Endocrine System 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tocia
labor,birth
parathyroid/o
parathyroid
CA
Cancer
Somatroot
body
PRF
Prolatin-releasing factors
131I
Iodine- 131
BG
Blood Glucose
Thyroid HORMONE
T3/T4Calcitonin
function of oxyphils
unknown
norepinephrine,
also called noradrenaline.
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Pituitary Gland Hormones
T3, T4
thyroid hormones
hypothalamus
-located below the thalamus-secretes    -releasing hormones    -release-inhibiting hormones
Ovaries and Testes produce
androgen
NPH
neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)
Androgens (DHEA)
Adrenal Cortical HormoneTarget-throughout bodyaxillary and pubic hair, female libido, weak in males
GHRH
Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone
Secreted by: hypothalamus
Target: pituitary Gland
Function: Stimulates GH release
estrogen
promotes female secondary sex characteristics and thickens endometrial lining
Oxytocin
Stimulates uterine contractions during labour; milk secretion during lactation (source: Hypothalmus; stored in posterior pituitary)
Progesterone
(steroid) Released by ovaries. Regulates the menstrual cycle and pregnancy.
 
[increases energy and calms anxiety]
[increases the core body temperature during ovulation]
[used to support difficult pregnancies or to prevent pregnancy in birth control pills]
[prepares mammary glands for lactation]
TSH
thryiod stimulating hormone

found: pituitary gland, anterior lobe
target organ
tissues the hormone affects
 
 
thyroiditis
imflammation of the thyroid gland
Adrenal cortex
Secretes glucocorticoids (cortisol) and mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
Calcitonin decreases ______
plasma Ca2+ concentration
Proteins
Formed from Amino acids-Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-Growth hormone (GH)-Prolactin (PRL)
Adrenal Cortexaction
mineral- electrolyte balancegluco- change how cells metabolize proteinsgonad- makes androgen and estrogen, same as gonads
Aldosterone
Adrenal Cortex; Increases sodium and water reabsorption in kidneys
estrogen, progesterone
2 hormones relased by ovaries
 
corticotropin (213)
 
Also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); secreted by the anterior pituitary, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol.
positive feedback means
change is being amplified
Hormone Receptors
-Hormone specific (will trigger release of another hormone)
-Something that will do the work the hormone wants done.
Changes in the composition of extracellular fluid are called
(not on exam)
Glucagon
antagonizes, or opposes, the effect of insulin. When blood sugar levels are low, glucagon stimulates the conversion of glycogen to glucose. It also triggers the transformation of fatty acids and amino acids into glucose.
cretinism is when hypothyroidism is when it occurs in kids
 
Myxedema ....hypothyroidism in older child or adult... also seems to being refering specifically to the edema
 
 
Thyroiditis... thyroid is infected or is being degraded by the immune sy
Endocrinology
The study of the endocrine system.
Follicle (FSH)
Stimulates follicle (ova) development in the ovary and sperm in the testesAlso stimulates sex hormone secretion
somatotropin is also known as
growth hormone
What are eicosanoids?
-derived from arachidonic acid
-include prostaglandins
Disorders of the Thyroid Gland
Hyperthyroidism--Graves DiseaseHypothyroidism--Cretinism
The nervous system communicates through _____ _____.
Nerve impulses
hyperlipidemia
increase of lipids in the blood
glycogen
glucose is converted to what for storage?
Glucocorticoids
Binds with GR receptors for glucose metabolism & to increase and maintain normal concentrations of glucose in blood. (source: Adrenal cortex) **Stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormones from the anterior pituitary**
The parathyroid produces _____ _____, which works to increase blood calcium levels by _____ osteoclast activity and releasing calcium in the blood
parathyroid hormone;
increasing
gluconeogenesis
synthesis of glucose from amino acids or lactic acids in liver
OVARY
Female gonad; the organ that produces eggs, estrogen, and progesterone.
Pituitary Development
Anterierior pituitary - out pocketing of the ectoderm
Posterior Pituitary  - grows from developing hypothalamus
adenomegaly
Enlargement of a gland is called adenomegaly
 
 
If you have a Thyroid Carcinoma that shows
 
Papillary folds of epithelium what will you call it?
 
