Endocrine System 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
macro
large
t4
thyroxine
 
 
endocrin/o
endocrine
Crineroot
secrete
Prostaglandins
tissue hormones
Hyposecretion
Decreased secretion
MSH
-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-stimulates the production of melanin in melanocytes causing skin to darken-anterior pituitary lobe hormone
secrete thyroglobulin
follicular cells
-trophy
nourishment, development
 
ex. a/trophy - no nourishment or development
Long-term complications
AtherosclerocisRenal Failureretinopathyneuropathy
Ketonuria
ketons in urine
what hormone stimulates osteoblasts?
calcitonin
Alpha Cells
Pancreas. glucagon synthesizing
endo-
means in or within
Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH)
Anterior pituitary hormoneTarget-GonadsDevelopment of oocytes, secretion of estrogens, production of sperm
Negative Feedback
Effectors oppose stimulus
Thymus Location
Center of Chest
Testosterone
Maintains male secondary sexual characteristics (source: Testes)
Epinephrine/Norepinephrine
(monoamine) Released from adrenal medulla in response to the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Increases heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, and decreases digestion in preparation for fight-or-flight.
 
[also act as neurotransmitters, also known as adrenaline/noradrenaline][increase alertness and anxiety, decrease insulin secretion][epinephrine can treat bronchial asthma and acute allergies][epinephrine can be injected directly into a stopped heart to restart the heartbeat]
GH
growth hormone

found: pituitary gland, anterior lobe
hypothalamus
target organ is pituitary gland,produces hormones that are transported to the posterior pituitary lobe, where they can be stored until needed
 
 
acidosis
condition abnormal accumulation of acid products of metabolism
Glucocorticoids (cortisol)
Adrenal Cortical hormoneTarget-zona fasciculata cells, liver, fat, skel muscle, immune systemRaise protein breakdown, anti-inflammatory
Parathyoroid glands synthesize and secrete this
PTH
Pineal:
Hormones: melatonin
PA: daily biorhythms
Nerve
The endocrine system communicates throuh chemical substances known as h______.
Growth hormone
secreted by the anterior pituitary
targets the bones and muscles
stimulates growth
ACTH
stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids
 
 
posterior pituitary
 
Also called the neurohypophysis; portion of the pituitary connected to the hypothalamus by a stalk called the infundibulum.  Stores antidiuretic hormone(ADH) and oxytocin.
The parathyroid glands secrete the hormone PTH or PTA
PTH
PANCREAS
Endocrine organ located near the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum and produces hormones, notably insulin.
adrenal medulla secretes _________and __________ in response to the ANS (automatic nervous system)
epinephrine, norepinephrine
Insulin
lowers blood glucose levels by transporting glucose from the blood into the cells and by stimulating the cells to burn glucose for energy. It also promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver
 
 
 
Anatomical Abnormalities of the Thyroid gland
 
 
what are they?
Goiter
 
Diffuse:  from iodine deficiency (non-toxic)
multinodular: toxic, euthyroid)
 
 
Solitary nodule (euthyroid or toxic)...not a goiter
Endocrine
Adjective describing a gland that delivers its secretions directly into the blood stream
GLUT4
brings glucose into cellsthe protein most stimulated by insulin
Cholecystokinin is released from the small intestine in the response to
fats
Pancreatic islets:
Hormones: insulin and glocagon
PA: lowers and raises blood sugar level
Pituitary Gland
-hangs below the hypothalmus-secretes hormones that control other endocrine glands-divided into anterior and posterior lobes-anterior secretes 8 hormones (flaglimt)-posterior secretes 2 hormones (ao)
The ultimate result of lipid-soluble hormones on cells is the production of proteins. A) True B) False
A
hormones
chemicals produced in one region of the body to act on target cells in another part
Progesterone
Promotes growth and maintenance of the endometrium (source: Ovaries/Placenta)
 
 
insulin (216)

Hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates glucose storage in the liver and glucose uptake by cells.
Prostaglandins or tissue hormones influence
respiration, gastriontestinal secrections, blood pressure
Decreased levels of parathyroid hormone could result in...
a. a depressed immune system
b. increased sweating
c. profuse urination
d. muscle spasms
e. all of the above
d. muscle spasms
neurohypophysis,
posterior lobe of pituitary gland is stimulated by nerve impulses from the hypothalamus to release the hormones stored there secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin
 
 
PGA (polyglandular autoimmune syndrome)
 
Type 2
Starts as Adult
autoimmune destruction of glands
 
adrenal insufficiency (addison's dz)
 
Hypothyroid (hashimoto's)
 
Diabetes
 
plus; viteleigo...
 
