Social Psychology Final 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
social catergorie
Studied political norms
Newcomb, T.
perceived incompatibility of goals, actions, or ideas
Counterfactual thinking
“what could have been?”
the study of human behavior
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reductiona strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
Stanley Milgram
conducted experiments where "teachers" were made to shock "learners" under direction from an authority figure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
situational forces can lead ordinary ppl to exhibit horrendous behaviors
A desired outcome; something one wishes to achieve or accomplish
normative influence
Influence that produces conformity when a person fears the negative social consequences of appearing deviant
Exposure to one stimulus effecting reaction to the next.
School of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment. - How positive and negative events in the environment are associated with specific behaviors.
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
Common theme in sociopsychological situations
Social interest
consensus information
comparison of one person's behavior with that of others
Janis's term for the tendency of members of a decision-making group to be more focused on reaching a consensus than on critically examining the issues at hand
the loss of self-awareness that may occur when one acts in concert with the actions of a crowd
unselfish regard for the welfare of others. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 765)
Illusory correlation
tendency to overestimate the link between variables that don’t really have a connection (assassins and mental hospitals)
sample bias = limit results/ unbiased sample = accurate about population
independent variable
The experimental fact that a researcher manipulates
a study in which the researcher manipulates an independent variable and randomly assigns people to groups (levels of the independent variable)
a motive to protect or restore one’s sense of freedom. Arises when someone threatens our freedom of action.
The founder of American Psychology
William James (1842-1910)
sharpening vs. leveling
Sharpening: Emphasizing important or interesting parts of a story when telling it.Leveling: Eliminating uninteresting or irrelevant parts of a story when telling it to someone.
learning through association, when a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that naturally produces an emotional response
classical conditioning
Gestalt Psychology
School of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people's minds rather than objective, physical attributes of the object. - Emphasis on construal.
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
Passionate Love
romantic love characterized by high arousal, intense interaction, and fear of rejection.
Likely to occur when no social category seems relevant or if the person acts inconsistently with the category
Whether a problem or decision is presented in such a way that it appears to represent the potential for a loss or gain
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Tension resulting from lack of consistency in a persons attitudes or beliefs and behaviors
tendency to accede to the requests or demands of others
Social Psychology
A field within psychology dealing with how our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by our interactions with others
Job Satisfaction
the degree to which workers have positive feelings toward their jobs
central route persuasion
attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
Once we have answered we tend to become a little more confident in our answers
Skinner box
a device to study operant conditioning in rats. Skinner set up the boxes so that the rats could automatically get rewards or punishments for particular types of responses.
Self Schema
A belief people hold about themselves that guides the processing of self-relevant information
an idea about the possible nature of reality; a prediction tested in an experiment
what is subtle racism?
being scretative towards the race.
weak situations
allow people to behave in many different waysex: night club or a picnic
Unfair treatment of a person or group in comparison to others who are not members of the same social group
great person theory
• The idea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the situation
Reasons-Generated Attitude Change
Attitude change from thinking about the reasons for one's attitudes; people assume their attitudes match the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize
What did Miligram do?
An Obedience to Authority Study
thalamus and amygdala
became active when people had hallucinations
to allow those pictures that help us interpret the world we see to dominate our thinking, leading us to assign identical characteristics to any person in a group, regardless of the actual variation among the members of that group
Organizational Culture
The system of shared values and norms within an organization.
in group
a group with which ppl identify as members
overjustification effect
the result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled rahter than intrinsically appealing.
MZ (identical) twins
twins who originate from a single fertilized egg that splits into two exact replicas that then develop into two genetically identical individuals
Social Norms
The implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs of its members.
mirror images are
less attractive to others but more attractive to the subject
Instrumental Aggression
Aggression is a means to some other end
Define: Institutionalized Racism
• Racist attitudes that are held by the vast majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm
Avoidant Attachment Style
An attachment style characterized by a suppression of attachment needs, because attempts to be intimate have been rebuffed; people with this style find it difficult to develop intimate relationships
Appraisal theories of emotion
Theories holding that emotions result from people's interpretations and explanations of events, even in the absence of physiological arousal
Television as a socialization agent
ubiquitous, appeals to children, minimal skills, visual
catharsis hypothesis
we feel better if we "blow off steam" by venting our emotions
Significant studies in social psych
stanley milgrim shock study, bystander apathy smoke room study, stanford prison experiment
Normative Social Influence
Influence that other people have on us because we seek their approval or avoid their disapproval
After a year-long drought, the city of Pine Bluffs has banned all lawn sprinkling.  Many residents believe, however, that continued watering of their own lawn will have little effect on total water reserves.  Consequently, there is a disastrous drain on
B. social traps.
Social Comparison Theory
When we are unsure about our abilities or opinions we compare ourselves to others
Elaboration Likelihood Model
And explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communication can cause attitude change; centrally, when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication, and peripherally, when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics (e.g., who gave the speech)
drugs that relieve depression
tend to increase NE and serotonin supplies by blocking their reuptake
Steenbergs Triangular theory of love
Intimacy - passion - commitment2 of 3
random assignment vs. random sampling
Random Sampling is when you randomly choose your participants from a population. Random assignment occurs when you randomly assign these participants to control or experimental groups.
Attributional Bias for Social Roles
we make trait attributions about group members
from their social role without realizing the contribution of that role to their situation.
*Cultural Myths / Stereotypes
-The American Dream; The “Just World” Hypothesis (anyone can make it if
they work hard enough; people get what they deserve, efforts are proportional to
outputs, those who have nothing deserve what they have because they don’t exert
enough effort)
-Attributions: lazy, unintelligent
-trait attributions ignore the contribution of a person’s situation or role in determining
their outcomes.
*overcoming adversity is the exception, not the rule.
4. What are the effects of media violence, according to both correlational and experimental data?
Long-Term Effects of Media ViolenceIs viewing violence at an early age associated with more aggressive behavior at a later age?22-year longitudinal study Exposure to TV violence among 8-year-old boys was related to their aggression at age 30Controlled for SES, IQ, and parentingThe effect was not found among femalesVideo Games and Aggression (Bushman & Anderson, 2002)IV: Ps played violent (e.g., Mortal combat) or nonviolent (e.g., 3D Pinball) video games DV: Ps completed an ambiguous story stem where a character could become aggressiveResults – Ps who played violent video games had the character doing, thinking, and feeling more aggressive things
Define a sliding reinforcer, and provide your own example.
A sliding reinforcer is a stimulus that brings rewards in small doses but these change to punishments with large doses of the same stimulus.
- What we mean by “group”
two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as "us."
Why do we go along with norms?
Normative social influence; we want to be liked, we have needs for social companionship
What is priming? What are the two methods of priming?
The tendency for recently used words or ideas to come to mind easily and influence subsequent thoughts, judgments, or behaviorsTwo ways priming has its effectAccessibility – how easily a thought can come to mindSpreading Activation – when activation of one thought activates related thoughtsSubliminal – below the level of consciousnessWords or images presented so quickly they cannot be consciously recognizedSupraliminal – at the conscious levelSentence unscramblesWord SearchesImages, Objects, etc.
Berkowitz and LePage (1967) gun or badminton racket: aggression
angered subjects in a room in which either a gun or a badminton racket was visible; those individuals who had been made angry in the presence of the gun administered more intense shocks to another student than those made angry in the presence of the racket
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