Social Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Experiments
Cause and effect
hostile sexism
all negative feelings
Prejudice
a positive/negative (usually negative) attitude formed about others because of their membership in a group
Credibility
Believability. A credible communicator is perceived as both expert and trustworthy.
Conformity
The convergence of individual's thoughts, feelings, or behavior toward a social norm
Undesirability


We tend to attribute observed
undesirable behavior to internal processes- don’t usually do the same thing for
positive behavior 





Altruism
The unselfish regard for others welfare (going into a burning building to save others)
Scapegoating
blaming an innocent individual or group for one's own troubles
stereotype
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
Self & Identity
16th Century
Secularisation, Industrialsation, Enlightenment, Psychoanalysis
Group Polarization
Group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not split within the group
Narcissism
High narcissism = high aggression, don’t take criticism well
schemas
the cognitive structures the store knowledge about the world and that represent the knowledge we have about a particular concept or type of stimulus
Public Compliance
Conforming to other people’s behavior publicly without necessarily believing in what we are doing or saying
Social Comparison
Process of evaluating thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and abilities in relation to similar others.
Stereotypes
COGNITIVE
- endorsed or unendorsed KNOWLEDGE about the attributes associated with a group of people.
equity
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give it
Self-Disclosure
Revealing intimate aspects of high or low self-esteem.
social facilitation
stronger performance of simple or well-learned tasks that occurs when other people are present
Multimethod
Try to prove hypothesis in many settings
Conditioned Response
acquired when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Control
Does not receive treatment, is not changed
interdependent self-construal
a self-concept that emphasizes what connects the self to other people and groups
Processing Principles
1. Conservatism (established views are slow to change)2. Accessibility (easily accessed info has the most impact)3. Superficiality vs. Depth (people can process superficially or in depth)
implicit attitude
an attitude that is activated automatically from memory, often without the person's awareness that she or he possesses it
bridging
generate a new solution that satisfies each person with qualities of both positions
experimentla research
studies that seed clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one ore more independent variables while holding others constant (controlling them)
Explicit Attitudes
Attitudes we consciously endorse and can easily report
Mass Hysteria
Outbreak of irrational behavior that is spread by social contagion
Hedonic motive
Organism repeat behavior that are rewarded and avoid behaviors that are followed by punishment.
-more effective on humans because of observational learning
-less effective on humans because people tend to think about the causes of those rewards and punishments
Attachment style
Secure (in an ambiguous situation, people tend to make attributions consistent with their prejudices); Anxious (Find others are reluctant to get as close as I like; worry that partner doesn’t really love me); Avoidant (Somewhat uncomfortable to be close to others; find it difficult to trust others)
indirect exchange
people do not receive benefits directly from those to whom they give benefits
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
Out Group
"Them" - those perceived as different or appart from one's ingroup
Passionate Love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
Central Route Persuasion
Attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
self-serving bias
an attributional bias in which ppl tend to take credit for their successes and deny responsibility for their failures
automatic egotism
response by the automatic system that "everything good is me, and everything bad is not me"

