Social Psychology 30 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
explicit sexual material
Cutting Off Reflected Failure
"them"-those perceieved as different of apart from our ingroups
theories that emphasize subjective viewpoints when studying personality. They have an optimistic view that focuses on humans’ rationality, consciousness, and freedom.
thoughts and beliefs about ourselvesAKA "the known" or "me"the active processor of information
Nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations such as the "OK" sign
Ingroup bias for your own group.
Following the directions of another because that person is an authority figure
Attribution Theory
how we explain someone's behavior
Cooperate Vs. Defect
Rational decision = defect
a principle that maintains that siblings develop into quite different people so that they can peacefully occupy different niches within the family environment
Albert Bandura (1997) proposed a social learning theory of aggression. He believes that we learn aggression not only by experiencing its payoffs but also by observing others. As with most social behaviors, we acquire aggression by watching others act and noting the consequences.
Physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm. In laboratory experiments, this might mean delivering electric shocks or saying something likely to hurt another's feelings.
To what does an independent self-concept relate?
implicit attitudes

attitudes that influence our feelings
and behavior at an unconscious level – IAT 

Psychosexual StagesFreud
the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas of the body called erogenous zones
companionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
Superordinate Goals
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
a negative action taken against an individual based on membership of a group
Informational Social Influence
acceepting others' opinions about reality, especially in conditions of uncertainty
informative social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
refers to whether the behavior occurs repeatedly in response to the situation
the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. Generally, the new target is a safer ot more socially acceptable target.
the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action
Other errors of attributions

• Negativity Bias:psychological phenomenon by which humans pay more attention to and give more weight to negative than positive experiences or other kinds of information.

• The Primacy Effect:



The tendency for information presented early in a sequence to have more impact on
informational influence
conformity occuring when people accept evidence about reality provided by other people.
The popularly supposed tendency, in a relationship between two people, for each to complete what is missing in the other.
“Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse” 

