Endocrine System 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
urine collection
(thyr/o, thyroid/o
run, running
sex glands
outer region, cortex
Parathyroid Hormonefound: parathyroid
Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
leptin-suppression of appetitie.
contains iodine
•responsible for regulating the metabolic rate in body tissues
Females:  stimulates breast development and milk production
Males:  involved in testicular function
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
TSH-thyroid-stimulating hormone;ACTH-adrenocorticotropic hormone or corticotropin;LH-luteinizing hormone;FSH-follicle-stimulating hormone;PRL-prolactin;GH-growth hormone;MSH-melanocyte-stimulating hormone;
posterior (neural) portionderived from neurohypophyseal bud secreted ADH and oxytocinHas fenestrated capillaries
Thyroid Hormone
levothyroxine (Synthroid)
liothyronine (Cytomel)
-aka underactive throid-deficient secretion of the thyroid
parathyroid hormone
increases blood Ca+ levels
chief cell
secretes parathyroid hormone, epithelial cell of parathyroid gland
melatonin regulates
biological clock (sleep cycle)
What is LH?
-Lutenizing hormone-Anterior Pituitary-Females= stimulates secretion of estrogens and progesterone, ovulation, and formation of corpus luteumMales= stimulates intersitial cells in testes to develop and produce testosterone
adrenocorticotropic hormone
stimulates the adrenal cortex
Pancreatic hormone (D cells)Inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon, slows absorbtion of nutrients from gi tract
cAMP acts as a
second messenger
Zona Glomerulosa
-> Aldosterone
- conserves Na+
- eliminates K+
- reabsorbs water > RAS
development and maintanence of secondary sex characteristics and regulation of the menstral cycle
stimulates the contraction of the uterus and ducts of the mammary glands
a condition produced by hypersecretion of growth hormone during early years of life; results in a child who grows to a gigantic size
causes calcitonin secretion
high blood calcium levels
Hormone produced by the adrenal medulla that stimulates "fight-or-flight" reactions; also called adrenaline.
thymus gland; development of normal immune system and T lymphocytes or T cells
What is HGH?
-Human Growth Hormone-Anterior Pituitary-Stimulates protein synthesis, inhibits protein breakdown, stimulates lipolysis, and retards the use of glucose for ATP production-stimulates tissues to secrete insulin
What is Cushing's Syndrome?
Adrenal Cortical Hyperfunction
Hormone secreted by the posteior pituitary gland
Hypothalamic Hormones
stimulate release of anterior pituitary hormonesGHRH—stimulates release of GHTRH—Stimulates release of TSHPIH—inhibits releas of prolactinSomatostatin—inhibits GH stimulationGnRH—stimulates release of LH and FSH CRH—releases ACTH
mental retardation and short stature in a person could be the result of
___ of diabetics are Type I
Hyperparathyroidism = increased secretion of __________?
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex
The second messenger cAMP is synthesized by the enzyme A) adenylyl cyclase. B) cAMP phoshodiesterase. C) ATPase. D) ligase. E) phosphorylase.
Second messengers
Cyclic AMP and IP3
small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecules or ions
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates the production and secretion of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex.
pancreas (216)
Endocrine organ located near the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum and produces hormones , notably insulin.
Too much insulin in the blood:
produces hypoglycemia
Pancrease is located _______ to the stomache and is connected to the ___________ by the pancreatic ________.
What is testosterone?
-Testes-Stimulates descent of testes, regulates spermatogenesis, and promotes development and maintenance of masculine secondary sex characteristics
What is the most common cause of Goiter outside of the US?
Iodine Deficiency
narrow strip of tissue connecting two large parts in the body
a chemical messenger secreted by an endocrine gland
Underproduction of insulin or an insensitivity to insulin leads to
diabetes mellitus
This is released from the small intestine in response to the presence of fats
What is TSH?