Proposed gain-loss principle (an evaluation that changes wil have more effect than an evaluation that remains constant)
Aronson, E., Linder, D.
Social Impact Theory
Strength - status, abilityImmediacy - phsyical closenessNumber of authority figures
A gradual escalation of intimacy is most positively related to a gradual escalation of
A. cognitive dissonance.
B. social facilitation.
C. groupthink.
D. self-disclosure.
E. normative social influence.
D. self-disclosure.
Self-Enhancement
The tendency to focus on and present positive information about oneself and to minimize negative information
Appraisal Support
When a person provides another with useful and accurate feedback
Define: Stereotype
A generalization about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members
external attribution
behavior is explained by aspects of the situation.
general adaption syndrom
Seyle's --------has three stages: When a stressor first appears, people experience the alarm stage. If the stressor continues, then stage of resistance begins. If the stressor remains constant, the person eventually enters the third stage, the stage of exhaustion.
Responsibility and dissonance
Dissonance effects are greater when people feel personally responsible for their actions, and their actions have serious consequences
bystander effect
bystanders are less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Impression Formation
The process by which we develop an opinion or impressin of another
Self-Perception Theory
 We construct a concept of who we are by being able to attribute our own behaviour internally
Extrinsic Motivation
The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting
intrinsic motivation
wanting to perform an activity for its own sake
What is Self-Serving Bias?
The tendency to view oneself favorably; to protect our self-esteem or how others see us.
What is a command-and-control approach to environmental intervention? Provide an example.
Command-and-control involves using prescriptive legal regulation that uses police power to punish violators.
the theory that we often infer our internal states, such as our attitudes, by observing our behavior
self-perception theory
Social Psychology
The study of how people think about, influence and relate to other people.
Cognitive Bases of SP&D (3)
1) Illusory Correlation
2) Attributional Bias
3) Confirmation Bias
Spotlight effect (self-focus)
Think others are paying more attention than they are (social blunders and public slip-ups)
Seven conditions that strengthen conformity
Conformity increases when...
1) one is made to feel incompetent or insecure.
2) the group has at least three people.
3) the group is unanimous.
4) one admires the group's status and attractiveness.
5) one has made no prior commitment to any response.
6) others in the group observe one's behavior.
7) one's culture strongly encourages respect for social standards.
Memory and recall of schemas
We remember things more consistent with our schemas
conjunction fallacy
the tendency to see an event as more likely as it becomes more specific because it is joined with elements that seem similar to events that are likely
direct pressure on dissenters
Members are under pressure not to express arguments against any of the group’s views.
Define conformity and provide an example.
Conformity: changing oneʹs behavior to match the responses or actions of others.Showing up at a concert wearing formal wear and everyone else is wearing t-shirts and jeans
Propinquity Effect
The finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends
What is resonance
When what you see in reality is congruent with what is shown on TV
Discuss two benefits and two weaknesses of relying on schemas to process the social world.
Increase the speed of understand people and eventsAllow us to sift through information for key featuresAllow us to go beyond the information givenProvides structure in ambiguous settingsAfter weighing all the circumstances, the CEO/drug dealer decided that he would have to terminate a few employees (fire/kill) It is easy to overly rely on schemasE.g., seeing sleep and doctor when they weren’t thereThey can persist after they are discreditedSometimes we make our schemas true by changing our own behavior
What are the external reasons for selecting a friend/mate?
the environment
what we can see
Sherif's moving light experiment & the anchoring heuristic
people conformed to others' estimations of the length of movement, answer was dependent on perception of light, group answer is "anchored" by the three participant's original perceptions and then converges together after
Normative conformity
A tendency to go along with a group in order to fulfil expectations and gain acceptance
What Types of Situations does Social Psych Cover?
 
List 4 examples.
Social Psych research can include research in to objects of situations.
–How weather changes aggressive behavior
–How celebrity endorsements are affect attitudes about products
–People you never even directly interact with
         -- Tiger Woods Anyone?
–Imagined presence of people can have in influence.
Name and describe three of the sources of attitudes discussed in the book.
Four possible sources: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observationallearning, and heredity.
Chicago school of symbolic interactionism
focuses on the study of the social processes involved in a given situation: the goal is not to quantify those processes or try to predict future behavior
Knox and Inkster (1968) - horse betting, asking people if they thought their horse would win
thought that their horse would win, more strongly after bet was already placedThe more permanent (less irrevocable) a decision, the greater the need to reduce dissonance after making it.
Describe the Cesario & Higgins (2008) study in detail. What might advertisers take away from this study to try to more effectively persuade people?
Based on the idea that nonverbal cues affect persuasion (e.g., talking speed)Also tied to regulatory fitPeople have a default orientation as promotion focused (goal-seeking) or prevention focused (risk-avoiding)Tasks that fit their orientation will “feel right” and be easierVariable 1: Ps regulatory focusPs watch a persuasive video about an after school programVariable 2: Eager (promotion) or Vigilant (prevention) nonverbal cuesDVs: effectiveness of message & degree of “feeling right”Ps find messages more persuasiveWhen regulatory focus matches the style of message (e.g., promotion + eager OR prevention + vigilant):Messages are more effectiveParticipants report more “feeling right” about the program (independent of positive mood)
What is a correlation coefficient? Be able to describe the major properties of the correlation coefficient and give examples.
r is a measure of the size and direction of the relationship between two variablesIt can be a number from –1 to +1The sign indicates the direction of the relationshipThe absolute value indicates strength
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