 
 
 
hypothalamus
located near the pituitary gland in the brain
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Caused by a 21-hydroxylase defiiciencyPrenenalone is not converted to Cortisol This results in overproduction of the sex hormone DHEA which leads to precocious puberty in males and ambiguaus sex development in females
this promotes protein synthesis and lipid mobilization and catabolism
growth hormone
Ingested food stimulates the ____ to release the hormone gastrin.
stomach
Nonsteroid Hormones
Attaches to binding site, Activates activity site to activate membrane proteins, Activate secondary messengers, Initiate reactions inside which stimulate cellular change
Types of Steroid hormones
Sex hormonesAdrenal cortex hormones
Two primary communicating and coordinting systems in the body.
Endocrine systemNervous system
peptides
a compound containing two or more amino acids in which the carboxyl group of one acid is linked to the amino group of the other.
Cnidarians and Mollusks have
Hormonal control for sexual reproduction
The pancreas secretes _____ and _____
insulin and glucagon
location of adrenal glands
top superior portion of kidneys
Thymus Gland
located in upper thorax; posterior to sternum; large in children and small in adults; releases thymosis
pituitary gland (hypophysis)
1)makes hormones to control every endocrine structure.
2)Connected to hypothalmus
3)made up of nervous and glandular tissue
 
cold
Tumors that don't take up the iodine appear cold on the scan and are more likely to be malignant
What is Hypoaldosteronism?
 
 
What does it look like?
D: under production of aldosterone from the adrenal gland (rare)
congenital enzyme disorder 
renal tubular disorder.
 
Weight loss
Gastrointestinal disturbances
Low blood pressure
Salt craving
Dizziness and lightheadedness
Palpitations
Low blood sodium, high potassium (hyperkalemia, hyponatremia)
Increased blood renin levels
Protein kinases
enzymes that regulate the activity of other enzymes by attaching phosphates to them; activated by cAMP
two different cell types (2 answers)
Alpha cells:Beta cells:
What kind of organ is the pancreas exocrine or endocrine
both
Draw a diagram of the thyroid axis.
(draw diagram)
The D cells in the islets of Langerhans secrete ________ and _________?
somatostatin
and
gastrin
Thyroid gland
-lies on either side of the larynx-regulates the body's metabolism and encourages the growth and functions of the nervous system-secretes 3 hormones (TTC)
Endocrine System
Consistsof a group of ductless glands that secrete substances directly into the bloodstream
All of the following are included in the endocrine system accept:Exocrine glandsSteroid hormonesnonsteriod hormonesall of the above
exocrine glands
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causes the release of
a. growth hormone by the pituitary
b. steroids by the adrenal cortex
c. gonadotropins by the testes 
d. thryoid hormones by the pituitary
e. hypothalmic releasing hormones
b. steroids by the adrenal cortex
Adrenal Hypofunction: ADDISON'S Disease
also called adrenal insufficiency, or hypocortisolism.;May result from inadequate ACTH through the hypothalamic-pituitary control system or dysfunction of adrenal gland tissue.
 
 
How does T1DM tend to Present?
 