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
1. Anterior pituatary gland
2. Producing cells: thyrotropic cells
3. Class: peptide
4. Target: thyroid gland
5. Controlled by: 1. thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) 2. Inhibited in response to high levels of circulating thyroied hormone
Hormones: PTH
PA: raises blood Ca levels
benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia because of too much insulin
Which of the following hormones is released by the corpus luteum after ovulation and causes a negative feedback loop with the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary? A) progesterone B) luteinizing hormone C) gonadotropin releasing hormone D) estrogen E)
T3 and T4
secrete by thyroid gland. increase rate of 02 consumption and cellular metabolism
thyroid gland (211)
Endocrine gland located just below the larynx and in front of the trachea that secretes thyroid hormones.
Glucocorticoids also play an essential part in maintaining
normal blood pressure
parathyroid gland
One of four small endocrine glands embedded in the posterior portion of the thyroid gland.
When there is too little of a particular hormone in the blood stream, endocrine glands release LESS or MORE of their hormone?
is the only hormone that is secreted into the bloodstream by the pineal gland. It is believed to act on specific receptors to influence the body's biologic clock by regulating such functions as the sleep/wake cycle
What are the etiologies of secondary hyperaldosteronism?
Renal artery stenosis
Is a condition where a newborn is especially large and is hyperglycemic due to the mother having gestational diabetes.
Ductless glands (1 answer)
Secrete directly into blood flow
the hypophysis is also known as the
pituitary gland
What are hormones?
Chemical messengers that released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to reach specific cells in other tissues (the target cells).
The alpha cells of the Islets of Langerhans secrete ________?
hormones are made by _________and secreted into __________
glands, the bloodstream
The alpha subunit of the G-protein is activated by... A) separating from the gamma and beta subunits. B) the G-protein changing conformation. C) binding to the calcium ions. D) replacing the GDP with GTP. E) replacing the GTP with GDP.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone
A hormone produced by the anterior pituitary that regulates the release of thyroid hormones.
the actual production of ADH and oxytocin takes place in which area?
posterior pituitary gland
Anterior Pituitary Gland Hormones
releases 6 hormones; effects on non-endocrine targets: growth hormone, prolactin; effects on other endocrine targets (tropic hormones): follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyrotropic hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone
Hyperaldosteronism: signs and test
Low serum potassium level;Abdominal CT scan that shows adrenal mass; Elevated plasma and urine aldosterone levels;Low plasma renin activity; ECG that shows abnormalities associated with low potassium levels
What are you going to do to diagnose CAH?
Physical exam
Routine serum chemistries
Urine 17-ketosteroids
Plasma DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone)

Amnioic fluid 17-hydroxyprogesterone
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) does this
stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH
Thyroid Goiter
I- defficiency > can't make T3 and T4
- compmress trachea, esophagus, BV in neck
Which hormone stimulates the gonads (reproductive organs) and cause the ovaries to mature and release estrogen and the testes to make sperm?
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
receptor protein
A hormone can bind to what in the nucleus?
Hormones secreted by endocrine cells in the kidney help regulate
electrolyte concentraiton in body fluids
the rate of blood cell production
and an increase in both blood volume and blood pressure
Primary Causes of adrenal hypofunction
affects about 1 in 100,000 people;About 70 percent of reported cases of Addison's disease are caused by autoimmune disorders: tuberculosis, AIDS, hemorrhage, metastatic cancer
Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS)
A blood test performed after the patient has fasted for 8 to 10 hours to determine the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood at the time of the test. Elevation may indicate diabetes mellitus.
Cell secretions/Hormone actions : Paracrine
local hormones regulate cells around. Chemical messengers transfer info from cell to cell close together
What are the uses for antithyroid agents
hyperthyroidism, before thyroid surgery for the purpose of decreasing vascularity
What are two small pairs of glands embedded in posterior surface of the thyroid gland?
the parathyroid gland
The endocrine system is composed of g____ or g____ t_____.
glands or glandular tissues.
