Social Psychology Exam 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
survival
living longer
racism
whats inside ur heart
self-actualizationMaslow
the highest psychological need--motivation to fulfill one's potential
schema
cognitive structures that guides information processing.
frustration
the blocking of goal-directed behavior
Flow
Theory created by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, When you become totally immersed in a task that is challenging and stimulating, but well-suited to your abilities. Your nonconscious is fully occupied, conscious is active guiding your nonconscious, and your self-consciousness is subdued and distracted
Heuritsics for interpretation
availability vs. representativeness
Conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Aggression
The intentional infliction of physical or psychological harm on others.
Affect
automatic response that something is good or bad
heuristics
mental shortcuts that provide quick estimates about the likelihood of an event by the extent to which it resembles the typical case
The cognitive comonent of prejudice consists of _______________.
stereotypes
Collectivism
Collectivists tend to value the virtues of interdependence, cooperation, and social harmony. Also collectivists tend to be associated with Eastern Cultures
companionate love
An experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner's 
well-being.
Social Facilitation
Enhancement of performance brought about by the presence of others
Emotional Contagion
Copycat suicides; Tylenol poisonings; example of power of the media
milgram's experiments
tested obedience and willingness to comply with orders to enact sadism
Informational Social Influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
Situational Causes
Interpreting the behavior of an individual as a function of external (enviornmantal) factors
Compassionate Love
The deep affectionate attatchement we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
general adaption syndrom
stress reaction: alarm, resistance, exhaustion
false consensus
- False perception that one’s opinions are supported - The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors
The sum total of an individual's beliefs about his or her own personal attributes.
Self-Concept
Cognitive Apprasials
Split second decisions. Result from mood, experience, and schematic memories
symptoms of groupthink
Illusion of invulnerability Collective rationalization Belief in inherent morality Stereotyped views of out-groups Direct pressure on dissenters Self-censorship Illusion of unanimity Self-appointed ‘mindguards’
In-Group
Social group to which a person belongs
How could intimidation occur in an everyday situation?
-
attitudes
judgment that something is good or bad, likeable, moral, etc.
groupthink




tendency to make bad group decisions to keep group integrity. 




ii. Normative social influence-
group discussion highlights group norm. We are mot
normative
conformity based on a person's desire to fulfill others' expectations, often to gain acceptance.
Illusory Correlation
we frequently perceive a relationship between two entities that we think should be related, but they are not
mirror-image perceptions
mutual views often held by conflicting people, each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
Just-world phenomenon
tendency of people to believe the world is just & that people get what they deserve (aka karma)
Social Loafing
a decrease in performance based on being in a group
Social psychology
subfield in psychology that deals with how our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by our social interactions with others
Compliance
The tendency to accede to the requests or demands of others.
Social cognition
began in 70s; about thoughts and social relationships
Evaluation Apprehension
Concern for how others are evaluating us.
displaced aggression
aggression towards a target other than the one that has attacked or frustrated you


can explain domestic violence, child abuse, animal cruelty
target it weak
 
self-handicapping
putting obstacles in the way of one's own performance so that anticipated or possible failure can be blamed on the obstacle instead of on lack of ability
Prosocial Behavior
any act intended to benifit another person (regardless of motive)
Those identification as having a (n) _____________ incorporate prejudice into a personality pattern.
Authoritarian personality
KIN SELECTION
The idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one's close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes.
When are experiments obvious?
After the facts are known.
Secure Attachment Theory
An attachment style characterized by trust, a lack of concern with being abandoned, and the view that one is worthy and well liked
The Asch Paradigm
Participants conformed to the wrong answer 37% of the time!
relative deprivation
feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared to others.
Social identity
the positive feelings we gain from belonging to positive or important groups
Impression management
the ways individuals seek to control the impression they convey to other people
Personal Space
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
Lab research
Done in lab, signed up. Pro-Control is good. Con- artificial environment (ext. validity).
duplex mind
the idea that the mind has two different processing systems (conscious and automatic)
field experiment
an experiment set up in the real world, usually with participants who are not aware that they in a study of any kind
overjustification effect
the result of bribing people to do what they already enjoy; they may then seen their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing
Placing people into groups based on the arbitrary outcome of a coin toss leads people to show favoritism to their own group when dividing any rewards.  This best illustrates
A. the mere exposure effect.
B. the fundamental attribution error.
C. deindiv
D. ingroup bias.
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished.


