Social Psychology Exam 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
proximity
nearness or propinquity
one-sided vs. two-sided appeals
chameleon effect
unconsciously mimicking others expressions, postures and voice tons helps us feel what others are feeling
Conformity
Going along with the crowd
framing
whether messages stress potential gains (positively framed) or potential losses (negatively framed)
Theory
Framework for explaining various events or processes. -Testable
Ross
came up with the fundamental attribution error
Schema
A mental representation capturing the general characteristics of a particular class of episodes, events, or individuals.
Discrimination
negative behaviors directed at members in social groups
cognitive dissonance
Cognitive dissonance (an aversive emotional state) occurs when there are inconsistencies between a person’s thoughts, sentiments, and actions.
psychological resistance
psychological state induced when someone threatens freedom; respond to threat by rebelling against pressure which preserves the freedom (what happens when someone uses too much pressure to get another person to comply)
Display rules
Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
Stereotype
a generalized (somtimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
Self-schemas
strong tendency to organize our personal history in terms of coherent memories, feelings, and beliefs about ourselves that hang together and form an integrated whole
sleeper effect
delayed persuasion by an initially rejected message
social perception
processes by which we form impressions, make judgments, and develop attitudes about the people and events that constitute our social world
foot-in-the-door technique
A compliance technique based on securing compliance with a smaller request as a prelude to making a larger request
individualist culture
cultural perspective which places the individual, independence and autonomy over the group.
Private acceptance
honestly believing that others are right
Observational Research
observing people in social situations, systematically record behaviors, interviews and questionnaires.
informed consent
An ethical principle requirign that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
confederate
a research assistant pretending to be another participant in a study
When people are repeatedly exposed to unfamiliar stimuli, their liking of the stimuli:
Increases
Self-Persuasion
A long-lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self-justification
Attribution theory
Theoretical accounts of how people explain why things happen to them. Also, the effect these assessments have.
Experimental Research
Cause and effect relationships: 1. researchers have control over the experimental preocedures 2. participants are ranomly assigned to different treatment conditions
Encode
To express or emit nonverbal behavior, such as smiling or patting someone on the back
imformational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
Ambivalent Sexism
1. hostile sexism: negative, resentful feelings about women's abilities, values, and ability to challenge men's power

2. Benevolent sexism: affectionate, chivalrous feelings founded on the potentially patronizing belief that women need and deserve protection
Human beings are
consistency seekers, naive scientists, cognitive meisers, motivated tacticians
This researcher coined the term "fundamental attribution error".
Lee Ross
Informational Social Influence
Willingness to accept others opinions regarding reality (Not knowing much about bungee jumping but friends say it is safe)
risky-shift phenomenon
type of group polarization effect in which group discussion leads to the adoption of a riskier course of action than the members would have endorsed initially
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to underestimate the impact of situational factors with regard to others' behavior
Peripheral Route of Persuasion
pairs superficial positive factors with and argument leading to less stable change in attitudes
illusory correlation
think tow variables are linked when they truly are not
authoritarian personality
a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lower in status.
Self Concept
The sum total of an individual's beliefs about his or her own personal attributes
quasi-experiment
a type of study in which the researcher can manipulate an independent variable but cannot use random assignment
What is equity?
Outcomes of a relationship are equal
strong situation
demand that people behave in a particular wayex:funeral, job interview, homecoming
Miranda Rights
Right to remain silentRight to have anything said used against them in courtRight to consult an attorney Right to free counsel
Social Impact Theory
conforming to social influence depends on the strength of the group’s importance, its immediacy, and the number of people in the group
Counterfactual Thinking
-Mentally changing some aspect of the past in imagining what might have been-The easier it is to mentally undo an outcome, the stronger the emotional reaction to it-Example: often silver metal winners express greater dissatisfaction than bronze metal winners because the silver metal winner may image ways events could have gone differently to allow them to reach first place
What was LaPiere's study?
called 250 hotels/restaurants and asked if they would serve him and his two chinese friends (92% said NO, yet when they went to these exact hotels/restaurants, 99% DID serve them)
self-concept
all the thoughts and feelings we have in response to the question: "who am I"