Hormone released into the interstitial fluid by the anterior pituitary enter the circulation easily because
a. they are brought through the choroid plexus by active transport
b. a strong countercurrent mechanism maintains a concentration gradient that d
d. the adjacent capillaries are fenestrated to permit passage of large molecules into the circulation
What testing will you do/ what results will you expect to find in a patient whom you suspect has
Toxic Multinodular Goiter
And how would you treat?
Thyroid function tests
TSH levels are low
T4 can be normal or slightly increased
T3 is often elevated compared to T4
Thyroid scan
Antithyroid drugs
Surgery if necessary and permissible
What organs are exclusively part of the endocrine system?
Anterior pituitary gland, posterior pituitary gland, parathyroid, thyroid, adrenal glands, endocrine cells, hormones
What does OT do in males?
-targets vas deferens and prostate gland
-stimulates contractions of ductus deferens and prostate
What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?
Metabolic activity of the cells decreases, causing:

weight gain
cold hands and feet
subnormal temp and pulse
swelling in hands, feet, and eyelids
thinning hair
dry skin
brittle nails
Acromegaly: Post surgery teaching
Pt to report post nasal drip. Avoid coughing, sneezing or blowing the nose early after surgery as it can cause increase pressure and CSF leakage.; watch for halo sign
What three parts of the body is the parathyroid hormone (PTH) active?
Kidneys, Bones, and Intestine
What factors influence how sensitive a particular cell is to a hormone?
Cell sensitivity to a particular hormone depends on:
- other hormones in the bloodstream
- number of hormone receptors in/on cell
- how concentrated the hormone is in the blood at the time
How many hormones are released by the pituitary gland
9 (2 from posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)– 7 from anterior lobe (adenohypophysis
What are the nursing implications for Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors
Slow titration of dosage, by itself, cannot cause hypoglycemia
What are your expected management needs / complications
for primary adrenal insuficiency?
Fatal if untreated or poorly compliant
Monitor serum electrolytes
Monitor bone density
Adrenal function will not recover
Relatively normal life expectancy is possible with appropriate treatment
Plan of action in the even to adrenal crisis
What testing would you order  If you suspected
Fasting plasma glucose levels
Glucose tolerance test
Glycosylated hemoglobin levels
Lipid profile
Plasma urea, creatinine and electrolytes
Zona Fasiculata
glycated hemoglobin
Antidiuretic Hormone
Adrenal CortexHORMONE
Follicle-stimulating hormone (peptide). Released by anterior lobe of pituitary. Targets: Ovaries - stimulates development of ova and follicles that contain them. Testes - stimulates sperm production.
[level is higher after menopause]
(Ca) (calc/i, calci/o)
EPO stands for
Thyroid root
thyroid gland
thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones (T3 & T4)
a drawing together; synergistic
continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion
Oxytocin (OT)
Posterior Pituitary HormoneTarget-Uterus, Mammary glandscontraction of smooth muscles of uterus during birth, milk ejection
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
ADH. Oxytocin
promotes male secondary sex characteristics and spermatogenesis
benign tumor ASSESSMENT: -Headache (IICP), -Hemianopia, -Giantism, -Hyperthyroidism, -Cushing's Syndrome, -Reproductive Problems; DIAGNOSTICS: -Skull X-Ray, -CT Scan; MANAGEMENT: -Surgical, -Irridation
released in the kidneys
stimulates erythrocyte production and maturation
an exocrine and endocrine gland
secretes: glucagon and insulin
Islets of Langerhans
Hyposecretion of growth hormone produces pituitary With this condition, the body is properly proportioned, but growth is stunted; height typically does not exceed 4 feet, is treated by administering growth hormone.
