Socio Cultural Anthropology Test 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
exogamy
marriage out
isogamy
spouses are equal
globalization
increased and intensified international ties related to the spread of Western, especially United States, capitalism that affects all world cultures
Big-man/big-woman political leadership is most associated with which mode of production?
hunting
questionnaire
a formal research instrument containing a pre- set series of questions that the anthropologists asks in a face- to- face setting, by mail, or by email
Infrastructure, structure and superstructure are aspects of the model for understanding culture that is favored by
Cultural materialsm
social stratification
hierarchical relationships between different groups as though they were arranged in layers, or "strata"
interview
a research technique that involves gathering of verbal data through questions or guided conversation between at least two people
The Olt region is located in
Romania
What was the first domesticated animal?
Dogs
Oldowan tradition
the oldest hominin toolkit, characterized by core tools and flake tools
hominins
a category primates that includes modern humans and extinct species of early human ancestors that are more closely related to humans than to living chimpanzees and bonobos
moka
a strategy for developing political leadership in highland Papau New Guinea that involves exchanging gifts and favors with individuals and sponsoring large feasts where further gift giving occurs
susto
fright/ shock disease, a cultural specific syndrome found in Spain and Portugal and among Latino people wherever they live; symptoms include back pain, fatigue, weakness, and lack of appetite
Mixed blood discusses the different tipos of these people, who find it difficult to immigrate from their country to the united states
Brazilians
yogol
a woman with "manly" accomplishments in the Republic of Korea
Cross- culturally, the highest level of militarization is found in
states
Small, isolated nuclear households tend to be most prevalent in which culture?
euro- americans
Frugivores
eat mainly fruit, have large front teeth and a long small intestine
Which crop defines male identity and status in the Trobriand Islands?
Yams
australopithecines
a category of several extinct hominin species found in East and Central Africa that lived between 4.5 and 3 million years ago
domestication
a process by which human selection causes changes in the genetic material plants and animals
Describe the primary budget fund associated with the industrialism/ informatics mode of livelihood...
rent/taxes, luxuries
Describe the primary category of exchange associated with the industrialism/ informatics mode of livelihood...
the sale
indigenous knowledge (IK)
local understanding of the environment, climate, plants, and animals
primates
an order of mammals that includes modern humans
In french, "la culture"
refers to the arts
applied anthropology
the use of anthropological knowledge to prevent or solve problems or to shape and achieve policy goals
couvade
customs applying to the behavior of fathers during and shortly after the birth of their children
chiefdom
a political unit of permanently allied tribes and villages under one recognized leader
political anthropology
the subfield of cultural anthropology that focuses on human behavior and thought related to power
disease
in the disease/ illness dichotomy, a biological health problem that is objective and universal
peito aberto
bursting heart related to excessive worry among women in NE Brazil
cross- cousin
offspring of either one's father's sister or one's mother's brother
kinship system
the predominant form of kin relationships in a culture and the kinds of behavior involved
applied medical anthropology
the application of anthropological knowledge to furthering the goals of health care providers
humoral healing
healing that emphasizes balance among natural elements within the body. characteristic of the middle east, the mediterranean, and much of asia
Describe the social organization of exchange that is associated with the foraging mode of livelihood...
small groups, face-to-face
agency
the ability of humans to make choices and exercise free will even within dominating structures
pure gift
something given with no expectation or thought of return
deductive approach
a research method that involves posing a research question or hypothesis, gathering data related to the question, and then assessing the findings in relation to the original hypothesis
natural selection
the process by which organisms better adapted to the environment reproduce more efficiently compared with less well- adapted forms
gender pluralism
the existence within a culture of multiple categories of femininity, masculinity, and blurred genders that are tolerated and legitimate
Give an example of foragers mentioned in the book
the ju/'hoansi
What is the koteka?
ethnographic "clothing" that consists of a gourd which represents power or status.