if our self concept is positive--we act and perceive world positively visa versa
Egocentric Thought
Most people have a tendency to perceive themselves as more central to events than is actually the case. Barnum statement: personality description vague enough to be true to almost anyone (horoscopes)
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
Just-world Phenomenon
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Social Facilitation
The tendency to work better or harder in the presence of others than when alone.
prosocial behavior
behavior that is carried out with the goal of helping other ppl
possible selves
hypothetical selves we aspire to be in the future
moral model of helping
responsible for both problem and solution
illusion of unanimity
The majority view and judgments are assumed to be unanimous
Social learning theory
The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitation and by being rewarded and punished.
BanduraSocial Learning Theory: Bobo doll
Bandura postulated social learning theory (the idea that we learn social behavior by observing others and imitating them). In support of this theory, the famous Bobo doll experiments showed that children imitated novel aggressive behaviors modeled by adults.
Evolutionary Approach to Love
A theory derived from evolutionary biology that holds that men and women are attracted to different characteristics in each other (men are attracted by women's appearance; women are attracted by men's resources) because this maximizes their chances of reproductive success
Social influence
The effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior
Memory vs. Impression
People who are told to memorize, remember less than those who are asked to form impressions
presence (of others)
causes us to exert ourselves or free ride, makes easy tasks easier, hard tasks harder, and enhances humor/fuels mob violence
correspondent inference theory
-choice (did the person have a choice? If not, we'll say situational factors)-non-common effects: low frequency events that stand out; we attribute to disposition (why would a person do this rare thing? must be their nature)-undesirability: we judge people more for undesirable behavior than nice behavior
weapon focus effect 
tendency to focus on the weapon when witnessing a violent crime 
ignore the details
strongest when weapon is inconsistent with situation 
could be because weapon is so unusual- draws attention 
could be that situation induces anxiety and arousal which inhibit meaning
When 12-year-old Jamilah saw an old man lying on the sidewalk in apparent discomfort, he prepared to offer help.  But when he noticed several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help.  His reaction most clearly illustrat
E. the bystander effect.
Barnum Effect
When something is so vague, or is so general we tend to think they are accurate. For example horoscopes
Asch's social pressure experiment
Showed that people conform to what other people are doing
stimulus generalization
ie when a person fears heights after a fall and later develops fear of flying in an airplane even though he/she has never flown
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent.
Principle 1: Reciprocation


Pay every debt, as if God wrote the bill.” 
–R. W. Emerson 

Door-in-the-face technique: Large request  
denied followed by the smaller request. 

That's-not-all technique 

Free samples, free inspections, free workouts
high vs. low reactive temperaments
If a person becomes aroused and distressed with stimuli, they are high reactive. If they are calm when presented with unfamiliar stimuli, they are low reactive.
Social desirability response bias
Peoples tendency to act in ways that make them look good
Heider's Theory of Naive Psychology
1. Generally see our own behavior as being motivated
2. We construct casual theories in order to be able to predict and control environment
3. Distinguish between personal factors and environmental factors
What does it mean to disidentify with a particular life domain or area? When is this more likely to occur?
Disidentification is the process whereby one reduceʹs the relevance of a particular domain to oneʹs self-esteem. One factor that may increase its likelihood is the presence of stereotype threat.
Two reasons why it is almost impossible to change deep rooted prejudice
1) Pathos over logos 2) schemas
Which of the following conclusions did Milgram derive from his studies of obedience?a. Even ordinary people can become agents in a destructive process.b. Most people are able to suppress their natural aggressiveness.c. The need to be accepted by others is
a. Even ordinary people can become agents in a destructive process.
How does priming work in the case of accessibility? How does it work in the case of spreading activation? Be prepared to discuss an experiment that offers an example of each.
Higgins, Rholes, & Jones (1977)—An example of accessibilityIV - Primed participants with words implying recklessness or adventurousnessParticipants then read info about Donald which could be considered adventurous or recklessDV - Asked to rate how likable Donald isResults - Participants primed with “adventurous” liked Donald more than those primed with “reckless”Bargh, Chen, & Burrows (1996) – Elderly StudyParticipants performed a scrambled sentence task “in she towel Florida lives” → She lives in FloridaIV – words relating to the elderly (old, Florida, grey, etc.) or a control conditionIV - scrambled sentence task with three conditions:rudeness (bother, disturb, etc.),politeness (respect, polite, etc.)control conditionThey are asked to get the experimenter when they’re done, but the experimenter is talking to another participant
How does media violence affect our view of the world?
-more than 4 hrs of tv/day = exaggerated view of degree of violence taking place outside of home
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