Sociology 21 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
(Measurable)
















What was the dependent
variable in the study dealing with the social facilitation of

 running?

Comte
father of sociology
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES
THEORY AND METHODS
Primary deviance
The initial crime.
hypothesis
testable statement of relationships among variables
Agrarian societies→
Agrarian societies→societies whose means of subsistence are based on agricultural production
polyandry
one woman and multiple men
mala in se
evil in itself
isolation
Feral children, language learned through socialization, large impact of institutions on development and behavior
Edwin Sutherland
developed the idea of subcultures
reliability
if other researchers use your operational definitions, their findings will be consistent with yours
Pariah Groups
Negatively privileged status groups who are subjects to discrimination.
postindustrial 
a society dominated by information, services, and high technology more than the production of goods
nation-state
a particular type of state characteristic of the modern world in which a government has sovereign power and the population know themselves to be part of a single nation
Carol Gilligan
moral development: cultural standards parents & teachers pass on to children (moral development socially differentiated & does not follow universal rules)
Mores
norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or to the well-being of the group.
Sanctions
Expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms.
Horatio Alger Myth
"limitless possibilities exist for everyone" ; tells people to compete for higher positions, but places blame on individual's failure
Sapir Whorf Hypothesis
language creates reality
-racial terminology
-jargon and euphemisms
can't share same reality if don't share same terms
Herbert Spencer
Darwin's evolution applied to behavior, explained poverty, don't change status qou b/c people naturally evolve
Income
snapshot of overall wealth, year income does not show total wealth
socialization
a continuing process whereby an individual acquires a personal identity and learns the norms, values, behavior, and social skills appropriate to his or her social position.
What is emancipation?
Parent relinquishing authority and control over a minor child
Neocolonial:
the economic control exercised by rich nations over their former colonies (p. 261)
biotech society 
a society whose economy increasingly centers on the application of genetics to produce medicine, food, and materials
aggregate
a collection of people lacking social relations, for example, pedestrians waiting for a walk light
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
the proposition that language shapes the view of reality of it's speakers
Gender Apartheid
Extreme segregation and exclusion or women from public life (ex. in Afghanistan, women were prohibited from leaving their homes unless accompanied by a close male relative, their windows in their homes where women lived were painted black to keep women literally invisible from the public)
Rituals
We invent public practices to connect us with the sacred
Role Performance
actual conduct involved in activating a role.
gender blindness
failing to consider gender at all
Most ALLOWED type of marriage.
Polygyny
Most ALLOWED type of marriage.
Not necessarily practiced.
Question: One of the consequences of migrant slavery is that deaths of slaves are difficult to prove due to the lack of information and documents, and thus wives who are left behind cannot get a state pension.

True or False?
True
Absolute Poverty
• absence ofnresources necessary for survival, no clean h2o, medicine etc
gaining another culture in order to fit in
homophobia
Endogamy
Marriage between people of the same social category
total institution
controls all aspects of an individual's life. - religion, jail, military
gender and mobility
(developing nations) 1- women’s roles change from imp to agrarian/family issues if they move to industrial place their importance is de-valued, 2- women have big hand as activists (environmental advocates, etc)
Anomie
the influence society has on an individual, society changes = people's loss of direction
face-work
the efforts people make to maintain the proper image and avoid public embarassment
stigma
Used to describe to labels that society gives to devalue members of certain groups, negative label
structural-functional approach
A theoretical framework that sees society as a system of many interrelated parts.
achieved status
a position that is earned or chosen
Proletariat
labor: a social class who does manual labor or works for wages
degradation ceremony
as aspect of the socialization process within total institutions, in which people are subjected to humiliating rituals
The notion of Thanatos was used to explain
suicide
heterogeneous societies
include people who are dissimilar in regard to social characteristics such as religion, income, or race/ethnicity
Liberal Individualism
Belief in the primary importance of the individual and in the virtues of self-reliance and personal independence
Replication Study
Research that is repeated exactly but on a different group of people at a different time
The Big 3
Marx - conflict theoryDurkheim - precursor to functionalismWeber - bureaucracy is an organization of rules, theres a higherarchy. religion as a leader to capitalism.
degree to which a measuer or scale truly refleects the phenomeneon under study
validity
Person: Made a speech to encourage sociologists to come out of their shells and come into the public to work
Michael Burowoy
Describe the symbolic interactionist perspective. how does it differ from the other persepectives in sociolgy
the symbolic interactionsit perspective holds that society is continuously produced through the everyday interactions of people and groups. this perspective empasizes the manner in which individuals create subjective meanings and interpretations of soical life and how these meanings and interpretations affects social interaction. the symbolic interactionsit perspective differs from the functionalist and conflict perspectives in substantive ways. while the functionalist and conflict perspectives employ a macro level view and examine social institutions and large scale social processes that shape society as a whole, the symbolic interationsit perspective employs a micro level orientation. such an orientation focuses on the nature and meanings of face to face interactions between people and small groups. another difference between symbolic interationsim and the two macro level perspectives is that symbolic interactionism finds the perceptions and meanings of everdya interaction have a greater analytical interest than objective conditions and relations.
Ecology
The study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment
Political action committee(PAC)
An organization formed by a special-interest group, independent of political parties, to raise and spend money in support of political goals.
alienation
the worker is not part of the produciton process, no control over the work environment
hate crime
crime against a victim based on cultural/ physical characteristics as the motive
collective consciousness
When women become aware of the inequalities and when they mobilize to fight against it, women begin to label themselves as feminists, now that more women are becoming breadwinners- there is a predicted change in collective consciousness
the contact hypothesis
If people from different racial backgrounds interact, racial prejudice will decrease, ex- remember the titans
sexual harassment
1. behavior in the workplace where career advancement is given in exchange for sexual favors, 2.lude comments or gestures, any form of inappropriate touching any type of display of pornographic material => creates a hostile environment
skewed
to turn aside or swerve; take an oblique course.
Define Theory.
Theory is an attempt to answer the question, "Why?"
Culture lag
Situation in which some aspects of the culture change less rapidly or lag behind, other aspects of the same culture
Fieldwork (definition)