 
 
 
Pappilary Carcinoma
Antidiuretic Hormone
Hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland to prevent the kidneys from expelling too much water
Paracrine signaling
A hormone diffuse through interstitial fluid and acts on nearby target cells
This leads to diabetes mellitus
Underproduction of insulin
insensitivity to insulin
LOW Bood Sugar
Glucagon
1. gycogen > glucose
2. fats > fatty acids
3. more production and release of glucose
Endocrine vs. Exocrine
Endocrine glands are ductless. Exocrine glands have ducts.
Although hormones are inactive when bound to plasma proteins they can be released when appropriate and immediately exert their action at the t___ t____.
Target tissue
testes
the male gonad or reproductive gland, either of two oval glands located in the scrotum.
Pituitary gland
a small organ with multiple endocrine functions.
Ovaries produce _____, _____, and _____
estrogen; progesterone; inhibin
zones of adrenal cortex
zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis
Pituitary Dwarfism
hyposecretion of growth hormone as a child
Cushing’s: Diagnostic Assessment
Elevated plasma cortisol levels- try and get the sample at the same time each day as levels normally fluctuate; ACTH levels may be elevated;Increased glucose, and sodium;Decreased serum calcium and potassium and lymphocyte count;also causes increased WBCs--don't be alarmed, but do notify dr.;Urine for free cortisol and metabolites- Done as a 24 hr. collection. Urine Ca+, K+, and glucose will be elevated.; Dexamethasone suppression tests for Cushing’s disease.;In normal subjects giving dexamethasone will suppress cortisol secretion.
urine glucose
measure the presence of glucose and insulin,
Diabetes Insipidus (DI)
Result of decreased secretion of anti-diuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Symptoms include excessive thirst (polydipsia) and large amounts of urine (polyuria) and sodium being excreted from the body.
Autocrine chemical signals
type of intercellular chemical signal released by cells and have a local effect on the same cell type from which the chemical signals are released
hypohysis, master gland… controller of many endocrine functions. (2 answers)
Secrete 9 important hormonesAdenohypophysis:
ADH increases ____
the permeability of the nephron's collecting duct to water.

What is a nephron?

What does this increase result in?
Name a gonadocorticoid hormone.
Testosterone is a gonadocorticoid hormone, produced in the adrenal glands (and also mainly in the testes).
What is the ADH hyposecretion disorder called?
diabetes insipidus
Addison's Disease
occurs when the adrenal glands don't produce enough aldosterone or cortisol-chronic fatigue, loss of appetite, muscle weakness and weight loss
adrenocorticotropic hormone
a polypeptide hormone, produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, that stimulates the cortex of adrenal glands.
mineralocorticoids
help the body retain Na+ and water in the kidneys
•promote reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- to form salt
Paracrine Secretions
Refers to a hormone that is released into the gland's surrounding tissue instead of the bloodstream. Affects target cells near the gland.
Which of the following organs secrete hormons?
1. Pancreas
2. Liver
3. Brain
4. Adrenal cortex
5. adrenal medulla
6. thymus
7. ovary
8. testis
9. thyroid gland
10. pineal gland
All of them!
What is Glucagon?
-G (not often used)-Alpha cells of pancreas-Increases/controls glucose levels
 
 
Myxedema Coma
 
Myxedema coma is a loss of brain function as a result of severe, longstanding low level of thyroid hormone in the blood (hypothyroidism). Myxedema coma is considered a life-threatening complication of hypothyroidism
 
