Sociology 42 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Justice
fair treatment
intelligence tests
culturally biased
stereotypes
negative, biased generalizations regarding all people in the same category
-12 thousand years ago-nomadic-permanent settlements-crop production-elaborate labor divisons (occupational roles)-more accumulation of wealth
Agricultural
symbolic interactionist sociologist who created the dramaturgical model to understand social interaction
Erving Goffman
Gender
social expectations about behavior regarded as appropriate for the members of each sex
Which sociological perspective would emphasize that questions about family decision-making must be examined in light of traditional gender stratification, under which men have held a dominant position over women?
Conflict/Patriarchy
Functionalism
the theoretical perspective that emphasizes the contributions (functions) made by each part of a society
prejudice
Individual acts that demonstrate negative attitudes toward certain groups, normally describes an individual
McPherson
"Birds of a feather fly together"
Bilocality
This marriage pattern allows the married couple to choose between living near the husband's or wife's family
norms
established rules of behavior or standards of conduct
Conformity
acting in accordance with cultural norms, "going with the flow"
Sociology
The systematic study of human societies.
Self-Administered Questionnaires
Questionnaires that respondents fill out.
people who respond to a survey
respondents
gender socialization
that portion of socialization involving partivcular messages about what it means to be male or female in a society
dogma
the established belief of doctrine held by a religion, ideology, thought to be authoritative and not disputed
resocialization
entering an institution and being asked to change behavior and adapt to new environments
fashion
A mass involvement that features acceptance by society and has historical continuity, fashion comes from well established line of culture (video games)
informal sanctions
an unofficial sanction given by individual or group
fluid intelligence
the ability to grasp abstract relationships as in mathematics, physics, or some other science, tends to stabilize or decline with age.
technology 
in its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or proce-dures necessary to make and use those tools
Status
Prestige that goes along with one's social position.
European contribution to Sociology?
Comte, Martineau, Spencer
 