 
Clinical presentation can be sudden
Typically a short history of weight loss, thirst and fatigue
Ketoacidosis can be the presenting feature
Polyuria and polydipsia
Chemical
Synaptic (Nervous) Communication 

Ca stimulates release of ACh à diffuse across synaptic cleft , binds to receptors on sarcolemma à
trigger Na+ into cell, K+ out ~ muscle contraction
What are the adverse effects of insulin
hypoglycemia (insulin shock)
hyperglycemia (ketoacidosis)
Indirect Acting Hormone:
Ca2+ Levels
Activation of PLC
1. Release IP3
- causes Ca2+ ^ when released from ER
2. DAG > protien Kinase C
- IP3 ^ Ca2=
- ion channels in cm open bringing Ca2+ into EFC
3. Increase Ca2+ and w/ Calmodilin activated enzymes
Which hormone is also known as vasopressin and causes the kidneys to retain water?
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Norepinephrine
a hormones that is a member of a class of compounds, the catecholamines that are synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine.
Posterior Pituitary Gland
NOT an endocrine gland; does not make hormones; stores hormones made by the hypothalamus (oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone)
Key Features of Diabetes Insipidus
Inability to concentrate urine leads to polyuria with excessive fluid loss and dehydration, dilute urine, increased thirst, hypotension, tachycardia, irritability, decreased LOC, lethargy and coma; there will be a rise hemoglobin and hematocrit and BUN
 
 
thyroid-stimulating hormone level
(TSH) (thyrotropin)
a blood test that measures the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood
Signal Transduction Pathway : Membrane Bound Receptors
•On cell surface 
–Water
soluble hormones 
–Bind
to surface but don’t enter•How do they
work?

 –Enzymatic
reactions 
–2nd messenger systems •2
main systems –cAMP and IP3/calcium 
–Fast,
shorted lived response
What are the nursing implications
Start w/lowest possible dose (ie, 2.5mg), give w/meals, hold for contrast studies
Indirect Acting Hormone:
Activation of Adenylate Cyclase
1. G protien acivated
2. Adenylate cyclase activated
3. cAMP acts as 2nd messenger
4. Kinase activated
>> opens ion channels
>> activates more enzymes
Hormones target specific cells
a. target cells must have protein receptors for the hormone on their membranes to be affectedb. receptors are dynamic-their numbers can be increased/decreased by the cell in response to stimuli
Compared to the nervous sytem, the endocrine system.........(5)
Slower response that lasts longer
widespread general effects
can affect any cell in the body
acts using hormones
Secrets into the blood stream
 
 
 
 
What is MEN2 Syndrome?
 
MEN 2 is a rare familial cancer syndrome caused by mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. Inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder, MEN 2 has 3 distinct subtypes, including MEN 2A, MEN 2B, and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma – only (FMTC-only). The subtypes are defined by the combination of tissues affected. Developmental abnormalities may also be present. By age 70 years, the penetrance rate is 70%. Genetic testing and clinical surveillance beginning in childhood provide the opportunity to treat the devastating and sometimes fatal complications of this disorder
The endocrine function of the pancreas is performed by
mall glandular structures called islets of Langerhans
How are the combined hormone actions determined?
Differernt tissues have different combinations of receptors for various hormones.
Where are oxytocin and ADH made?
in the hypothalamus, they are transported to the posterior pituitary and stored there
Type 1 diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM
Type 1 diabetes, little or no insulin is produced because the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans that secrete the hormone have been decreased in number by an abnormal autoimmune process. This type of the disorder is also called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Type 1 diabetes mellitus usually has its onset during childhood.
ADH is secreted when plasma osmolarity increases. How does the body know when to do this?
Sensed by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus
Define how an endocrine cell differs from an exocrine cell
- Endocrine cells secrete their hormones directly into blood.
- Endocrine cells are richly associated with a network of capillaries.
The adrenal glands have two parts. What are they?
the outer cortex and the inner medulla
What are the side effects for Thiazolidinediones (TZD's)
liver dysfunction- DC at the first sign
 
 
What is a follicular adenoma of the Thyroid?
Follicular adenomas are typically benign, discrete, solitary nodules that, for the most part are non-functional. The few that do form thyroid hormones are then referred to a toxic adenomas.
 