tumor of the adrenal medulla
Hypothyroidism in AdultsLow Basal Metabolic Rate Cold SensitivityDry rough skinScanty hairsluggis mental activitypuffy eyes
thyroxine is also known as
exocrine glands
produce non-hormonal productshave ducts
mineralcorticoids (214)
Any hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that helps to regulate salt and water balance.  For example, aldosterone is one of these.
target of parathyroid hormone
osteoblasts, osteoclasts, kindneys
endocrine gland
structure that secretes substances directly into the bloodstream or body fluids; the substances may have effects on cells that have proper receptors.
abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs, increased deposits of fat in the tissues at the back of the eye socket
the most important structure for regulating blood calcium is the [blank]
parathyroid gland
Corticotropic cells: (2 answers)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH):Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (HSH):
the adrenal medulla produces
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Positive Feedback
Effectors increase initial stimulus.

Ex. Childbirth: Baroreceptors on cervix stimulate oxytocin, which causes uterine contractions.
Pituitary Gland Control
Hypothalamic releasing hormones stimulate cells of anterior pituitary to release/withhold hormones-Nerve impules from hypothalamus stimulate nerve endings in the posterior pituitary gland to release hormones that it is storing
Endocrine glands produce a chemical substance called h_____.
Pinneal Body
Glandlike structure in the brain
What stimulates the liver and other body cells to absorb glucose?
Atrial natriuretic peptide
Involved in osmoregulation (pressure of bodily fluids) and vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) (source: Heart)
Overview of Endocrine System
food intake and digestion
tissue maturation
ion regulation
water balance
bloood glucose
reproductive functions
uterine contractions and milk release
immune system regulation
Steroid Hormones
Made from cholesterol. ex. Cortisol, estrogen, testosterone.
Pituitary (Hypophysis)
"master gland"
-Sits in Sella Turcica
-Two lobes:
Adenocorticotropic Hormone
1. Target: Adrenal Glands2. Function: Stimulates proper secretion of coricosteroid hormones
study of the endocrine glands is called
S&S of Hyperaldosteronism
Diastolic hypertension (can be severe)
Potassium depletion (hypokalemia)
Weakness and fatigue
Other associated signs and symptoms include:
Left ventricular hypertrophy
EKC changes
Cardiac arrhythmias
Polyuria and polydipsia
Renal failure edema can occur
Parathyroid hormones
control blood Ca2+ levelssecreted by parathyroid glandsstimulated by decreased levels of Ca2+acts on bones, kidneys, and intestines to increase levels
Wheno plasma osmolarity increases, _____.
vasopressin is secreted
What are the side effects for miglitinides
Angiotensin II
- In lungs
- Vasoconstrictor
- stim Adrenal production of Aldosterone ^BV/BP
- Stim Pit. Gland release ADH
- Thirst
Thyroid Gland
Consists of two lobes-Isthmus --Central mass that connects the two lateral lobes-Located in throat, inferior to the larynx-Colloid holds your thyroidglobulin
Posterior PituitaryPRINCIPLE ACTION
OT- Induces Labor/ LactationADH- Retains Water
Estrogens & Androgens
(steroid) Released by adrenal cortex. Promotes growth of pubic and axillary hair, bone growth, sex drive, and male prenatal development.
[this is the source if testosterone in women and estrogen in men]
[androgen is required for a male fetus to develop male genetalia]
[insensitivity to androgen may cause infertility and intersexuality]
Pituitary Gland
size of pea; surrounded by Turk's saddle of sphenoid bone; hangs from stalk called the infundibulum on the inferior surface of the hypothalamus; has both a posterior and an anterior lobe
Symptoms of hyperaldosteronism
high BP***; HA, muscle weakness, fatigue, intermittent paralysis, numbness and nocturia; also, watch for signs of K+ depletion such as numbness and tingling
Addison disease
In this disorder, which is potentially life-threatening, all three categories of adrenal steroids—mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens—are deficient.Symptoms of the disorder include weakness, fatigue, bronzed pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of MSH, and anorexia.
