Social Psychology 25 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ABC's of Prejudice
1912-1950study only observable behavior
revealing intimate aspects of oneselves to others
mental representations that are abstract and that can be expressed in language
"the situation"
environmental events and circumstances
the overgeneralization of either positive or negative attitudes toward a group of people
The cognitive component of prejudice and discrimination, a belief applied to all members of the group
frustration-aggression principle
the principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression.
Reverse halo
One negative characteristics, assume they have others.
Capital Punishment Study(Lord, Ross, & Lepper, 1979)
physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm
Benefits another intentionally with no external reward
time saving mental shortcuts that reduce complex judgements to simple rules of thumb
How does delay of gratification relate to academic achievement?
Influenced by our learned behavioral patterns.
compassionate love
an experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partners well-being
attribution theory
suggests how we explain someone's behavior - by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Informational Social Influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
Behavior that is aimed at helping another, requires some self-sacrifice, and is not performed for personal gain.
Foot-In-Door Technique
A compliance technique based on securing compliance with a smaller request as a prelude to making a larger request.
social desirability
conforming to social norms
ppl know answers that are PC
dismissive attachment
an avoidant relationship style marked by distrust of others.
Social Psychology
The scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and behave is social context
factors that influence obedience
the authoritythe victimthe procedure
Ostracism has been observed to intensify
A. self-disclosure.
B. aggression.
C. hindsight bias.
D. deindividuation.
E. conformity.
B. aggression.
attitude summary
-attitudes are positive and negative evaluations of objects
-attitudes are determined by a number of factors, including past behavior, emotions, and cognitions
-high need to evaluate people are more likely to hold attitudes toward issues and describe daily events in evaluative terms
-explicit attitudes are consciously held
-implicit attitudes are activated automatically outside of conscious awareness and may conflict with explicit attitudes
-values are enduring beliefs about important life goals that transcend situations and are important aspects of self-concept
concede on issues that are low priority to you but high priority to other person
an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events
Monitoring Process
Searches for evidence that the unwanted thought is about to intrude on consciousness
Tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure
process by which people identify a stimulus as a member of a class of related stimuli.
Internal justification
the reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself (e.g., one’s attitude or behavior. If an individual states a belief that is difficult to justify externally, that person will attempt to justify it internally by making his or her attitudes more consistent with the statement
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
Reciprocity Norm
An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
Passionate Love
an arouused state of intense positive absorbtion in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition
Kitty Genovese
woman whose murder in front of witnesses led to research on bystander effect
Solomon Asch
-What would people do when confronted with an obvious known fact? (Math length of line)
-7 students (6 working with Asch)
-20% independent, 33% conformed to wrong answer
components of attitudes
may involve sterotypes
may conform to ingroup
may be changed
assessment affected by social desirability
self-enhancement motive
the desire to learn favorable or flattering things about the self
social comparison theory
the hypothesis that we compare ourselves to other people in order to evaluate our opinions, abilities, and internal states
cognitive miser
A mental characteristic in which the least amount of attention and mental effort needed to process information is used. This concept assumes that humans are limited in their capacity to process information and, therefore, make use of automatic processes (mental shortcuts, formally referred to as cognitive heuristics) that simplify complex problems. In other words, all other things being equal, we are motivated to use relatively effortless and simple mental shortcuts that provide rapid but often inaccurate solutions rather than effortful and complex mental processing that provides delayed but often more accurate solutions.
Masked bandits might be more likely than unmasked bandits to physically injure their victims due to
A. deindividuation.
B. group polarization.
C. the mere exposure effect.
D. social facilitation.
E. social loafing.
A. deindividuation.
locus of causality
the dimension that describes whether people make internal or external attributions
Bandura Bobo Doll Study (1961)
Reinforces Observational Learning. Children who saw an adult release aggression violently on a Bobo doll were more likely to violently act out in the same way when distressed
The tendency to use cues from other people's self-presentations in controlling one's own self-presentation
Action in response to a direct order of authority
Misattribution of arousal
The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do
dispositional optimmism
The expectation that in the future good events will be plentiful and bad events will be rare.
Social learning
the theory that we learn social behavior (e.g., aggression) by observing others and imitating them (Bandura and the Bobo doll)
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger one
legitimization of authority
tendency to grant legitimacy to the orders or commands of persons in authority
Social Loafing
The tendency for people to expend less effort when in a group than alone.
What is "cognitive dissonance"?
