Social Psychology Definitions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Solomon Asch
Conformity researcher
geographical nearness. Functional proximity strongly predicts liking
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
shared goals
goals shared by group
Social Facilitation
competing against others increases/decreases performance
Mental frameworks for organizing information about the social world around themes or subjects that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember.
voluntarily yielding to social norms at the expense of one's own preferences
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 749)
behaviors that cause psychological or physical harm to another individual
The process through which people select, monitor, and adjust their strategies in a nattempt to reach their goals.
6 Social Influence Techniques
Robert B. Cialdini
mental representation of one specific episode, event, or individualex: thinking about football and picturing vince young
communion: emotional, devotes self to others, gentle, kind, helpful, aware of other's feelings, understanding of others, warm in relationships
d. Deindividuated behaviors-
extreme, atypical, or polarized behaviors. Replace
Emotional Contagion
Copycat suicides; Tylenol poisonings; example of power of the media
in social behavior uequal treatment of different groups of people
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
dispositional causes
causes relating to the internal characteristics or traits of individuals
confirmation bias
tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
Evaluation apprehension
concern about how others are evaluating you (people increase performance)
Preventing Groupthink 
Be impartial--do not endorse any position
Assign a "devil's advocate" or group dissenter
Subdivide the group, then reunite to discuss
Welcome critiques from outside experts and associates
Call a "second chance" meeting to discuss any disagreements. 
hindsight bias
The tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one's ability to have foreseen how something turned out. Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.
freudian psychoanalysis
theoretical approach that seeks to explain behavior by looking at the deep unconscious forces inside the person
Who was the father of psychology?
Wilhelm Wundt
the most representative members of a category
Experimental Research
Research involving an independent and dependent variable with randomly assigned participants.
Social Psychology
How people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by other people. It is goal oriented, the behavior.
Method by which researches attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside, without imposing any preconceived notions they might have
actor-observer effect
the tendency to attribute internal causes more often for other people's behavioir and external attributions more often for one's own beavior
Illusory Correlation
tendency for people to overestimate link btwn variables that are only slightly or not at all correlated. – being a distinct person, doing something most people dont do.
Likely to occur when no social category seems relevant or if the person acts inconsistently with the category
focuses on the analysis of large-scale social processes
impression formation
process of developing an opinion or impression of another person
Social Trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
Attribution theory
The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Post Milgram study ethics
Internal review board, informed consent, debreifing
secure attachment
attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy.
Social Learning Theory
behavior is learned through the observation of others as well as through the direct experience of rewards and punishment.
independent self-construal
a self concept that emphasizes what makes the self different and sets it apart from others
Overjustification effect
If given a reward, people will attribute their behavior to the reward instead of their disposition.
            Basically- The result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing.
the ability of a behavior or cognitive process to operate w/o conscious guidance once its put into motion
Authoritarian Personality Theory
Develop a prejudice and stereotypes against people who do not conform to our ideals
Twist of Asch's experiment: Writing answers on paper
-Conformity dropped dramatically-demonstrates the power of social disapproval in the original study in shaping a person's behavior
mirror-image perceptions
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
Learned Helplessness
The state of pessimism that results from attributing a negative event to stable, internal, and global factors
Social Traps
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually exclusive behavior
internal locus of control
they control their own destiny
ability to activate things in the mind based on recently or frequently encountered ideas that may change how social events are interpreted
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Describe the characteristics of correlational research. Be prepared with an example of positive and negative correlations.
two variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them Questions:Are X and Y related?How does Y change when X changes?Can you predict Y by knowing what X is?
outgroup homogeneity effect
perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members. Thus "they are alike; we are diverse."
ought self
the self that is concerned with the duties, obligations, and external demands we feel we are compelled to honor
medical model of helping
Not responsible for problem or solution
social loafing
The tendency to exert less effort when working on a group task in which individual contributions cannot be monitored
Intrinsic Motivation
Engage in a behavior for ones own pleasure or interest. You do it because it makes you happy.