a very serious complication of hypothyroidism that is virtually unique to the elderly.
Hormone receptors have a high _______ and a low ________.
affinity and capacity
What do IH's do?
-prevent syntheiss and secretion of hommones
What type of hormone (lipid or water soluble) circulates bound to a carrier protein in the bloodstream?
lipid soluble
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Assay
-diagnostic test to measure the amounts of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in the blood-used to detect abnormal thyroid activity due to excessive pituitary stimulation
Nursing Care for DM
Diet= 6 food groups, decrease sugar, low glycemic index foods; -When exercising eat a snack before, skin and food care
Diabetes Mellitus (type 2)
insulin is produced but receptors are unable to respond (insulin resistant)
What is Cushing's Syndrome?
Hypersecretion of of Corisol from the adrenal cortex-Causes a breakdown of muscle proteins and a redistribution of fat (causes roundness of the face)
What does calcitonin do?
Takes calcium and phosphorus from the bloodstream and absorbs it into the bones.
Prostaglandins - describe their chemical nature and physiological roles
are produced in almost every organbelong to eicosanoid family all dervied from arachidonic acid of plasma membrane.have wide variety of functionsdifferent PGs may exert antagonistic effects in tissues. some promote smooth muscle contration and some relaxation. some promote clotting; some inhibit.promote inflammatory process of immune system play role in ovulationinhibit gastric secretion in digestive system
How are endocrine reflexes usually controlled?
Through negative feedback mechanisms (they are the counterparts of neural reflexes)
Symptoms of Type I diabetes:
hyperglycemia
loss of glucose in the urine
polyuria
polydipsia
polyphagia
weight loss
fatigue
ketoacidosis (makes breath smell sweet)
thymus gland
located in the chest, it aids in the body's defence agains infection by making antibodies
Where is the Pineal Gland located
Small pine-cone shaped structure at tned of short stalk on roof of diencephalon
 
 
 
Describe the metyrapone test
 It is a test to perform when suspecting Cushing's syndrome
 
 
decrease the amount of Cortosol to see if ACTH rises apropriately.
Hypothalamic releasing hormones do this
stimulate or inhibit secretions of the anterior pituitary
What happens if there is over- or under- secretion of the gonadocorticoids?
Gonadocorticoids:
1) undersecretion = female virilisation
2) oversecretion = not known
What is parathormone? Does it increase or decrease calcium level in the blood?
parathyroid hormone that activates cells in bone that dissolve the bone to release calcium into the blood. increase
 
 
 
what is the most common disconjucate gaze (diplopia) finding of Graves
 
 
 
cant move up and to the right
 
inferior rectus gets scared and cant contract
Blood from a capillary bed in the hypothalamus flows through a portal vein into the _______.
anterior pituitary

This happens so that ____
What is the target organ for PTH? What does it do there?
Parathyroid Hormone
Stimulates calcium absorption and maintains blood calcium levels
Targets the Bone, kidneys and small intestine
What is the negative feedback loop, and what is its purpose?
The negative feedback loop reverses a change in a controlled condition.1st a stimulus (ex:stimulating hormone)disrupts homeostatis2nd The receptors detect it and alert the control center3rd the control center sends output instructions (another hormone or chemical impulse) to the effector to control the situation4th the effectors create a physiological response that returns the situation to normal
State the components of a feedback system.
All feedback systems have 5 common components:
1) stimulus
2) receptor organ/tissue
3) integration centre
4) effector organ/tissue
5) response
What are some of the things a diabetes patient does to keep healthy?
Eat small frequent meals, monitor calorie intake, and exercise regularly.
What are the side effects of an increase of metabolic rate
Increase RR, P, temp, increase of O2 consumption, increase of metabolism of CHO, protieins and fats
((more energy-related))
Norepinephrine
FSH
Follicle stimulating hormone
produces catecholamines (~80%epinephrine, ~20% norepinephrine)
aldosterone
Epinephrine
-Stimulates sympathetic nervous system-aka adrenaline-vasopressor: a substance that stimulates blood vessel contraction and increased blood pressure-Adrenal Medulla
affects many other hormones/physiologic functions (maturation, growth, reproduction, circulation, bone metabolism, etc)
hypothalamus
Inhibin
produced by sertoli cells
Norepinephrine
-A catecholamine that stimulates sympathetic nervous system and increases blood pressure, heart rate, and blood glucose.-Adrenal Medulla
XX with high androgen
ambiguous genitalia
Endocrine
ductless, secrete hormones into extracellular space and distributed by blood
example: graves' disease
excess thyroid hormones
3rd thyroid hormone
regulates calcium homeostasis-determines where calcium should be
Diabetes Mellitus
Metabolic disorder or inadequate sceretion of insulin or recognition of insulin by the body resulting in increased urination, drinking and weight loss. May result in ketoacidosis; low pH accompanied by ketones.
Reproduction
social behavior for survival of species
tropic hormones
hormones that control other glands
anterior pituitary is controlled by the....
hypothalamus
treatment: insulin injection; pancreatic beta-cell transplant
Type 2 Diabetes
Cushing's Disease
Disorder caused by excessive adrenal cortex production of glucocorticoid resulting in increased urination, drinking and redictribution of body fat; hyperadrenocorticism.
Ambiguous genetalia
less androgen = less genital masculinization
TRH in hypothalamus stimulates ____ in anterior pituitary
TSH
two principle thyroid hormones
thyroxine(T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
autocrine hormones
local hormones that travel in extracellular space, act on same cell that secreted it
insulin-glucose 'cycle'
blood glucose (and thus these hormones) is affected by the food we eat
The Gonads
-gonad/o-The testes in males and the ovaries in females.
Whitten Effect
the esterous cycle starts in synchrony when a group of female mice are exposed to urine of male mouse (wheee!)
XYY
Supernuerary Y: male dev't: tall, impulsive w/ some learning disabilites (think prison)
testosterone activity
people who win have testosterone go up: stressful events make testosterone goes down
Thyroid Gland

