoats C) carbonates D) phosphates E) hydroxyls
Anterior Pituitary
Stimulated by releasing hormones from the hypothalamus
releases tropic hormones
leptin (221)
Hormone produced by adipose tissue that acts on the hypothalamus to signal satiety. 
Deficiency or hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones results in a condition called
Addison's Disease
Parathyroid glands produce what hormone?
PTH- Parathyroid hormone
What are androgens?
-CHR (Sex Hormones)-Ovaries, Testes, Pineal Gland, and Adrenal Gland-Help establish sex traits and working of sex hormones
Chronic Complications of Hyperglycemia can be extrememly debilitating.... What are they?
Important chronic complications are:

Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic gastroparesis, constipation and diarrhea

Diabetic genitourinary dysfunction

Diabetic cardiovascular disease

Lower extremity complications (Foot)

Diabetic infections
thyroid gland
largest endocrine gland: in neck, secretes t3 and t4, body cell metabolism
a ductless gland whose secretions diffuse into the blood for distribution
endocrine gland
Obesity is ____ in Type I diabetes.
receptor number increases due to low concentration of a specific hormone
Steroid hormones:
synthesized by cholestrol, can readily diffuse through cell membrane and bind to internal receptor
Antithyroid Drug
administered to slow the thyroid glands ability to produce hormones
A positive feedback loop causes a self-amplifying cycle where a physiological change leads to even greater change in the same direction. A) True B) False
neurosecretory cells
ADH and oxytocin are produced by what?
pineal gland (219)

Small endocrine gland, located in the 3rd ventricle of the brain, that secretes melatonin and is involved in biorhythms.
Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) does
fluid and electrolyte balance
Hypercortisolism presents with the followins symptoms:
(regardless of etiology)
Muscle weakness, fatigability, and osteoporosis
Cutaneous striae and easy bruisability
Increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and insulin resistance\overt T2DM in <20% of patients
Visceral obesity, interscapular fat, and moon facies
Emotional changes, depression, confusion and psychosis
Insulin shock
Condition caused by too much insulin, where blood sugar is too low.
Adrenocroticotropic (ACTH)
Stimulates the hormones of the adrenal cortex
Calcitonin secretion is regulated by _____
plasma Ca2+ levels
What does FSH do?
-stimulates follicle development and estrogen secretion in females
What is the most common hyperthyroid condition?
Graves disease
organs that are affected by a particular hormone are _____
target organs
Once inside of the cell, these lipid soluble hormones... A) bind with a DNA molecule. B) bind with a specific receptor molecule inside the nucleus. C) bind with a mRNA molecule. D) bind with a specific receptor molecule inside the cytoplasm. E) bind with
any of a group of steroid hormones, secreted by the adrenal cortex
amount of hormone the thyroid gland stores
100 day supply
Islets of Langerhans
masses of tissue in pancreas that produce hormones (insulin and glucagon)
Addisonian Crisis: Life threatening event--what can it lead to?
to severe hypotension, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia: weakness, confusion, cardiac arrhythmias,shock, coma
What might help you identify Pheochromocytoma on radiograph?
Focal areas of low attenuation within the mass on the CT images.
Represent cystic areas containing fluid.
What hormones are part of the posterior pituitary
Oxytocin and Antidiuretic
common symptoms of hyperthyroidism
increased metabolic rate, feelings of excessive warmth, profuse sweating, palpitations, weight loss, protruding eyes
Anterior Pituitary:
Portal System
- fenestrated capillaries
- pick up RH in hypothalamus
- send to target cells of Ant. Pit.
Where are the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stored and secreted by?
posterior pituitary gland
What is Autocrine Intercellular Communication
– Local effect onsame cell type
What does the endocrine system do?
regulates body activity through hormones
Radioactive Iodine Uptake (RAIU)
A nuclear medicine scan that measures thyroid function. Radioactive iodine is given to the patient orally, after which its uptake into the thyroid gland is measured.
the posterior part, continuous with the brain, part of the nervous system. (2 answers)
Antidieuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin:Oxytocin:
What are the Side effects of Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors
diarrhea, flatulence*** big time
What are the two typ regulatory hormones secreted by the hypothalamus?
Releasing hormone (RH)
Inhibiting hormone (IH)
2. Circulation through the blood.
3. Binding to specific cellular receptors either in the cell membrane or within the cell.
The hypophyseal portal system allows
a. the blood-brain barrier to include the pituitary gland
b. wastes from the brain to stimulate the pituitary
c. regulating hormones to go directly from teh hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
d. blood from the
c. regulating hormones to go directly from teh hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
What causes a goiter?
Too much TSH or Too Sensitive to TSH
often that is due to no feedback from TH
so anything that decreases TH an lead to a goiter
What is an antagonist receptor ligand?
Antagonist binds to a receptor producing no response competes with normal messanger.
How does intracellular receptor bonding affect cytoplasm or nucleus?
-alter rate of DNA transcription in nucleus (change patterns of protein synthesis)
-directly affect metabolic activity and structure of target cell
What is the cause of thyroid storm?
stressors (infection, trauma, surgery) in a patient with existing hyperthyroidism
Diabetes Insipidus: Assessment
24 hour I & O: Urine output must exceed 4 L to diagnosis diabetes insipidus.; 24 hr. urine output will usually be between 4 and 30 L/day.;"water deprivation" or dehydration test: measure urine output, specific gravity, osmolarity and weight hourly.;CT or MRI scans
Why do hormones bind to receptors?
Hormones bind to receptors to initiate change in target cell function. Receptors are specific for a hormone, or class of hormones. A target cell will have more than one type of receptor.
What are the main effects of lack/excess glucocorticoids?
Lack of glucocorticoids leads to Addison's disease (low sodium, low glucose, severe dehydration &amp; hypotension)
Excess cortisol is anti-inflammatory and anti-immune.
The four biological traits (natures) of hormones are?
hormones act in trace amounts. mg & ug/ml
hormones are not a source of energy. That is, hormones are not metabolized to produce ATP.
Hormones do not initiate new reactions.
Hormones regulate existing chemical reactions.
What is the action of Thiazolidinediones (TZD's)
1st choice for new dx w/obesity and insulin, makes cells more sensitive to insulin
What are the treatment approaches for
Hypoglycemia in the newborn?
Acute hypoglycemia requires normalization of blood glucose levels, can be intravenous when necessary
Persistent hyperinsulinemia
Pharmacological approach
Oral diazoxide
Somatostatin analogues
Calcium channel blockers