Marx, Durkheim, Weber
Background Assumption
a deeply embedded common understanding of how the world operates and of how people ought to act
Mixed Contacts
"The moments when stigmatized normals are in the same 'social situation,' that is, in one another's immediate physical presence, whether in a conversation-like encounter or in the mere copresence of an unfocused gathering"
Sociology
The study of human behavior in society.
timing and purpose
family of orientationfamily of procreation
As defined by Freud, an individual’s inborn sexual desire and energy.
Libido
Operational definition
Transformation of an abstract concept into indicators that are observable and measurable.
Solomon Asch
performed experiments with cards that showed people will conform to behavioral expectations of a group even if the group is wrong.
Ascribed Status
Position someone either inherits at birth or receives later on in life.
Social Movement
An organized activity that encourages or discourages social change
Emigration
Emigration: the number of people who permanently leave a country per 1,000 population
egalitarian family
mother and father make decisions together and contribute to the family
Karl Marx
communist manifesto- why there was separation in classes, means of production- resources necessary for survival
institutional discrimination
The denial of resources and opportunities and rights to an individual based on gender, race, class, etc. Women once denied from medical schools b/c of their gender
types of norms
formal- written, specify punishment, informal- generally understood, not precisely recorded (manners), mores- norms deemed necessary to the welfare of a society, Folkways- governs everyday life
mass society
a society characterized by having impersonal relations, a high degree of physical and social mobility, and a tendency to conform to popular norms
3 requirements for causal logic
-correlation -temporal priority-lack of spuriousness
Symbolic Ethnicity
Members of an ethnic group assimilate into the larger culture, perhaps moving from the old neighborhood to the more ethnically diverse suburbs.
the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf. Includes occupational crime, in which the criminals use their professional position to illegally secure something of value for themselves or the corporation; consumer crimes, such as cre
white-collar crime
cultural lag
a gap between the material and nonmaterial parts of culture
Caste System
a form of social stratification in which people's statuses are determined by birth and are lifelong
James M Henslin
sociologist who added to Williams' studying, including education, religion, and romantic love
role strain
when roles pertaining to a SINGLE STATUS are inconsistent (one status)
formal organization
a large secondary group organized to achieve its goals efficiently
the founding of permanent settlements and growth of specialized occupations in the middle east
birth of civilization
Precipitating Event
An event that preludes an upcoming larger event, usually a direct effect
What is deviance?
Deviance is behavior violating the norms or standards of a gorup, society, or one's peers.
multiculturalism
a state in which all subcultures in the same society are equal to one another
Another term for group polarization is ______
Risky Shift
iron law of oligarchy
organizations begin as oligarchy (democratic) and move to bureaucracy
impression management
altering of presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy audiences
the underclass
The long term poor, lack social resources needed to get out of poverty, believed it could be amended if we provided them w/ these social resources
exploitation theory
Uses race to exploit another racial group (minority) ex- keep people of color in low paying jobs
subculture
a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of a larger society
cultural pluralism
a condition in which minority groups participate fully in the dominant society, yet maintain their cultural differences
C. Write Mills developed the term..??
Sociological ImaginationWho developed the term..??
theories of crime that rest on a larger structural analysis of inequalities based on class, race, or gender for their explanation of crime
conflict theory
Social Class(Weber)
identified it as a large group of people who rank closely to one anoher in property, power, and prestige
Cultural Capital
( also known as social capital ) cultural resources that are socially designated as being worthy ( such as knowledge of elite culture) and that give advantages to groups possessing such capital
bureaucratic ritualism
a focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization's goals
True False and what percent
Poor people receive adequate care in emergency rooms if they need health care
72 % say true
What are political crimes?
crimes committed within or directly against a political system
Empirical Evidence
info we can verify with our senses through science
reference group
the group you use to compare yourself with, 1- enforce standards of behavior, 2-used for comparison
deviance and technology
Less social control in the technology which encourages ppl to participate in deviant behavior (illegal downloading of music)
How does weber understand class?
Economic standing, status- hierarchy w/ in society not as an economic result, power- all account for class understanding
patterns of intergroup relations
1- genocide- 1 majority group systematically kills minority group, 2- expulsion- major group gets rid of minorities (deport), 3- amalgamation- major and minor intermarry, creating a new group, 4- assimilation- minority adapts to major, 5- segregation- physical separation, 6- plurism- intergroup relations which force people to accept others
polygamy, polygyny, polyandry
gamy- many spouses, gyny- man married to may women, andry- woman married to many men
PSYCHOANALYTIC theory of socialization
1. The unconscious mind shapes our behavior2. The self (ego) emerges from tension between id and superego3. Societal expectations are represented by the superego
feminization of poverty
an increase in the proportion fo the poor who are female
condradictory class locations
erick wrights term for the position in the class structure that generates contradictory interests
Criticisms of Differential Opportunity Theory
doesn't explain:
1. antisocial behavior at an early age
2. doesn't explain why some kids
don't follow illegal opportunities
3. doesn't explain white collar crime
monogamy vs serial mon.
monogamy- a person is married and loyal to only one person, serial- one has several spouses over a lifetime
absolute vs. relative property
A= poverty where you can’t meet basic human needs (food, shelter), looked at on a global scale, R= poverty dependent upon the standard of living in society (clothing, phone, access to internet), looked @ based upon the community lived in
5 basic forms of adaptation
1- the conformist- conforms to society’s goals (work for $), 2- innovator- accepts goals but rejects means (steal $), 3- ritualist- accepts means of society but rejects goals, 4- retreatist- rejects the means and goals (volunteering), 5- rebel- rejects means and goals of society
First part of every institution
Concept, an abstract idea, a general notation
people working the same job need to be paid the same wage
Fair Pay Act
social aggregate
a number of people who happen to be in one place but do not interact with one another
Status group
A group of ppl w/ the same amount of prestige and the same lifestyle- sororities and fraternities
Which of the following traits increase the likelihood that somebody will be divorced?
Liberal divorce laws, easy marriage, short courtship, disapproval by peers, less money, high school education, pre-marital cohabitation, divorced parents, children pre-marriage, dual-worker, fewer children
primary group vs secondary group
p- group you interact with and have intimate contact with, s-formal contact, impersonal group
What are some myths about homosexuality?
That it is a choice

That the gay lifestyle is the same all across the board

Stereotypes - not all gay guys wear nicely, not all gay girls play softball

NIMBY-ism - "not in my back yard", they exist but not in my life!
According to the tool view of organizations, who is most responsible for setting organizational goals?
- organization itself is a tool to setting goals.- person at top has tool to set all goals in organization
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