Painless mass
What are the steps to hormone response for steroid hormones?
HRE consists of 2 half sites 2 ligand-bound receptors have to bind to each HRE (dimerization)this stimulates transcription of target gene
toxic/o
poison
poly-
many,much
di-
passing through
adren/o
adrenal gland
thym/o
thymus gland
Biguanides
metformin (Glucophage)
FSH
follicle stimulating hormone
stimulated by the anterior pituitary
targets the ovaries and testes
regulates oogenesis and spermatogenesis
teinein
to stretch, angiotensin
 
 
RAIU
radioactive iodine uptake
****Hormones
****Classifications and functions
Anterior Pituitary
Growth hormone (GH)
LH
Luteinizing hormone (peptide). Released by anterior lobe of pituitary. Targets: Ovaries - stimulates ovulation; stimulates release of estrogen and progesterone (important to pregnancy). Testes - Stimulates release of testosterone.
 
[LH level peaks before menstruation and in the middle of the cycle (ovulation)][ovulation test kits detect LH to predict fertility]
gonad/o
gonads, sex glands
 
ex. hypo/gonad/ism - a subpar condition of the gonads
Adenohypophysis
The anterior pituiary gland
epinephrine and norepinephrine are
catecholamines
Cortisone
AKA hydrocortisone-synthetic version of corticosteroids-administered as an anti inflammatory or and immunosuppressant
glucagon
produced by alpha cells
•stimulates the LIVER to convert GLYCOGEN into glucose and to release the glucose into the blood
•INCREASES blood sugar levels
surround lumen of follicle
follicular cells
Myxedema
hypothyroidism in adults causing physical and mental sluggishness, fatigue, poor muscle tone, low body temp, facial puffiness, and obesity
Adrenocortitropic Hormone
Stimulates the Adrenal Cortex
Zona Fasiculata
Produce cortisol (glucocorticoid)Cells are called spongiocytes from lipid dropletsUnder control of ACTH
Down Regulation
Receptors decreased Diminished response
occurs when hormones levels are high. Less sensitive to
hormone
Oxytocin
Triggers uterine contractions and secretion of milk during breastfeeding
Hashimoto's Thryoiditis
-aka Chronic lyphocitic thyroiditis-autoimmune disease where antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland
calcitonin
a polypeptide hormone that participates in the regulation of calcium levels in vertebrates by inhibiting loss of calcium from bone to the blood.
IGFs
stimulate bone and cartilage growth. too much-gigantism. too little-dwarfism
cretinism
dwarfism caused by hyposecretion of the thyroid gland
T3, T4
Gland: Thyroid-follicleAction: targets cells to increase metabolismDisease: Hypo: crentinism; Hyper: Grave's
Thyroid-stimulating Hormone
(TSH)
stimulates secretion of thyroid homone from thyroid gland
Relaxin
placenta; hormone that relaxes the pelvic ligaments and pubic symphasis to widen pelvis during delivery
What is hyperaldosteronism usually caused by?
adrenal adenoma
 
 
 
Becasue Toxic Multinodular Goiters
 
are functional.... they present differently than non toxic goiters....
 
How do they present?
Subclinical hyperthyroidism
Atrial fibrillations
Palpitations
Tachycardia
Nervousness
Tremor
Weight loss
 
 
Addison disease
chronic syndrome, deficiency of hormone secretion of the adrenal cortex
False
The posterior pituitary secretes the growth hormone and prolactin
______ is antagonistic to the parathyroid hormone.
calcitonin
Cortisol
-hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex-AKA hydrocortisone-anti-inflammatory actions-regulates metabolism of carbs, fats and proteins
stomach
gastrin-->lowers pH so enzymes will work by releasing HClserotonin-> contraction of stomach muscles
thyriod-stimulating hormone
stimulates the thyroid to secrete thyroxine
 
epinephrine (213)
 
Hormone produced by the adrenal medulla that stimulates "flight or fight" responses; aka adrenalin.
For thyroxine to be produced in adequate amounts, the diet must contain sufficient what?
calcium
Parathyroid glands release their hormones without any input from __________instead they respond directly to what
hypothalamus
 
concentrations of chemical levels in the bloodstream
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
placenta; produced by developing embryo and fetal portion of placenta to continue estrogen and progesterone production; keeps uterine lining intact
Adrenal cortex produces what?
cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens
 
 
metabolism
sum total of all chemical processes that take place in a living organism
Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system
Portal system of the adenohypophysisSuperior hypophyseal artery feeds into the primary capillary plexus around the median eminence Connect through venules into the secondary capillary plexus (sinusoids)
Obesity is uncommon in Type ____ diabetes.
I
Respiratory Alkalosis
- Caused by hyperventilation