In accordance with the foraging mode of livelihood, explain sustainability...
high degree
In accordance with the industrialism/ informatics mode of livelihood, describe property relations...
Stratified and private
ascribed position
a person's standing in society based on qualities that the person has gained through birth
The Andean people of South America use this plant to treat gastrointestinal problems, sprains, swellings, and colds
Coca
matrilineal descent
a kinship system that highlights the importance of women by tracing descent through the female line, favoring marital residence with or near the bride's family, and providing for property to be inherited through the female line
kinship diagram
a schematic way of presenting the kinship relationships of an individual, called, ego using a set of symbols to depict all the kin relations of ego
jajmani system
a patron- provider system in which landholding patrons are linked, through exchanges of food for services (dominated by the Gujars)
ethnomedicine refers to
the health systems of particular cultures
bood
nobody can do anything they don't want to (ex. semai people of malaysia)
Among Western nations, the highest rate of imprisonment is found in
the United States
cultural anthropology
the study of living people and their cultures, including variation and change
What are some factors in fertility decision making at the state level?
Economic factorsPublic servicesMaintaining the tax base, military, ethnic and regional proportionsDealing with population aging
What are "mizukos"?
Small decorated statues in japan made in memory of "returned" fetuses
authority
the ability to take action based on a person's achieved or ascribed status or moral reputation
medical pluralism
the existence of more than one health system in a culture, or a government policy to promote the integration of local healing systems into biomedical practice
Who is Eddie Mabo?
An indigenous rights activist in Australia
provide an example of a nation moving for political autonomy
the kurds
Due to its strategic location near several world powers, this ares has often been a battleground of other states' interests
central asian states
trial by ordeal
a way of determining innocence or guilt in which the accused person is put to a test that may be painful, stressful, or fatal (being burnt is a sign of guilt)
Which of the following women has not been a head of state?
Eva Peron
The study of the use of healing plants in different cultures is called
ethnobotany
The waters of the Dead Sea are believed to relieve these types of ailments
skin diseases
An example of a culture with a political system that relies primarily on a leader's ability to redistribute surpluses through personal networks of obligation is
Mt. Hageners
modes of exchange
the dominant pattern, in a culture, of transferring goods, services, and other items between and among people and groups
Describe the expected reciprocity form of balanced exchange...
Between trading partners, expected return at some timeex. kula
Bab's definition of culture
Learned and shared ways of thinking and behaving
What are henge monuments?
Constructions in the shape of a circular enclosure with an opening at one point of the circle, generally interpreted as ceremonial sites.
To help the victims of 9/11 the Massai donated ______ to the United States
14 cows
dowry refers to
gifts from the bride's family to the new couple or the groom's family
The increasing prevalence of schistosomiasis is attributed to
construction of high dams and irrigation
What is the unifying feature of the "mata liu"
they are unemployed
give an example of a culture characterized by patrilineal descent
berbers of north africa
Describe the foraging mode of reproduction...
Moderate death and birth ratesIndirect means of fertility control: diet, breastfeeding, work/exerciseDirect means of fertility control: induced abortion, infanticide
Among the Aka of central Africa, childcare is notable for the
important role of the father
What are the characteristics of a state?
a centralized political organization encompassing many communitiesStates have the power to levy taxes, keep the peace through the use of force, and wage war
What is the European Space Agency (ESA)?
involves people from different European nations seeking to cooperate in joint ventures in space, and, more indirectly, to promote peaceful relations in Europe
Which of the following is not generally correlated (associated) with the rise of the state?
equality between men and women
A crucial factor in becoming a woman politician in the Republic of Korea ("South Korea") is
having a supportive father
age set
a group of people close in age who go though certain rituals, such as circumcision, at the same time (foragers and pastoralists)
The "leopard-skin chief" who plays a key role in decision making about crime and punishment is associated with which group of people?