·      Unhealthy characteristics of romantic relationships. Things to work on in relationships/warning signs
o      Criticism (attacking partner’s character, trying to win arguments), contempt (insults), defensiveness (cross-complaining), stonewalling
o      What should you do? Complain at a specific level, not about a person, listen, validate your partner and his/her points, show gratitude, accept responsibility
Fear-Arousing Communications
Persuasive messages that attempt to change people’s attitudes by arousing their fears
Tend-and-Befriend Response
Responding to stress by either attacking the source of stress of fleeing from it
Group Polarization
Tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions held by individual group members
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
Make you think that something average is awesome i.e. being taken to a regular house seems better after visiting a shack
social-responsibility norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
Aggression-replacement programs
Programs designed to teach parents to raise their children without modeling violence or aggression.
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
risky-shift phenomenon
type of group polarization effect in which a group discussion leads to the adoption of a riskier course of action than the members would have endorsed initially
Social Exchange
The hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits.
What are the four main differences in attribution for independent and interdependent individuals?
Cognitively Based Attitude
An attitude based primarily on people's beliefs about the properties of an attitude object
trait self-esteem
the enduring level of confidence and regard that people have for their defining abilities and characteristics across time
refers to what an individual does in different situations
two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as "us."
self-discrepancy theory
according to this theory we compare ourselves to two points of reference, the ideal self (how we'd like to be) and the ought self (how we believe we should be, based on a sense of obligation or duty). Discrepancies between actual and ideal self can lead to dejection-related emotions, while discrepancies between actual and ought self lead to agitation-related emotions.
a theory predicting that people will often cope with specific threats to the integrity of their self-concept by reminding themselves of other unrelated by cherished aspects of their self-concept
self-affirmation theory
Psychological Realism
the extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
stereotype threat
the experience of concern about being evaluated based on negative stereotypes about one's group.
secondary appraisal
According to Lazarus, in order for stress to be evoked for a person, two cognitive events must occur. The second necessary cognitive event, called the -----l, is when the person concludes that they do not have the resources to cope with the demands of the threatening event. See also primary appraisal.
Attitude Accessibility
Refers to the strength of the association between an object and your evaluation of it.
the set of thought processes we use to assign cause to our own behavior and to the beahvior of others
Freud believed that we had the need to release our aggression
over justification
- When you give someone something for something they already love, it undermines their intrinsic motivation.
Causal Theories
Theories about the causes of one's own feelings and behaviors; often we learn such theories from our culture
base rate fallacy
the tendency to ignore or underuse base rate information and instead to be influenced by the distinctive features of the case being judged
what are the cognitive sources to prejudice
categorization, attribution, distinctiveness
Internal Justification
I DO THIS BECAUSE I PERSONALLY THINK IT IS RIGHTThe reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself (e.g., one’s attitude or behavior)
pos. vs. neg. correlations
Positive Correlation, Y increases with XNegative Correlation, Y decreases with X
Behaviorally Based Attitude
An attitude based on observations of how one behaves toward an attitude object
Diffussion of Responsibility
The presence of others makes each person feel less responsible for the outcome.
Cognitive dissonance
caused by behaving in ways that are inconsistent with our attitudes and beliefs.
In order to reduce: change your attitude or belief.
Venting anger and hostility
Venting anger – directly or indirectly, verbally or physically – does not reduce hostility. It increases it. (Bushman and punching bags)
Social Loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts torward attaining a common goal than individually accountable
What is obedience?
When behavior is influenced due to the direct commands of an authority figure.
just world hypothesis
the belief that people get what they deserve in life and deserve what they get
belief in inherent morality
Members believe in the rightness of their cause and therefore ignore the ethical or moral consequences of their decisions.
self evaluation maintenance theory
self-concept can be threatened by how other people behavethree factors: performance/closeness/relevance
Diffusion of Responsibility
If the only one present, likelihood to help increases dramaticallyex: \"someone else will help, so I'm less responsible\"
Interpretive Set Explanation
the first items serve to create an initial impression that then is used to interpret subsequent information, either thru the discounting of incongruent facts or by subtle changes in the meaning of the words further down the list
7. What are the two main types of relationships? Describe a study that demonstrates the effect of having a communal or exchange expectation on behavior.
Exchange Relationships-Governed by equity (equal contributions)We expect quick and equal reciprocityWe keep track of contributionsWe feel exploited when we are not repaidHelping the other person doesn’t affect our moodE.g., acquaintances, casual friendsCommunal Relationships-The focus is responding to the others needs over timeStrict reciprocity is not desiredWe don’t keep track of contributionsContributions can be more unequalHelping the other person makes us feel happyE.g., close friends, partners, familyClark (1984)Led male subjects to believe they would be playing a game with a female who:Was married and visiting the college for a short time only (exchange expectation)Was new to town, unattached, and looking for friends (communal expectationPs complete a number circling taskTold they would be paid based on how many numbers they foundThe female (a confederate) always went first and always circled the same amount of numbers with a red penThe DV was whether the male Ps used a red or black pen when it was his turnMen who used the red pen were indicating that they would split the money equallyThis is a communal behaviorMen who used the black pen were indicating that they wanted split the money according to each person’s performanceThis is an exchange behavior
Kermer, Driver-Linn, Wilson, & Gilbert (2006) "Loss-Aversion"
Illustration of the Influence of Attitudes on Perception and Categorization
People expect the pain of a loss to have a larger impact than an equivalent gain of a positive value.
Impact Bias -- the tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of a negative reaction
Affective Forecasting Error 
Eagly, Wood, and Swimbehavior differences in men and women
shows that there are indeed behavioral differences between men and women such that women are more concerned with the welfare of others and men are more independent and dominant.
Misattribution of arousal
We make mistakes about why we feel the way that we do; Dutton & Aron (1974): Attractive woman approached men to fill out survey and gave phone #; DV: would they call her?; IV:on long, narrow, wobbly, foot-bridge vs. on wide, solid, sturdy bridge; Results: wobbly bridge  more likely to call ; Wobbly bridge  adrenaline pumping  mistook physiological arousal for attraction
How did the views of Socrates and Plato differ fromt the view of Aristotle?
Socrates believed that knowledge is what we are born with, while Aristotle stressed that knowledge grows from experience.
What 2 conditions must be met, in order for punishment to actually reduce aggressive behavior?
-must be prompt-must be unavoidable
What is nonverbal behavior? What about nonverbal behavior is cross-culturally universal? What about nonverbal behavior differs depending on cultural context?
the way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words; nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, geastures, body postiton and movement, the use of touch and gazeDisplay rules are particual to each culture and dictate what kinds of emotional expression people are supposed to show. Emblems are gestures with well-defined meanings ane are culturally determined the six major emotions are universal, encoded and decoded similary by people around the world: they have evolutionary significanceanger, fear, disgust, happyness, surprise, sadness
when are groups most likely to engage in groupthink?
group is cohesive, homogenous, has directive leader, lack procedures to consider alternative solutions, insulated from outside forces, time pressure)
ways to prevent "groupthink"
1. Be critical 2. Be impartial 3. Independent groups 4. Subdivide group 5. Trusted associates 6. Outside experts 7. Devil’s advocate8. Alternative scenarios 9. “Second-chance” meeting
Mr. Jones is a member of the faculty committee on academic standards at a local private school.  He persoanlly disagrees with the other committee members' proposed plan to begin accepting students with below-average grades.  Mr. Jones is most likely, ho
A. the other committee members are unanimous in their opinion.
/ 79

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online