- Fixed by hypoventilating (respiratory compensation)

- Renal compensation: Secrete HCO3- , reabsorb hydrogen ions to bind to excess HCO3-
Hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex causes what disease?
Cushing's disease
When the lipid soluble hormones bind with a receptor in the cellA) the DNA-hormone complex produces mRNA molecules. B) the receptor-hormone complex binds with a mRNA molecule to produce a DNA molecule. C) the hormone-mRNA complex enters the cytoplasm and
D
 
 
glucocorticoid(214)
 
Any one of a group of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex that influences metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, & proteins.
The adrenal medulla secretes the hormones
epeinephrine and norepinephrine
GONADOTROPIC HORMONE
Type of hormone that regulates the activity of the ovaries and testes; principally, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
Which hormone secreted by the thyroid gland decreases blood calcium level?
calcitonin (CT)
panhypopituitarism
, which is a total (pan-) deficiency of pituitary activity, characterized by decreased secretion of all the pituitary hormones
 
 
 
what are the proteins that bind Thyroid hormone?
 
 
 
Thyroglobulin Binding Protein (most)
Transthyretin
Albumin
What does adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) do?
Stimulates the adrenal glands.
Location of Pancreas
Posterior Inferior to stomach, left side of upper abdomen
The islets of langerhans are found in
the pancreas
What does GH do?
-stimulates cell growth and replication
What are the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis?
polyuria
dehydration
increased thirst
polydipsia
sugar in urine
ketones in urine
CNS depression
Kussmaul respirations
hormones that act locally w/o first entering the blood stream
local hormones
Antidiuretic Hormone ADH (PP)
regulates osmoreceptors of the hypothalamus respond to a rise in electrolyte concentrationtargets kidneyseffect: stimulates tubules to reabsorb water(higher volume higher pressure, higher bp), vasoconstriction(muscles around blood vessels contract --> high bp)
islets of Langerhans
clusters of endocrine cells that secrete two major hormones directly into the circulatory system
acidosis
an excess of H+ in the blood cause it.
Islets of Langerhans Beta Cells
produce insulin
response to high levels of glucose
tells cells to take glucose from blood
 
 
 
What is the Diff Diagnosis for Cushing's syndrome?
ACTH dependent cushings syndrome
Cushing's disease
Ectopic ACTH
Ectopic CRH
 
ACTH independent cushings syndrome
iatrogenic
adrenal adenoma
micronodular hyperplasia
macronodular hyperplasia
a cell whose functions are affected by a specific hormone
target cell
T4 and T3 increase the rate of this throughout the body
metabolism
What two hormones are secreted throughthe posterior pituitary gland?
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Oxytoxin (OXT)
hormones of the ____ are regulated by releasing or inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus
anterior pituitary
islands of langerhans
regulates storage of sugar in the body, located on the pancreas
cause release of epinephrine and norepinephrine
stressful situations and physical exertion
What is the function of endocrine system?
regulation of body activities
 
 
 
Anatomy of the Pancreas
 
 
The pancreas is located in the upper portion of the abdominal cavity on the posterior body wall of the lesser sac. It is a retroperitoneal organ surrounded by a thin, loosely organized capsule.
What are the specail characteristics of endocrine glands
secretion of hormones: chemical \"messengers\" or \"regulators\" which affect the activity of other cellsductless glands: secrete their products directly into bloodstreamwell vascularized: very rich blood supplytarget tissuesslow but long-lasting
The islets of langerhans are composed of
alpha and beta cells
What is the action of ADH?
Anti Diuretic Hormone (ADH)stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb more water from the forming urine and return it to the bloodstream. The effect of ADH is to reduce urine volume and increase blood volume.
What does glucagon do?
targets liver to break down glycogen into glucose and release into the blood (glycogenolysis). it raises blood glucose level
Hormones that are needed under certain conditions are...
...regulated by negative feedback inhibition. The activity of the hormone changes the initial condition, inhibiting the release of more hormone. ex. High blood glucose stimulates insulin release; insulin causes cells to take in glucose; lowered blood glucose ceases insulin release.
 