Define: Aggressive Stimulus
An object that is associated with aggressive responses (e.g., a gun) and whose mere presence can increase the probability of aggression
Instrumental Aggression
Aggression as a means to some other goal other than causing pain (playing sports)
social identity theory
the theory that people favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their self-esteem. – drawn to seeing your particular group as better than the other groups … what our group does gives us our self esteem … our self esteem is tied to the performane of our groups
Memory vs. Impression
People who are told to memorize, remember less than those who are asked to form impressions
Self Serving Bias
When we take credit for our successes by attributing them to internal factors, but we distance ourselves from our failures by attributing them to external causes (Individualistic Cultures)
negative state relief theory
people help others to relieve their own stress
Health values and SES

low SES people lack basic info about health issues
do not know-->what cholesterol is, why you should brush your teeth, etc. 
A dispositional attribution is to _________ as a situational attriution is to _________.
A. normative influence; informational influence
B. high ability; low motivation
C. personality traits; assigned roles
D. politically liberal; politically conserva
C. personality traits; assigned roles
Stereotype Threat
When a person lives up to a stereotype because they were preoccupied with trying not to live up to it. Type of self-fulfilling prophecy.
peripheral route to persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by individual cues, such as a speaker;s attractiveness.
eye blink startle method
People typically blink their eyes when they are startled by a loud noise. Moreover, a person who is in an anxious or fearful state when startled will blink faster and harder than a person in a normal emotional state. This means that eye-blink speed when startled may be an objective physiological measure of how anxious or fearful a person is feeling. The eye-blink startle method may allow researchers to measure how anxious persons are without actually having to ask them
Food for Thought 236
80 of student chose to eat the worm
Svetlana, a 20-year-old college sophomore, is beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to ________ than less attractive college women.a. be perceived as more socially skilledb. have a much higher level of self-esteemc. be perceived as less intellig
a. be perceived as more socially skilled
Describe the steps involved in the foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face techniques. Whatinfluence principle does each utilize? Provide an example of each.
The foot-in-the-door technique that increases compliance with a large request by firstgaining compliance with a smaller, related request. This technique relies on thecommitment/consistency principle.The door-in-the-face technique works by asking for a large favor and then, when thefirst favor is rejected, retreating to a smaller favor. This second request is typicallyaccepted because the concession seems like a favor done for the influence target. Thus,this technique capitalizes on the reciprocity norm.
empirical derived test
a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
Conditions under which attitudes determine behavior
1. Neither the attitude nor the behavior is subject to social desirability. 2. Chance situational influences on the behavior are minimal. 3. The attitude is specifically relevant to the observed behavior. 4. The attitude is potent – i.e., (a) on our minds (b) gained through direct experience
students make a video for AIDS prevention for hs students. if have unprotected sex = Hippocracy condition
Students in the hypocrisy condition were subsequently more likely to buy condoms than students in any of the other conditions.
"Saying is believing" paradigm
we begin to believe our own lies, but only is there is not abundant external justification for making the statements that run counter to our original attitudes
What types of info help people form attitudes?
1. Beliefs about the object's characteristics2. Feelings and emotions about the object3. Information about past and current actions toward the object(negative info and accessible info are weighted more heavily)
Describe each of the three components of Correspondent Inference Theory (CIT). Under what circumstances should we make dispositional attributions?
This was a theory about how people should make attributions if they were being good intuitive scientists.Specifically, the model focuses on when people should make dispositional attributions.Free ChoiceThe more evidence that a behavior was freely chosen, the stronger the dispositional attributionExpectedness of the BehaviorThe more expected the behavior, the weaker the dispositional attributionEffects of the BehaviorThe more positive effects of a behavior, the less certain you can be about why the person produced the behavior.Dispositional attributions will be more likely when:Choice is highExpectedness is lowThere are few positive effects of the behavior
What are the two routes of persuasion?
Petty and Cacioppo >> ppl do not always process communications in the same wayCentral RoutePeripheral route
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