Sociology 40 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
secret, undercover
Modernization Theory
(Structural-Functional Approach)
Explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations
population size, distribution, comosition, and change
Body language is
Culture specific.
social patterns resulting from industrialization
World System Theory
Iammanuel Wallerstein: industerialization led to four groups of nations.
Max Weber
Verstehen (understanding)looking at different perspectives and interpreting
An important norm
Ex. Killing someone
workers replaced by technology, factory moved to cheaper town/country, capitalism benefits
manifest functions
intended and recognized consequences of an aspect of society
unmarried people in a romantic relationship living in the same residence
T/FSpencer mounted an argument for Laissez-Faire.
victimless crime
willing exchange of goods/services among adultsex: prostitution
When American servicemen occupied Japan following World War II, the japanese watched the Americans playing baseball, appreciated the sport, and adopted it themselves. Today, baseball is one of the most popular sports in Japan. This adoption of baseball by
Cultural Diffusion
Primary sex characteristics
organs used for reproduction
understanding or insight; stress need to take into account the subjective meanings people attach to their actions
True or False: Marriage involves specified rights and obligations in all 50 states.
Conflict Perspective
inequality between people or groups
a subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture
Nonverbal communication
facial expression, gesture, posture. Culturally embedded.
The behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group/society
the hierarchical or vertical division of society according to rank, caste, or class
About 40% divorce rate in U.S.
Going up because:
Socially acceptable
Economic status of women
Changes in Religion
Changes in Legal System
norms that are stronger than folkways and are informally enforced
Better Legal Protection
safer worker place, unemployment, disability, etc.
Ethnic Cleansing
the creation of ethnically homogeneous territories through the mass expulsion of other ethnic populations
Constructionist Approach
A sociological approach that focuses on the way specific groups, activities, or artifacts become defined as problems
Today, more immigrants live in the Unites States than any time in history.T/F
the process by which a society transmits its cultural values to its members(through agents like parents and teachers)
the systematic killing of one category of people by another
Organic solidarity
A collective consciousness that rests on mutual interdependence, characteristic of societies with a complex division of labor.
new immigrant groups would assume the attitudes and language of the dominant white community
Thomas Robert Malthus
English economist, sociologist, & founder of modern study of pop; checks & balances: limit human pop, incl disease, war, famine, & "moral restraint"; poverty, violence, & discord = natural components of society: pop size & levels of subsistence
Thomas Robert Malthus
Mal th us = bad theory for us
Political Crime
Illegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials, or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government, or overthrow it
This measure of central tendency is the most frequently occuring datum in a data set
a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
opinion leader
someone who influences the opinions and decisions of others through day-to-day personal contact and communication
Karl Marx
communist manifesto- why there was separation in classes, means of production- resources necessary for survival
cultural transmission
Crime is learned through daily interactions, you grow up in media you are exposed to (determine your criminal behavior) , interactionist
bilateral descent
trace lineage through both parents equally (hyphenated last name)
the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own ethnic group or culture
Extended Family
Many generations living under the same roof.
Objective Method (determining social class):
using income, assets, etc…
authoritarian leader 
an in-dividual who leads by giving orders
which reserach method would allow a sociology to study the life of restaurant workers with out them knowing who he is?
participant observation
Working Class
a social class broadly composed of people working in blue-collar, or manual, occupations
Social Psychology
Study of how the social enviornment affects an individuals behavior and personality
performance stigma
set of individuals who cooperate in staging a performance that leads an audience to form am impression of one or all team members
a social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition
oru perception of how people in general think of us
generalized other
play stage
stage in the development of self during which a child develops the ability to take A role, but only from the perspective of ONE person at a time
Civil religion takes parts of a nations_________ mixes it with a hint of the_________.
- supernatural
Collection of statuses that a person has at a given time
Status Inconsistancy
performance expectation =
Real Task Performance + Status Characteristics
voluntary associations
membership is paid or voluntary, no compensation, more women, built around common interest
the process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society
generalized other
children perceive the variety of roles w/in a society and relations btw people, recognize values and beliefs, internalization of social values
exploitation theory
Uses race to exploit another racial group (minority) ex- keep people of color in low paying jobs
relative deprivation approach
Individuals decide to mobilize for social change if they feel they are deprived of a right they should have- gay rights= people deprived of a right to marry
material culture
the aggregate of physical objects or artifacts used by a society
population transfer
2 types, direct and indirect. Some ask directly for minority groups to leave, some "voluntarily" relocate.