 
 
What are the S&S  of secondary adrenal insuficiency?
 
 
 
Same as primary only no hyperpigmentation
 
(so weakness, fatigue, anorexia, weight loss)
Cell secretions/Hormone actions : Endocrine
hormones secreted by one cell, carried away via blood to distant targets
What are fenestrations?
Small openins or holes in the walls of the glomerular capillaries allowing certain molecules to leave that would normally be too large to leave.
What are some causes of ADH hypersecretion (SIADH)?
head trauma
carcinomas (ADH secreting tumors)
medications
surgery (fluid volume shifts)
Which gland (endocrine or exocrine) has ducts?
Exocrine (like tear ducts or sweat ducts)
Role of IP3 Second Messenger
Triggers release of Ca from ER Calcium binds to calmodulin and activates it Calmodulin can bind and activate enzymes
How does Thyroid Stimulating Hormone get from the Hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary ?
TSH is transported to the anterior pituitary via Portal Veins between the primary plexus and the secondary plexus of the adenohypophysis.
What is the 'target tissue'?
The specific tissue acted on by each hormone.
What's a similarity between the endocrine system and the nervous system?
They both release cells to act on other cells.
Deficiencies of what hormones are the most life threatening?
Deficiencies of ACTH and TSH are the most life threatening.
Ways of binding for steroids with the cell receptor:
diffuse into cell nucleus; bind w/ receptor in cytoplasm then into the nucleus; interact with specific segment of call DNA and trigger protein synthesis or shut it off.
 
 
what are the classic signs and symptoms of Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Weakness, tiredness, lethargy, fatigue, cold intolerance, headache, loss of taste or smell, deafness, hoarseness, absence of sweating, modest weight gain
muscle cramps /aches/ pains
dyspnea, slow speech, angina pain, constipation, menorrhagia, galactorrhea
Thin brittle nails, thinning of the skin, pallor, puffiness of face/eyelids, yellowing of skin, thinning of outer eyebrows, thickening of tongue, peripheral edema
Pleural/peritoneal/pericardial effusions, decreased DTRs, “myxedema heart”, bradycardia, hypertension, goiter if primary hypothyroidism
Goiter can be the initial symptom
ad-
toward
meningi/o
meninges
pin-
pine cone
glycos/o
sugar, glucose
pituitar/o
pituitary glands
Miglitinides
repaglinide (Prandin)
ouresis
making water; polyuria
 
 
FBS
fasting blood sugar
protein
Lipid-soluble hormones include:
Parathyroid Glands
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
PTH
Parathyroid hormone (peptide). Released by parathyroid in response to hypocalcemia. Raises blood calcium by: promoting calcitriol (form of vitamin D3) synthesis, which promotes intestinal absorption of calcium; inhibiting urinary calcium secretion; indirectly stimulating osteoclasts to reabsorb calcium from bones.
 
[increases synthesis of calcitriol (vitamin D) to absorb more calcium][may be removed with the thyroid gland in cases of hyperthyroidism, causes drop in Ca][binds to receptors in the membrane and activates second messenger system in cell]
Hypertrophy
Excessive growth of tissue
Glucagon increases
blood glucose levels
Prolactinoma
-aka prolactin producing adenoma-benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes excess production of prolactin-cancause infertility, changes in menstration and impotence
The thyroid gland secretes what?
calcitonin
Minearlcorticoids
aka aldosterone; adrenal cortex; corticosteroid; regulates mineral and salt content of blood; regulates water and electrolyte balance
What is PRL?
-Prolactin-Anterior Pituitary-promotes milk secretion by mammary glands
Tetany
Condition affecting nerves causing muscle spasms as a result of low amounts of calcium in the blood caused by a deficiency of the parathyroid hormone.
Somatotrope
Secrete GHunder control of SRH
Tunica Albuginea
Connective Tissue surrounding testes
Acromegaly
abnormal enlargement of the extremities AFTER puberty
gonadotropin
a collective term for follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones
diabetes inspidus
condition resulting from hyposecretion of ADH in which large volumes of urine are formed and, if left untreated, may cause serious health problems
secretes calcitonin
parafollicular cells of thyroid gland
Adrenal Cortex
synthesize steroid hormone called corticosteroids
 
 
 
Hypoglycemia
The defence of euglycemia is multifidus; however in disease states these defences can breakdown and hypoglycemia result.Three major types of hypoglycemia are recognized clinically:
Postprandial or reactive hypoglycemia
Fasting hypoglycemia
Iatrogenic or diabetic hypoglycemia.
 