Cortex (the outer layer of a body organ)
Factors by which the half-life of hormones is shortened
1)Excretion2)Metabolism3)Active Transport4)Conjugation
Electrical synaptic 
(direct) communication
Occurs across gap junctions between
cells Mediated by small molecules like ions
When is ADH secreted?
when plasma osmolarity increases

When blood volume decreases.
Water Intoxication
- Hyponatremia (too little sodium in the ECF)

- Increase in water

- Decrease in sodium

- Hypotonic ECF

- Water enters cell - lysis
How can hormones be classified?
according to:
gland of origin
the effects they have
chemical composition
The glandular tissue, and glands of the endocrine system ___, ____, and _____ hormones.
producestore secrete
a hormone produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland, instrumental in the regulation of sodium and potassium reabsorption by the cells of the tubular portion of the kidney.
Pineal gland
small mass of tissue near the center of the brain. It secretes the hormone melatonin, a modified amino acid.
Hormone: Release & Activity
1) Endocrine gland receives signal from neuron or another gland's hormone.
2) Hormone is released into blood stream.
3) Hormone travels body, binding receptors on/in target cells.
4) Hormone binds to cell receptor: Steroid & others can go through plasma membrane; have receptors inside the cell, many inside nucleus (associated with chromatin). Others bind to plasma membrane receptors.
Effect - may change rate of reactions, stimulate target cell to take up/release materials, regulate DNA transcription, and protein synthesis.
List the Anterior Pituitary Hormones
1. Growth Hormone (GH)2. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)3. Adenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)4. Gonadotropins: Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormones (LH)5. Prolactin (PRL)
What is hyposecretion?
Not enough of the hormone is secreted
Prolactin or lactogenic hormone (PRL)
Promotes development of glandular tissue during pregnancy and produces milk after birth of an infant.
A ______ is an abnormal growth of the thyroid gland due to an iodine deficiency.
Describe catecholamines and peptide hormones.
-not lipid soluble
-unable to penetrate cell membrane
-bind to receptor proteins at outer surface of cell membrane (extracellular receptors)
Which type of hormone (lipid or water soluble) binds to a cell surface receptor to travel through the membrane?
water soluble
The endocrine system is composed of _____ and _____ _____.
Glands,and glandular tissue.
atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
Substance secreted by the atria of the heart that accelerates Na+ excretion by the kidneys so that blood volume decreases.  A.K.A. "atriopeptide."
ADH is stored in, and released from the ____________, in response to neural stimulation from the _________ via the ___________________________________ system
posterior pituitary glandhypothalamushypothalamohpophyseal system
glucose tolerance test (GTT)
measures the body's response to a concentrated glucose solution. GTT is routinely used to diagnose gestational diabetes.
What does progesterone do?
Prepares and maintains the uterus for childbearing.
Name each hypothalamic tropic hormone and how it affects the release of a hormone in the anterior pituitary gland.
Corticotropin - relasing hormone (CRH)Thyrotropin - releasing hormoone (TRH)Conadotrpin - releasing hormone (GnRH)Growth - hormone - releasing hormone (GHRH)SomatostatinProlactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)
What is a receptor?
A protein molecule to which a particular molecule binds strongly in a "lock-and-key" mechanism.
What does the hormone oxytocin do?
controls lactation and uterine contractions
Which type of steroids are too big to go through the cell membrane?
non-steroid (protein) hormones
What is Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Excessive elevation of plasma levels of glucose accompanied by depressed level of insulin and elevated levels of the counter-regulatory hormones can lead to the metabolic production of ketones creating ketoacidosis in the diabetic. DKA is an acute complication of hyperglycemia.
These are released by the posterior pituitary
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)
What is a positive feedback system?