·      Eastwick and Finkel (2008)


o      Past research shows mate preferences are heavily gendered. Men report greater concern for attracitveness of partner, women report greater concern for resources of partner. Through speed dating and real dating studies E&F find no gender differences though in preferences “revealed” by behavior
o      What people say they want isn’t predictive of who they wind up falling for. There are no gender differences on either dimension in actual choices made by men and women
Low ball technique
Compliance to a costly request is gained by first getting compliance to an attractive, less costly request but then reneging on it. Ex. When you're about buy a car and you think its a good deal but then you find out there are all these little charges, you still buy the car.
Just-World Phenonmenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and people, therefore, get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Social comparisons
using other people and groups as a point of reference for our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
Stereotype Threat
a sense of threat evoked in members of stereotyped groups when they believe they may be judged or treated stereotipically
Factor 3: The Role of Construal
Interpretation and inferences made about a stimulous or situation
difussion of responsibility
when you see groups you people not acting upon
determinants of subjective norms
-subjective norm is a persons judgment about whether other people will approve of a particular behavior
1) the percieved expectations of significant others
2) one's motivation to conform to those expectations
(prego- ex. my husband wants to wait until we can afford a house/i want to please my husband (so she will conform)
Baron (1988) insults and aggression
had a confederate insult another subject; when given an opportunity to aggress against the confederate, those who had been insulted were more aggressive than those who hadn’t.
i. In the dark-
put people in groups in which they feel anonymous
graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction
aka GRIT. One side announces its recognition of mutual interests and intends to reduce tension. Initiates conciliatory acts. Opens the door of reciprocity
why does group polarization occur? (2 explanations)
1. Persuasive arguments (or “informational influence”) 2. Social comparison (or “normative influence”)
Provide examples of possible proximate and ultimate explanations for maleʹs desire to gain and maintain status.
Students should focus on evolutionary explanations, on the one hand, and a more proximate explanation, on the other. illustrations of each should be provided.
Why We Have Schemas
Organize and make sense of the world, fill in gaps of our knowledge, and to reduce ambiguity - we only remember some info, and we remember other info that was never there but that we have unknowingly added
What are attributions? Why do people make attributions? What are the two different types of attributions that people can make?
Attribution – an explanation for behavior (either our behavior or the behavior of others)Attribution theory – a theory about how people explain the causes of behaviorDispositional – behavior was caused by internal factors based on our personalitySituational – behavior was caused by external factors based on the situationArgued that we are all intuitive scientists and we try to figure others out to:Predict our environmentControl our environment
Two Basic Principles of Social Behavior
1. social behavior is goal oriented2. social behavior represents and continual interaction between the person and the situation
Is Aggression Innate? - Instinct Theories (Freud)
"We have a death instinct."
- unconscious desire to escape the tensions of day to day living through death.
Four factors that influence obedience (and evidence for them from Milgram's studies)
1. Emotional distance of the victim 2. Closeness of the authority 3. Legitimacy/status of the authority 4. Actions of other subjects
Consequence odf being social animals
we live in a state of tension between values associated with individuality and values associated with conformity
Name and describe the two kinds of sexual harassment described in the book, and give an example of each.
Students should describe quid pro quo and hostile environment harassment.
How is Technology used as a unit of measurement?
 
Various kinds of equipment are used to measure physiological responses such as changes in heart rate, levels of particular hormones, and sexual arousal
Computers are used to record the speed with which participants respond to stimuli, such as how quickly they can identify the race of people in photographs or the presence of a weapon in the hands of a white or black man
Eye-tracking technology is used to measure exactly where and forhow long participants look at particular parts of a stimulus, such as advertisement or video
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