 
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
stimulates the thyroid gland
Do thyroid hormones increase or decrease metabolic rate?
INCREASE
this stimulates milk production and secretion in female mammary glands
prolactin
Name 4 important anterior pituitary hormones.
ACTH
MSH
GH
TSH
Adrenal Glands
-located on the kidneys-aka suprarenals-secretes aldosterone, androgens, cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine
pineal gland
melatoninincolved in regulation of fiurnal (sleep/wake) cycles
Releasing hormones
make the anterior pituitary secrete its hormones.
 
circadian rhythms (219)
  
Patterns of repeated behavior associated with the cycles of night & day.
Which one of the following structures would not be stimulated by the tropic hormone from the anterior pituitary?Ovaries, Testes, Thyroid, Adrenals, Uterus
Uterus
Hyperpituitarism
Over secretion of hormones due to pituitary tumors or hyperplasia;Benign adenomas are the most common;If the tumor gets large enough it presses on brain tissue and causes visual changes, headache and signs of increased intracranial pressure
 
 
 
How does GDM Present?
 
 
Typically asymptomatic and detected by screening
Can present as the initial onset of diabetes in an individual with unrecognized pregestational T2DM
 
 
thyrotoxicosis
a condition cause by excessive thyroid hormones
Endocrine
derived from greek words "endo" and "crino", meaning to separate within
Obesity is common in Type ____ diabetes.
II
_____ secrete hormones that are transported by ducts.
exocrine glands
EPO stimulates stem cells to
differentiate into rubriblasts
Hormones made in the Pancreas
Insulin and Glucagon
A high concentration of the hormone lowers the number of receptors per cell.

This is called:
down-regulation
Chemical Thyroidectomy
-radioactive iodine is given to partially destroy thyroid cells-administered to treat hyperthyroid disorders like Grave's disease
The binding of epinephrine to its receptor activates a(n) A) A protein. B) D protein. C) G protein. D) K protein. E) M protein.
C
 
Growth Hormone
(GH)
 
 
Released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary; this substance promotes the increase in size of most tissues/cells.
 
Colloid is a storage medium for the thyroid/parathyroid hormone?
thyroid
Full time endocrine organs are
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal
Which hormones stored by the posterior lobe stimulates contraction of smooth muscle in pregnant uterus and contractile cells around ducts of mammary glands?
oxytocin (OT)
Graves disease
most common form of hyperthyroidism is --. exophthalmos, is a common symptom
 
 
 
 
Name 2 kinds of Adrenal Masses
 
Benign Non-functional Adrenal Mass
 
 
Mallignant Adrenal Mass
Type 1 Diabetes
An autoimmune disfunction where the insulin producing cells of the pancreas are destroyed so that the body can no longer produce it. Usually starts in childhood. Known as insulin-dependent diabetes because the patient has to inject insulin regularly.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Affects permeability of the kidney tubules to reduce the excretion of water
With Type ___ diabetes there is an etiology dependent low, normal or high level of plasma insulin.
II
What is in the follicle cavity?
a viscous colloid
What are 2 major acute complications of diabetes mellitus?
hypoglycemia

diabetic ketoacidosis
Which hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex?
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
In Type I diabetes blood sugar levels remain high after a meal because A) too much insulin is released. B) protein is converted to glucose. C) no insulin is released. D) the kidneys are not working.
C
adrenal medulla
The central portion of an adrenal gland, controlled by nerve signals, that secretes the fight-or-flight hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Thymosin, thymopoeitin
Gland: ThymusAction: target WBC to mature into T-cellsDisease: --
What does SIADH cause?
GI disturbances: N/V, loss of appetiteWater retention, hyponatremia (especially if Na fall below 115 mEq/L) and fluid shifts leads to lethargy, headaches delirium, decreased LOC, seizures and coma. Decreased tendon reflexes, tachycardia and hypothermia.
 