Surgical approach
Can require subtotal pancreatectomy
How does DKA present?
Nausea and vomiting can be prominent features
Severe abdominal pain
Hypreglycemia and glucosuria
Kussmaul respiration (deep labored breathing)
Ketone breath
Lethargy and CNS depression evolving into coma
They can get cerebral edema
major glucocorticoid
thyroid-stimulating hormone
surgical fixation
Posterior PituitaryABBREVIATION
Corticotropic cells:Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH):adrenal cortex to produce cortisolMelanocyte-stimulating hormone (HSH):induces melanocytes to produce more melanin (1 answer)
Gonadotropic cells:
human chorionic gonadotropin
Thyroid and parathyroid histology
anterior pituitary gland appears
steroid hormones
pass into cell
Estrogen (Progesterone)
Ovarian hormoneTarget-ovariesregulate reproductive cycle, maintain pregnancy, secondary sex characteristics
pertaining to the body
Stimulates T lymphocyte development (source Thymus)
Glucagon Hormone
found: Pancreas, Alpha Cells
lowers normal blood glucose level
disease of the adrenal gland
Actions of TSH
targets thyroid gland&#13;&#10;stimulates thyroid hormone release
Parathyroid hormone is antagonistic to
secretes insulin—hormone that helps cells absorb blood sugar
insulin- lowers high glucose levelsglucogon- increases low glucose levels.
secreted by the ovary
targets the uterus
maintains the lining of the endometrium
regularly release of too much thyroxine (iodine)
•people are irritable and nervous
cortisol (214)
Glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex; helps to raise blood glucose levels by breaking down muscle proteins into amino acids & promoting the breakdown of fatty acids. 
hypo in childhood (in thyroid, calcitonin)
Norepinepherine and Epinepherine are secreted by
Adrenal Medulla
Which hormone decreases the concetnration of calcium ions in body fluids?
a. parathyroid hormone
b. calcitonin
c. thymosin
d. thryoxin
e. triiodothyronine
b. calcitonin
Thyroid hormone
activating enzyme
T4 --> T3
Deiodinase Type 1,2,3
type 1 is the more active one in the perifery
type 2 is found in the pituitary ... feedback regulation
type 3 is more of an inhibitory (inactivates t3,t4)
Different enzymes leads to the possibility of un sinced sensitivities
Too little sugar in the blood.
decreased insulin
decreased cellular uptake of glucose
______ secretion is regulated by plasma Ca2+ levels.
What are the tyrosine derivatives?
-Thyroid hormones
-dopamine (aka catecholamines)
chemicals that control how other organs function
The endocrine glands include: (9 glands)
The _____ pituitary produces luteinizing hormone, which acts on the _____ or the _____, and does what for each sex?
ovaries or testes;
male - testosterone synthesis, sperm production support
female - ovulation and progesterone production in ovaries
small inner region of adrenal glands
adrenal medulla
Act on immune system - block inflammation
Impede the function of white blood cells
Should not be used for long periods of time
Used to treat
          Rheumatoid arthritis
          Inflammatory bowel disease 
abnormal condition of any gland, which is referred to as adenopathy
What are the etiologies of HypoCalcemia?
Parathyroid agenisis
Defective PTH receptors
Low Magnesium [diarrhea, alcoholic,diabetic (magnesium importatn for pth action and secretion)
resistance to 1 alpha hydroxylase (so no active vit D)
Vitamine D defficiency
Renal failure (no proper conversion of vit D to active form)
Hormone secreted by the thyroid to prevent too much calcium from absorbing into the bones
Growth Hormone
stimulates release of IGF-1 from liverIGF-1 stimulates growth of bones and tissue
This disease is characterized by hyperglycemia.
Diabetes mellitus
Hormone actions
*Stimulates synthesis of enzymes or structural proteins*Increase or decrease rate of synthesis*Turn existng enzyme or membrane channel "on" or "off"
All hormones produced by the adrenal cortex and sex glands are _____ hormones.
The adrenal medulla secretes _____ and _____
epinephrine, norepinephrine
location of parathyroid glands
posterior surface of thyroid gland
Parathyroid Gland
tiny masses of glandular tissue found on posterior surface of the thyroid gland; usually total of four; produces parathyroid hormone (aka parathormone)
Hypopituitarism: Diagnosis