 “ the small world phenomenon,” 
psy-chologist Stanley Milgram ( 1933– 1984) came up with an interesting idea. In a classic study known as “ the small world phenomenon,” Milgram ( 1967) addressed a letter to “ targets”: the wife of a divinity student in Cambridge and a stockbroker in Boston. He sent the letter to “ starters,” who did not know these people. He asked them to send the letter to someone they knew on a first- name basis, someone they thought might know the “ tar-get.” The recipients, in turn, were asked to mail the letter to someone they knew who might know the “ target,” and so on. The question was, Would the letters ever reach the “ target”? If so, how long would the chain be?
- vested interests perpetuate racial inequality through economic exploitation- minorities competeing for jobs with whites
Andie Michel Guerry
first person to take the statistics from Compte and compare the to form conclusions----quit law--prize winning Essay of moral Statistics---indentified social forces as conditions which could influence individual actions
the domination of a market by a few producers
Differential association
A theory of deviance that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts.
master status
a status that is more powerful than all the others
Ex. Priest, US President
a label used to devalue members of a certain social group
Marx and the Conflict Perspective
Inequality results from class/economic divisions. rich vs poor. Rich control the means of production.
DuBois and the Conflict Perspective
Understanding power and inequality must be supported by understanding of race w/in a society.
informal and formal social control
informal: casual formal: control carried out by authorized agents such as teachers and police
value added model
Looks at social conditions that lead to collective behavior, social conditions that lead to a willingness to act collectively
the difference between modernization and modernization theory
Modernization- country moves from being non-industrial to industrial, modernization theory (functionalist)- people’s lives are improved through the process of modernization (water can be cleaned better, etc) conflicts say this is very ethnocentric- think it creates inequalities
status inconsistency
when a person has a mixture of high and low ranks. For example, when people of lower socio-economic status come into wealth.
term used by G.H. Mead to refer to the simple imitative behaviors of small children; role in socialization (p.159-161).

Which element of social control theory applies to the following example: Dr. Johnson is unlikely to commit crime because he has too much to lose, including his house and career.
Formal Social Control / Obedience
Control Theory
(religion) What are rituals?
formal ACTIONS that focus attention on the sacred
merton's theory of deviance
Goals society sets up for people, looks specifically at individual groups
dysfunction in society
any occurence w/in a society that puts it off-balance, contributing to instability. creates jobs and the justice system
inter vs. intra -generational mobility
Inter- relative to your parents, intra- you experience w/in your lifetime (working class to upper middle class)
a set of forms all of which contain a particular element, esp. the set of all inflected forms based on a single stem or theme.
What was Hirschi's test regarding deviance?
Tested those students entering high school in a metropoitan area to see if those with fewer ties to their mother and father were more deviant....they were.
Social Construction of Reality
Process through which the members of a society discover, make known, reaffirm, and alter a collective version of facts, knowledge, and "truth".
systems of stratification
1- slavery- who is free and who is not, a system of human bondage, slavery still exists in the US (trafficking), 2- Caste system- levels of strata w/in a hierarchy, rigidly fixed, inherited, legally and religiously enforced, 3-class- determined by economic standing, some mobility to change groups
What does vertical segregation mean?
In some occupations men and women are found with different jobs
what was; minimum wage originally intended to do
help maintain the bare standard for living

In \"Influencing Public Policy,\" the author states that the difference between an advocacy group and a coalition is:
A) advocacy groups are made up of constituents and coalitions are made up of politicians.
B) advocacy groups are made up of individuals, and coalitions are made up of groups of organizations.
C) advocacy groups are made up of groups of organizations, and coalitions are made up of individuals.
D) coalitions are capable of having legislation introduced, but advocacy groups must find a congressional ally who will introduce the legislation on their behalf.
Answer B
What are the four ways that class systems differ from caste systems?
1. Class systems are fluid (boundaries are never clear cut)2. Class positions are in some part achieved (not given at birth)3. Class is economically based (possession of material resources.4. Class systems are large scale and impersonal. (not related to personal relationships or slave and master)
Wayne always wears a lapel pin on his suit signifying that he was the recipient of the Medal of Honor when he was in the service. Usually, only veterans recognize what the pin actually means. In view of this, which of the following terms best describes
It is a symbol to which people attach meaning.
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