Found at the base of the throat


Consists of 2 lobes & a connecting isthmus


Produces 2 hormones

Thyroid hormone


Calcitonin
1. lipid soluble hormone diffuses into cell2. activated receptor-hormone complex alters gene expression3. Newly formed mRNA directs synthesis of specific proteins on ribosomes4. new proteins alter cell's activity
water-soluble hormones
What controls the anterior pituitary?
the hypothalamus controls this pituitary through hormones sent from the brain, which are then released into the bloodstream, specifically the "growth hormone"
anti-mullerian hormone
this hormone is secreted by the testes during fetal dev't. It inhibits the mullerian ducts, the female set of tubes heading towards the gonads. It is said that this hormone has a determinizing effect
Protein Hormone receptors
these type of hormone (peptides & modified amino acids) are metabotropic (have second messenger)
three different classifications of hormones?
protein/aa based, steroids, and amines
hydrophilic hormones include...
monoamines and peptides (must bind to cell surface receptor)
Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Inhibits urine production by promothing water reabsorption by the kidneys
In large amounts, causes vasoconstriction leading to increased blood pressure
Also known as vasopressin, typically in males
excess hGH during adulthood
hormones released by the thyroid gland
2nd half of Female Reproductive Cycle
Cuteal Phase-progesterone and estrogens-lining keeps growing in case there is a fertilized egg (lining grows due to release of estrogen)
Testicular Feminization
in order for a hormone to have an effect it must have a receptor: this effect is when, although the testes put out testosterone, the woffian ducts don 't develop...have testes, but external female genitals
anterior pituitary growth hormone stimulates...
protein synthesis, CHO and protein metabolism
-weight gain-feeling cold-fatigue, slowed thinking, lethargy-treatment: TSH
stimuli which cause T4 and T3 releas
released from pancreatic beta cells
promotes glucose uptake from blood (decreases blood glucose)
essential for normal growth during childhood & adolescence
promotes synthesis & secretion of small protein hormones called insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)
1. Fight or Flight (Immediate)2. Resistance (Longer-term)3. Exhaustion (depletion...death)
step 2 resistance -General Adaption Syndrome
Sexually Diamorphic Nucleus of the PoA
homosexual men have same size as women
stimulates follicle cells to secrete estrogen
'codes' for 1 egg to be released
what does oxytocin due and what are target tissues?
increases contractoin of uterus during delivery and stimulates milk ejection. targets mothers uterus and breasts
5a reductase deficiency (DHT not made) or "huevo a los doce"
this disorder is like in MIDDLESEX: XY born with ambiguous genitalia are raised as girls, eventually identify as boys
Amylase
Breaks down starches
ACTH target?
adrenal cortex
T4- thyroxineT3- triiodothyronineCalcitonin
thyroxine
Hyperglycemia
Abnormally elevated blood glucose.
hypothyroidism
less metabolic activitymore common
The Thyroid gland
-thyr/o and thyroid/o-Butterfly-shaped-Regulates metabolism, iodine uptake, and blood calcium levels.
androgen receptor defect
peudohermaphrodite/ testicular feminization
renin angiotensin mechanisms controls the secretion of...
aldosterone
often associated w/ iodine deficiency
calcitonin
hGH
most plentiful anterior pituitary hormone
The Pituitary gland
-pituit/o-the "Master Gland"-Secretes many hormones that control or master other glands.
thyroxine
this main thyroid hormone affect thought/information processing (lower this hormone, lowers intelligence)
XXX
Triple-X, normally female but w/extra learning disability
Exocrine
secrete into ducts, ex- salivary, sweat
lipidemia
too much fat in the blood
Thyroxine (T4)
A thyroid hormone that regulates metabolism.
Pheromone
Chemicals that transmit a message from one animal to another
CRH in hypothalamus activates _____ in anterior pituitary.
ACTH
Amine hormones include....
epinephrine, NE, and thyroid hormones
Endocrine Glands
Ductless glands that empty their hormonal products directly into the blood
TSH--> thyroid gland -->T3 and T4--> inc'd use of glucose to produce ATP
insulin
strong vasoconstrictor actioncounters vasodilationrapid onset & short duration of actioncause bronchial smooth muscle relaxation
stress: general adaptation syndrome
FSH female functions
initiates the formation of follicles/eggs w/in the ovary
builds bone, incorporates calcium into bone matrix
Parathyroid hormone
Woffian duct
these male tubes which connect to gonads won't dev't unless encouraged by androgens (like testosterone). This involves a critical period.
urethra
XX => urethra stays openXY => urethra stays closed
male testes secrete
anti-mullerian hormone + 2 Androgens: testosterone & dihydrotestosterone
definition of hormone
messenger molecules released from the endocrine glands and carried throughout the body by blood
Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary
Growth hormone (GH) disorders