cranial CT scan or cranial MRI, revealing a tumor or abnormal mass in the pituitary gland; Blood levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), or serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), decreased or normal; serum testosterone serum estradiol (estrogen), serum cortisol, serum ACTH, levels, decreased; T4 (thyroid hormone), decreased; serum growth hormone (GH), decreased;
thyroid scan
is another nuclear medicine test that shows the size, shape, and function of the thyroid gland. It can also detect tumors and nodules. An image is recorded as the scanner is passed over the neck area after the patient is given a radioactive substance
Tumor of the adrenal medulla, which is usually benign and characterized by hypertension, headaches, palpitations, diaphoresis, chest pain, and abdominal pain. Surgical removal of the tumor is the most common treatment. Though usually curable with early detection, it can be fatal if untreated.
Intracellular mediators
ions or molecules that either enter the cell, or are synthesized in the cell, and regulate enzyme activities inside of the cell
place of T cell maturation (1 answer)
Thymic hormones:
Breakdown of the bone releases ____
phosphate and calcium
Name a glucocorticoid hormone.
Cortisol is a glucocorticoid, synthesized by the adrenal glands.
Gigantism is due to an overproduction of ___________.
growth hormone
Hemoglobin A1c Testing
blood test that measures glucose levels over 3-4 months
any of a group of chemically related neurotransmitters, as epinephrine and dopamine, that have similar effects on the sympathetic nervous system.
Negative Feedback Mechanisms
Keeps conditions near a set point. When a condition is beyond an acceptable range, processes are activated to bring it back. ex. (non-endocrine) Regulation of body temperature. Low temp - vasoconstriction and shivering. High temp - vasodilation and sweating.ex. (endocrine) Regulating blood glucose level. Normal: 70-110 mg/dL. Too high - pancreas releases insulin; insulin reduces blood glucose. Too low - pancreas releases glucagon; glucagon raises blood glucose.
The __________ is firmly attached to the superior border of the kidney
a. thyroid
b. pancreas
c. adrenal gland
d. stomach
e. all of the above
c. adrenal gland
What is Addison's disease?
-Hyposecretion of ACTH of the Pituitary Gland-causes lethargy, anorexia, nausea,and can be life threatening-distruction of adrenal cortex
What is the relationship between primary and secondary hyperaldosteronism and HTN?
HTN is RARELY ever associate/caused by primary hyperaldosteronism
HTN can cause secondary hyperaldosteronism via stenosis of the renal arteries.
Hormone classification is an indication of their mode-of-action. Explain
There are amines, polypeptide/protein, glycoproteins, and steroids. All groups have certain activities that they take part in.
What type of tissue makes up the adrenal medulla?
-neurosecretory tissue
Which type of hormone (lipid or water soluble) diffuses through the plasma membrane and binds to nuclear receptors?
lipid soluble
Diabetic Coma
caused by very high blood sugar levels (hypergylcemia)-treated by administration of insulin
Radioactive Iodine Uptake
D/C Thyroid meds for 7-10 days before test; Iodine in meds/ foods can make test invalid
Endocrine Organs that Function as Only Endocrine
thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, anterior pituitary
What is Diabetes Insipidus?
-Hyposecretion of of ADH of the Posterior Pituitary-causes excessive urine output causing dehydration-tested by dehydrating the patient
What does cortisol do?
It is the natural steroid. Decreases inflammation.
What are autocrine regulators?
are produced and act within same tissue of an organ. all autocrines control gene expression in target cellsinclude:cytokines, growth factors, and neutrophins
SEE page 20 for placement chart of anterior pituitary hormones.
Location, target, effect.
What are the symptoms of myxedema coma?
decreased level of consciousness
hypothermia without shivering
What are 'lipids'?
Hormones made of fatty acids; most are steriods and are derived from cholesterol.
How are hormones able to recognize their target cells?
What would happen if this recognition system failed?
Receptors on the cell
The presence of the hormone would not initiate any response
What is the natural hx of Graves dz if untreated
Slow progression to eventual death
Because of the infalmation... the gland can burn itself out over years...and then become hypothyroid
The pathogenesis of Type I diabetes is
-presence of islet cell antibodies.