 
 
What is more likely to cause symptoms of hypercalcemia:
 
the degree of calcium elevation
or
the rapidity by which it increased
 
 
The speed.
 
slow gradual increases of Calcium tend not to be symptomatic
Type I diabetes mellitus
Due to autoimmune destruction of β-cellsResults in insulin deficiencyInsulin dependent
Glucagon increases blood glucose levels by
stimulating protein and fat degradation, the conversion of glycogen to glucose and gluconeogenesis.
Growth Hormone (GH)
Stimulates cells to increase in size and divide rapidly
Dwarfism, too little in childhood
Gigantism- too much in childhood
2 kinds of gland in the body
endocrine and exocrine
List the 4 duct glands
pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, islands of langerhans
Describe the difference between the Endocrine cells and Exocrine cells
Endocrine cells• Glandular secretory cells that release their secretionsinto ECF – uses hormonesExocrine cells• Secrete their products onto epithelial surfaces
 
 
 
What is Thyroid Resistance Syndrome
 
Mutation in the Thyroid hormone Receptor beta gene
 
results in Clinical Hyopthyroidism but high TSH levels and high Thyroid Hormone levels
Hormones secreted by the thyroid gland
Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyromine (T3) both found in most cells of the body they regulate basal metabolic rate (BMR)Calciton- in bones, regulate osteoclast activity and therefore the amount of calcium which leaves bone --> lowers blood Ca levels
What are the S/S of hypothyroidism
bradycardia, decreased B/P, weight gain, sleepy, lethargic
Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
1/3 of total body water. Also: blood, lymph, serous fluid, synovial fluid, etc.
13 endocrine glands
1. pituitary gland2. pineal gland3 - 7 parathyroid glands8. thyroid gland9. thymus10-11. adrenal glands12.pancreatic islets13. gonads
What is negative feedback? Give examples.
homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback. One factor increase, one factor decreases.
ex: body temperature
 
 
 
DM secondary to Genetic Defect
also called Mature onset diabetes of the young
 
disorder in the synthesis, handiling, excretion of insuline
 
Rare
 
S&S of T2DM present in the young people
 
usually Ketosis resistant
Name the two hormones released in the posterior pituitary gland. What type of cell releases these hormones?
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH/vasopressin) which promotes HO conservation by kidneys. (supraoptic nuclei produces ADH)Oxytocin which stimulates contractions of uterus during parturition and contractions of mammary gland alveoli for milk-ejection reflex (Paraventricular nuclei produce oxytocin)
What are 7 hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary?
1) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
2) andrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
3) gonadotropin (FSH)
4) gonadotropin (LH)
5) prolactin (PRL)
6) growth hormone (GH)
7) melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
Acromegaly is a disorder of what endocrine gland?
anterior pituitary (overproduction of GH)
In the exocrine glands, the ducts carry the secretions into body cavities, into ________ or to the ___________________ e.g. sweat, sebaceous, mucous, and digestive glands.
lumens; external surface of the body
describe the types of interactions between different hormones acting on the same target cell
both NS and endocrine system use chemicals to communicateDifference: in transport; diversity of effects with hormone targets - some chemicals are used as hormones and NTsSimilarities: targets for both NTs and hormones must have1. specific receptor proteins2. way to rapidly inactivate both
Name one major difference between the tissue of the anterior and posterior pituitary lobes.
Anterior lobe is glandular tissue, posterior lobe is neural tissue.
Glucagon is formed where and what does it make
formed in livermakes blood sugar system
T4 and T3 are derived from _______
the iodination of the amino acid tyrosine
What is the greatest danger for patients with Diabetes Insipidus?
The greatest danger for these pts is dehydration! b/c they’re going to completely dry out
3 reasons why the endocrine glands are important
aid in development and growth, effect how body uses food, allow body to deal with emergencies and high stress
Where in the body is the pancreas and what hormone(s) does it secrete?
It is in the upper left area of the abdomen near the kidneys. It secretes insulin and glucagon.
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