A positive feedback (cascade) system is one in which distrubance to the set point elicits a system response that acts to enhance the direction of the change. Positive feedback mechainisms usually control episodic events i.e. those not needing continous adjustments. Oxytocin release is stimulated by pressure on the cervix, and causes vigorous contraction of the uterus. Oxytocin release ceases at birth.
blood Target tissues
A t____ t_____ is the body tissue or organ that the hormone has its effect on.
What is a Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma?
A single, well-circumscribed lesion containing some follicles with colloid. Lesions may be very large, exceeding the extent of the gland and causing a mass effect in the neck.
2nd most common form of Thyroid cancer
women over 40
Slowly Enlarging Painless nodule
After they enter the target cells, steroids bind to
specific receptor proteins in the cytoplasm
What 2 hormones do the thyroid gland produce?
1. Thyroxine (T4)
2. Triiodothyronine (T3)
adenoma of one of the parathyroid glands, called parathyroidoma.
adenoma of one of the parathyroid glands, treatment with excision of tumor
What hormones originate in the posterior pituitary?
Oxytocin and ADH are released by the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary gland) by exocytosis.
secretes t3 and t4 which set BMR and are needed for growth developmentcalcitonin
Which hormone regulates blood calcium levels?
What is the effect of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla?
to increase the prolong the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
surgical puncture
Growth Hormone
excessive hunger
Lutenizing hormoneInduces ovulation
multiple endocrine neoplasia
chlorpropamide (Diabinase)
glipizide (Glucotrol)-30min before meal
glyburide (micronase, Diabeta)-slow acting-good to cover night glucose
alpha cell
secretes glucagon
cyclic adenosine monophosphatethe cAMP, in turn, helps activate the enzymes in the cell.
to pass through; diabetes
type 2 diabetes mellitus
Release of Adrenocorticotropic hormone
1. Mitosis
2. Meosis
3. Spermiogenisis
Cyclic AMP
produced from ATP
second messenger
triggers an enzyme that generates specific cellular changes
lipid-soluble hormones that pass intact through the cell membrane of the target cell and influence cell activity by acting on specific genes
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
stimulates cortisol secretion by the adrenal cortex
prostoglandon secreted by the heart
regulates fluid in heart
only in heart tissue
glands deliver their secretions through a duct ex: sweat glands
excessive development of adrenal cortex
Caused by:Autoimmune production of \"Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobins\"antibodies against TSH receptors on thyroid glandreferred to as Grave's diseaseExcess TSH or TRH Thyroid TumorCan cause:Goiterpoor heat tolerance↑ metabolic rateeye bulge
the infundibulum connects
hypothalamus and pituitary
cholecalciferolconverted vitamin d in kidneys
Adrenal medulla
Specialized sympathetic nerve cells that secrete hormones into the circulatory system
Thyroid histology - spheric thyroid follicles with thyroglobin
innermost zone of adrenal cortex
zona reticularis
Endocrine System
Communicative system that uses hormones as messengers. Slower, but longer lasting, responses than the nervous system.
Enlargement of the extremities (and bones of the face, hands, and feet caused by excessive production of the growth hormone by the pituitary gland after puberty).
Supporting neuroglial cells of the neurohypophysisoval euchromatic nuclei are among the only nuclei seen in the par nervosa (also endothelial cells)Have extensions that surround the secreting axons
Pituitary gland:hypohysis, master gland… controller of many endocrine functions.Secrete 9 important hormonesAdenohypophysis:the anterior partSomatotropic cells:Growth hormone (GH)… epiphyseal plates in youth, prepare injured muscles in older people…
Pineal gland:Thyroid gland:
Aldosterone is this type of hormone
Hormones made in the Adrenal Cortex
****Structures and functions of the endocrine system
the female gonad or reproductive gland, in which the ova and the hormones that regulate female secondary sex characteristics develop.
neurosecretory cells
releasing hormones are produced by what?