The Nuer of southern Sudan
the stem household is most common in
East Asia (China and Japan)
Compared to a household, a family always includes people
who are related by kinship
placebo effect or meaning effect
a positive result from a healing method due to a symbolic or otherwise nonmaterial factor
big man or big woman system
a form of political organization midway between tribe and chiefdom involving reliance on the leadership of key individuals who develop a political following through personal ties and redistributive feasts (Melanesia)
The Amish and Mennonites rely on ______ to maintain social order
religious teachings and group pressure
The English meaning of culture..
related to the cultivation of soil, as in folk culture (peasant, farmers) versus civilization (city people)
According to Mary Douglas, what is the theory of symbolic anthropology regarding pig taboos?
Food communicates meaning and identity. Pigs are anomalies according to the Bible, and therefor not to be eaten.
This is a lasting contribution of Bronislaw Malinowski's ethnography Argonauts of the Western Pacific...
A detailed examination of the kula.
What environmental changes may have influenced the evolution of bipedalism in early hominins?
The changing from dense forests into patches of woodland interspersed with open grasslands
Give an example of an agricultural society
Family faming the AndesWet- rice agriculture in Vietnam (terracing as intensification)mechanized agriculture in Mexico
What are the goals of Cultural Anthropology research methods?
to study, analyze and describe culture(s) in accordance with ethical principles
Status and worth of a man in Mt. Hagen is measured by this
number of pigs
What are the benefits of community healing?
Solidarity and group sessions support mental and physical health, the drama and energy of the dances strengthen the afflicted, and the dances support members of the community who may be ill or grieving
What is soufriendo del agua?
Anxiety due to lack of access to secure and clean water in the Valley of Mexico, especially low income people, and specifically women
What was the discovery about lead poisoning among Mexican American children, made by applied medical anthropologist Robert Trotter?
A traditional healing remedy, azarcon, contained lead which treated a culturally specific syndrome called empacho.
An ethnography of Alcoholics Anonymous groups in Mexico City revealed that
drinking problems are related to male gender identity
An example of phytotherapy is
all of the above (medicinal chewing of coca leaves, use of hyssop for asthma, drinking a mate)
What is an example of forensic anthropology mentioned in the textbook?
Francisco de Leon's exhumation of more than 50 bodies in a highland Guatamalan village in 1997
This luxury destination can be found in Dubai...
One of the world's largest malls, including Ski Dubai (the first Middle East indoor ski resort)
Provide an example of a temporary market...
The camel fair in Pushkar, North India
Barabara Jones was able to clear the Bannock Shoshoni women of their misconduct regarding SSI by
testing their levels of english understanding
These are considered to be the causes of the Kyasanur forest disease...
human modification of the ecosystem through deforestation and the introduction of large- scale cattle raising
According to the Orang Asli this causes mortality
Excessive heat (coolness is vital for health), this justifies their rejection of agriculture
What is the demarcation of healers in Siberia?
A tambourine for calling the spirits
On the island of Vanatinai women and men can gain power and prestige through throwing this type of feast
mortuary feast (feast for the dead)
Marx wrote that these would be the forces of change that would spell the downfall of capitalism
class differences, exploitation of the working class by the owners of capital, class consciousness among workers, and class conflict
The potlatch system of Native Americans in the Northwest Coast
Has been analyzed in terms of how it provides an economic "safety net" in the region
What cultural adaptations allowed the Neanderthals to adapt to the cold climate of Eurasia?
Cave dwelling and the use of fire to provide heat and light in their caves.
What is the determining factor of kinship among the Inuit of Northern Alaska?
Behavior. Those who act like kin are kin
Stuart Kirsch took an activist role in the issue while conducting research in New Guinea
a region negatively affected by a large copper and gold mine called Ok Tedi mine
How do groups in Papua New Guinea feel about elimination?
They bury or otherwise hide their fecal matter for fear that someone will find it and use it for magic against them.
class can be both ascribed and achieved because
a person who is born rich has a greater than average chance of living an upper-class lifestyle
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