-autoimmune response
Explain, using an example, how lipid-soluble hormones act on their target cells.
1) Lipid soluble hormones are hydrophobic and can cross the lipid cell membrane.
2) Once in cell, testosterone binds with its receptor, forming a complex.
3) the hormone-receptor complex enters the nucleus and directly influences gene expression (by binding with chromatin sites and activating mRNA transcription)
What does calcitonin do?
It activates cells in bone that remove calcium from the blood and use it to build new bone
What is the Natural Hx of DKA?
It represents a huge portion of Diabetes related hospital admissions.
It is often the initial sign leading to diagnosis of DM type 1
Excess of free fatty acids  get converted to keytones in via the liver and then you just pee them out.
ADH is secreted when blood volume decreases. How does the body know when to do this?
Sensed by baroreceptors in the circulatory system.
What are the target organs for ADH and what does it do there?
Antidiuretic Hormone
Promotes water reabsorption in the renal tubules of the kidneys and promotes vasoconstriction of the blood vessels
Signs and symptoms of Anterior hypopituitarism
Signs and symptoms depend on the cause and the hormone affected. fatigue ,weakness, sensitivity to cold, decreased appetite weight loss abdominal pain, low blood pressure,headache, visual disturbances, loss of armpit or pubic hair in women: cessation of menstrual periods, infertility, or failure to lactate in men: decreased libido, loss of body or facial hair**REMEMBER THIS IS INSIDIOUS--it creeps up on you!
What are the steps of hormones acting on target cells (and what is each one)?
-receptor activation (by input signal: the hormone)
-conversion (of input signal to biochemical change in cell)
-response (synthesis, transport, secretion, contraction, breakdown)
What are your management and complication concers with Grave's Dz?
Monitor thyroid function tests
Radiation safety
Pregnancy and breast feeding issues
Thyrotoxic crisis (thyroid storm)
Wolff-Chaikoff effect
Lupus-like syndrome and agranulocytosis side-effect profile of thioamide treatment
What is the Onset, Peak, Duration for long-acting insulin
Onset- 4 to 8hr
Peak- 4 to 30 hr
Duration- 18 to 36hr
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