PATHO: Too much ADH; ASSESSMENT: Fluid Retention; MANAGEMENT: -Diuretics, -Fluid Restriction, - I/O, - Daily Weights
_____ secrete insulin, which is important for increased uptake and use of glucose and amino acids
Beta cells
List six things that hormones control
body metabolism
response to stress
homeostasis of body fluids, electrolytes, acid-base balance, glucose-energy balance
Master gland that produces 7 different hormones; most of which travel to other glands & stimulates them to produce other hormones.
with its resulting high levels of circulating PTH, leads to an excessive amount of calcium in the bloodstream, called hypercalcemia.osteitis fibrosa cystica and kidney cysts can occur
What 2 Neoplastic processes can cause Adrenal Hypercortisolism?
Functioning Pituitary Adenoma
(this secretes excess ACTH which leads to b/l Adrenal Hyperplasia)
Cortisol-secreting Adenoma, Carcinoma, or nodular hyperplasia (results in hypercortisolism)
One of the two female hormones secreted by the ovary
derivatives that serve as second messengers
The hypothalamus is located directly above the _____.
pituitary gland
Type II diabetes
usually adult onset, noninsulin dependent, inadequate insulin
1. Alarm Phase (immediate, fight or flight, directed by the sympathetic nervous system)
2. Resistance Phase (dominated by glucocorticoids)
3. Exhaustion Phase (breakdown of homeostatic regulation and failure of one or more organ systems)
3 types of hormonal interactions
permissive, synergistic, antagonistic
Anterior PituitaryPrinciple Action
Gonado-sends hormones to the gonadsadren- sends hormones to the adrenal cortexTSH- sends hormones to the thyroidPRL- stimulated breast dev. and maintains lactationGH- sends hormones to cells, making them divide and grow.
growth hormone
any substance that stimulates or controls the growth of an organism, esp. a species-specific hormone, as the human hormone somatotropin, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Anterior pituitary
Anterior part of the small trilobed pituitary gland lying at the base of the brain. Synthisizes both direct hormones (directly stimulate their target organs) and tropic hormones (stimulate other endocrine glands to release hormones)
Four small glands attatched to the posterior surface of the thyroid gland are called...
parathyroid galnds
a tumor of the adrenal gland that causes excess release of epinephrine and norepinephrine
Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
Chronic disease involving a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by under-activity of the islets of Langerhans and characterized by elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia). DM can cause chronic renal disease, retinopathy, and neuropathy. In extreme cases the patient may develop ketosis, acidosis, and finally coma.
a phenomenon in which the number of receptors on a cell surface can rapidly decrease after exposure to certain chemical signals; in general, tissues that exhibit this are adapted to respond to short-term increases in hormone conc. and tissues that respond to hormones maintained at constant levels normally do not exhibit this
Lipid Hormones : Eicosanoids
•Derived from arachidonic acid (a fatty acid) •Important paracrine factors that
coordinate cellular activity, inflammation, tissue repair and bloot clotting •Leukotrienes •prostaglandins
cortisol does this

glucose regulation and protein metabolism

raise blood glucose levels by promoting protein breakdown
Categories of Hormones
- Amino acid derivatives

- Peptide hormones

- Glycoproteins

- Lipid derivatives

- Eicosanoids
Anterior pituitary lobe:
glandular tissue that respond to releasing/inhibiting hormones from hypothalamus
In addition to endocrine other ___ ____ also secrete hormones.
Body organs
the branch of biology dealing with the endocrine glands and their secretions, esp. in relation to their processes or functions.
Adrenal gland
Situated on top of the kidneys and consists of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.
When blood glucose levels decline
alpha cells secrete glucagons, stimulatesglucose release by liver
Posterior Pituitary Lobe
Hangs from a downward projection of the hypothalmus. Holds Oxytocin and ADH in its axon terminals.
hypocalcemia, aka calcipenia
deficient levels of calcium in the blood
Thyroid Scan
A nuclear medicine test that shows the size, shape, and function of the thyroid gland. The patient is given a radioactive substance to visualize the thyroid gland. An image is recorded as the scanner is passed over the neck area; used to detect tumors and nodules.