Tension or discomfort caused by simultaneously holding two inconsistent cognitions.
Overjustification Effect
The tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it is caused by intrinsic reasons
availability heuristic
the tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an event by the ease with which releveant instances come to mind
What are the four main psychology subfields?
Basic Research
Applied Research
Self-Affirmation Theory
The idea that people will reduce the impact of a dissonance-arousing threat to their self-concept by focusing on and affirming their competence on some dimension unrelated to the threat
Utility value
the ability of a person or participant to help another achieve his or her goals
Descriptive Research
Goal is to describe people and their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.. observational studies, archival studies, surveys
augmentation principle
more weight should be given to a particular cause of behavior if the otehr causes present would have produced an opposite result.
Direct Aggression
Direct: focused at a target to cause physical or emotional harm: hitting, yelling, insults
Hostile aggression
an act of aggression stemming from a feeling of anger and aimed at inflicting pain or injury
What is psychological realism?
the extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life
covariation principle
for something to be the cause of a behavior, it must be present when the behavior occurs and absent when the behavior does not occur
self perception theory
The belief that people come to know their own attitudes by looking outward at their behavior and then inferring what their attitudes must be.
Describe the three goals of self-presentation. Then, for each, provide one detailed example ofhow YOU sought to achieve each of these goals, and explain which particular strategy YOU used in your attempt to achieve them.
Goals: appearing likable, appearing competent, conveying status and power.
Stable Attribution
The belief that an event is caused by factors that will not change over time (your intelligence), as opposed to factors that will change over time (your effort)
Attitude and dissonance
Discomfort caused by a threat to the self-concept motivates people to change their beliefs or behavior. The effects of dissonance can go beyond attitudes and can modify the way we experience basic psychological drives. Changing one’s attitudes to justify one’s behavior not only can have powerful effects but can also initiate processes that are remarkably persistent over long periods (weight loss – Axsom and Cooper 1981)
9. Describe one of the Gilbert & Hixon (1991) studies. What do they find regarding stereotype activation and application under cognitive load?
Examined differences between activation and applicationDevine’s study activated the stereotypes for Ps (by priming)Gilbert & Hixson ask whether people automatically activate stereotypes on their own in the presence of category membersPs put under cognitive load or not.Then Ps do a word completion task where the person turning cards is Asian or WhiteComplete words like “s_ort” and “ri_e”Showed decreased activation of stereotypes under cognitive loadSame stereotypic word completion task with presence or absence of cognitive loadAfter word completion task, Ps were put under cognitive load or notThen given an opportunity to rate card-turnerPs rated her more stereotypically when under loadPs show increased application of activated stereotypes under cognitive load
what is relative deprivation?
perception that one is less well of than others.
Schacter: demonstrated how groups respond to an individual who ignores the group's normative influence
-Groups read about "Johnny Rocco," a juvenile delinquent. -An accomplice in the group was instructed to disagree with the group's recommendations. The deviant received most of the communication from the other group members. group members began to ignore the deviant and then recommended that the deviant be eliminated from the further group discussions
Downward social comparison (self comparison theory)
Performed badly and need to feel better; comparing with people who do worse to feel better
Stimulus - Value - Role Theory
Stimulus Stage - Attraction started by physical appearanceValue Stage - Attachment is based on similarity of values and beliefs
when do groups function better than individuals?
when task requires multiple abilities, when task requires division of labor
What are fixed and growth mindsets?
fixed-the idea that we have a set amount of an ability that cannot change growth-the idea that our abilities are malleable qualities that we can cultivate and grow
You are new woman in a sorority and you are interested in displaying your status and powerto impress other members. Based on your knowledge about self-presentation, which tacticswould you employ? List three specific tactics, and give a concrete example of
Possible tactics: displaying the artifacts of status and power; conspicuous consumption; personal associations (BIRGing and CORFing); and using nonverbal expressions and behaviors.
7. Are people more likely to get help in rural or urban settings? Why?
People in rural settings are more helpfulTwo proposed explanationsPeople in rural areas have internalized the importance of helpingUrban overload – people become overwhelmed with stimulation from the environment in urban settingsEvidence favors the urban overload hypothesis
Describe a study that demonstrates the foot-in-the-door effect.
IV: Ps were approached to put a small “Be a Safe Driver” decal in their window (almost all said yes) or not3 weeks later, Ps are asked to put a 10 foot high sign in their yard that says “Drive Safely”DV: how many people say yes
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