studies that take place in a natural setting. Also known as "Ethnography"
 
Qualitative!
 
(Participant Observation)

 
deductive approach
a research approach that starts with a theory, forms a hypothesis,makes empirical observations, and then analyzes the data to confirm, reject, or modify the original theory
nation with moderately productive economic systems in which peoples incomes are about the global average
middle-income country (Eastern Europe, South Africa)
according to the funtionalist perspective what functions does the family serve?
according to the functionalist perspective the family performs four functions necessary for social stability and survival. the first is socializaton of children. the family is where children first learn patterns of their culture and develop is a cultural norm that fordibds sexual relations and marriage between certain family members, such as fathers and daughters. this taboo and the obligations of marriage direct that sexual activity can only occur between certain members of the family. families also affect social placement. they confer upon children statuses (positions ) in terms of race, ethnicity, religion, social class, and gender. finally families provide emotional support economic support and care to their members.
kinesics
the use of body movements as a means of communication
What is Sociology?
the scientific study of human behavior and human groups. - interactions, institutions, operation
Lenski on technology
cultural info about how to use material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires
Power Elite
small group of people who make all decisions in our country
the difference between modernization and modernization theory
Modernization- country moves from being non-industrial to industrial, modernization theory (functionalist)- people’s lives are improved through the process of modernization (water can be cleaned better, etc) conflicts say this is very ethnocentric- think it creates inequalities
feminist perspective and gender
Related to conflict, how institutions privilege 1 gender over the other
3rd Technique of Collecting Data
Questionaires
-Can be Personal or Inpersonal
Susie Guillory Phipps case
1994, Louisiana woman sued state when birth certificate stated she was black (1/32nd). She lost by supreme court ruling.
coercive organizations
force or threat of force is used to achieve the organization's goal of keeping the inmates in (prison, concentration camp)
anticipatory socialization
taking on the role which we aspire to be
dysfunction in society
any occurence w/in a society that puts it off-balance, contributing to instability. creates jobs and the justice system
Manifest and Latent function
M= the intended goal of an organization/society, L=the result that happens w/o intention
Marx on class differences
Class is divided by the “haves” and “have nots,” access to certain key resources in society determines success
5 basic forms of adaptation
1- the conformist- conforms to society’s goals (work for $), 2- innovator- accepts goals but rejects means (steal $), 3- ritualist- accepts means of society but rejects goals, 4- retreatist- rejects the means and goals (volunteering), 5- rebel- rejects means and goals of society
Kanter vs. Ferguson's views:
Feminism: Kanter says women need to have more important roles in company so that inequality will be balanced. Ferguson says that having important roles in company will not change anything because the company was built by men, rather they have to build their own company with their own policies in order to succeed.
how does the conflict perspective explain deviance
the conflict perspective addresses why activities or conditons are defined as deviant rather than addressing the motivations of people engaging in deviance. this perspectice argues that people with political and ecomonic power are likely to define any type of behavior that threatens their interests and privilege as deviant.
patrilineal vs matrilineal descent
pat- trace through father- last name , mat- trace through mother- religion
Rodriguez/Cordero-Guzman article: race and context- difference in US and Puerto Rico
-Both US and LA relied on slaves to meet labour needs
-money whitens in LA
-In Puerto Rico, race based on socio-economic definitions of the person
-in US race based on genetic inheritance, never changing
-many hispanics in US will identify as other, but classified as white in LA countries
What are the "Three Concepts" of the Role Theory.
1. Role Enactment
2. Role Expectations
3. Social roles (e.g. student)
-what do you do and what are you expected to do
groupthink: He used this term to refer to the collec-tive tunnel vision that group members sometimes develop. As they begin to think alike, they become convinced that there is only one “ right” viewpoint and a single course of ac-tion to follow.
Sociologist Irving Janis ( 1972, 1982)
measuring gender and occupational prestige
tops jobs tend to not be dominated by women and jobs for women tend not to have high incomes ex: teachers and nurses
According to mead, how does the sense of self develop
mead believed that the sense of self developed in three stages. children largely imitate the world around them during the preparartory stage. during the play stage (ages 3-5) children learn to use symbols which enables them to take the role of the other to see themselves as specific ohter people see them. this enables children to evaluate themselves more objectively and this ability represents the development of when children enter school children start to view themselves and the world from the perspective of multiple different roles. the child develops a sense of the generalized other in this stage, which is the internalization of commonly accepted cultural norms and values.
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