What is hyperthyroidism? (Grave's Disease)
A hyperactive, hyperplastic thyroid tissue that can cause excitable, low heat tolerance, weight loss. The fix is to remove the thyroid gland or antithyroid agents.
What does OT do in females?
-targets uterus, mammary glands
-stimulates labor contractions
-stimulates milk ejection
What causes hypoparathyroidism (inadequate circulating PTH)?
accidental removal of parathyroids or damage to vascular supply during neck surgery
The glands or glandular tissues of the endocrine system p____, s_____, and s_____ h_______ that travel through the blood to specific target cells throughout the body.
ProduceStoreSecrete hormones
Pancreatic islets regulate _____ _____ _____ by secreting _____ and _____
blood glucose levels; glucagon; insulin
what is a hormone agonist?
chemical that binds to receptor proteins and mimic the effects of the hormone
radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)
test measures the ability of the thyroid gland to concentrate and retain iodine. For this nuclear medicine test, the patient orally ingests radioactive iodine and its uptake into the thyroid gland is assessed. In hyperthyroidism, absorption of iodine is increased.
What does glucagon do?
Acts on the liver to release glycogen.
What are peptide hormones?
The release into the blood stream, peptides are polar (no transport protein). They bind to receptors on target cells and initiate change in target cell function.
What are the short polypeptides?
*under 200 amino acids long
-All hormones secreted by hypothalamus, heart, thymus, digestive tract, pancreas, and pituitary gland.
What are some symptoms of a drop in your sodium level from 140 to 130 mEq/L?
impaired taste
Antidiuretic hormone
A hormone that is part of an elaborate feedback scheme that helps regulate the osmolarity of the blood.
What is the function of endocrine glands?
secrete hormones into blood stream
What are symptoms of hyperthyroidism?
The metabolism and body speeds up. Tachycardia, palpitations, hypertension, tremor, anxiety,weight loss in spite of increased food intake, and exophthalmos.
The receptor-hormone complex made from the protein receptor and steroid hormone enters the nucleus and _____
directly activates the expression of specific genes by binding to receptors on the chromatin
Lactation is stimulated by which hormone?
Prolactin, secreted from the anterior pituitary, stimulates lactation.
Lames terms on hormone action
When hormone binds to receptor causes signal transduction activating cAMP inside the cell. -first messenger = hormon outside-second messenger = cAMP inside celltriggers responses of tearget cell (activates enzymes, opens ion channels, etc..)--> will change depending on type of cell. muscle and fat cells are different so one hormone can have many different effects on different cells.
What tests will you order to diagnose Pheochromocytomas?
Urinary tests
Vanillylmandelic acid
Phentoamine test during crisis if necessary
Glucagon test (potentially life-threatening)
CT and MRI imaging
PTH compensates for the breakdown of bone in to phosphate and calcium by ____
stimulating the excretion of phosphate by the kidneys
Hormones that free-circulating in the blood are?
Water solulable, active for less than 1 hour
What is a benign non-functional adrenal adenoma
Nonfunctional adrenal adenomas are well-circumscribed lesions in the gland.When detected on routine screening they are termed “incidentalomas”.
90% of incidentalomas are non-functional
30-50% of masses will rep Metastasis
What problems of the feet are often caused by hypothyroidism?
Hypothyroidism can cause the following foot problems:
1) Anhydrosis
2) Thick Skin
How is the thyroid two glands in one?
It has two types of cells: parafollicular cells and parathyroid cells (chief cells release PTH).
All of the following are true of the adrenal medulla except...
a. some cells of the adrenal medulare secrete epinephrine
b. some cells of the adrenal medulare secrete norepinephrine
c. the adrenal medulla is a modified sympathetic ganglion
d. the sys
d. the systemic effects of the adrenal medulla are immediate
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