Pituitary Dwarfism - hyposecretion of GH during childhood


Giantism results from hypersecretion of GH during childhood


Acromegaly results from hypersecretion of GH durinng childhood

 
 
circulating hormones
endocrine hormones that travel in the blood, act on distant target cells
stimulates ovulation
promotes the formation of the corpus luteum which secretes estrogens, progesterone, relaxin and inhibin
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Augments the growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex. (Anterior pituitary gland)
Three types of hormones
Peptides, Modified Amino Acids and Steroid Hormones
Female reproductive system
As the follicule develops, the uterial endometrium (uterus wall) is growing, getting ready to form the placenta. At ovulation, the egg is released, there is a surge in LH and a slight increase in FSH right after. Eventually, menses
sexual behavior is induced by...
hormone activity (adding testosterone or estradiol) induces...
What does ADH stimulate?
reabsorption of water by kidney tubules, increases water retention
CORTISOL metabolism & stress response
muscle fibers--> protein brkdwn (energy)
Gonadotropic Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
this hormone is synthesized by the hypothalamus and once released into the bloodstream goes to the pituitary and synthesized FSH + LH
anterior pituitary growth hormone targets
bones, cartilage, liver and skeltal muscles
why weight regulation/exercise is important in treating Type II
- reg exercise increases glucose uptake (it is its own stimulant) [exercise mediated glucose uptake]- adipose tissue releases hormones that make you more insulin resistant
no hair under arms @ puberty, never menstruates
testicular feminization/ androgen receptor defect/ pseudohermaphrodite
Amplification of Hormone Effects
- single molecule of hormone binds to receptor- activates ~100 G proteins- each G-protein activates an AC, which then produces ~1000 cAMP -each cAMP activates a protein kinase which may act on ~1000+ substrate molecules
lowers blood levels of calcium; puts calcium into tissues
inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts
XX individuals who secrete more testosterone than normal (CAH exposure)
are slightly more likely to identify as tomboys and be gay.
stimuli that provoke the endocrine gland to start the production-secretion process
humoral- (blood or fluid)- inc glucose in the blood causes the release of insulin by the pancreas
INC reabsorption of Na+ and H20, puts it back in the blood
INC secretion of K+ and H+
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