Sociology 57 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
many wives
Plygyny
New Jersey (A)
















In America the structure of our communities tends to discourages
the formation of bonds with others
in that community

conformity
-accepted by institutionalized means-accepted by cultural goals
kinship
socially constructed concept, biological status, legal status, chosen status= to make up a family
Harriet Martineau
English,female sociologist, translated Comte's book "Positive Philosophy". Advocate for abolition of slavery, traveled widely, and wrote analysis of social life.
Correlation
association simultaneous variation in two variables. A relationship between variables
Norms
expectations, rules of behavior, reflect and enforce behavior
dyad
group consisting of two people
fad
Temporary pattern of behavior involving large numbers of people, which springs up independently of the culture and does not have a successor (tomagachi, furby)
indiscriminate
choosing at random without careful selection
sanctions 
either expressions of approval given to people for upholding norms or expres-sions of disapproval for violat-ing them
Feral Children
-rare-result of extreme neglect, abuse
According to research by Lawrence Bobo and James Kluegel, which group of whites was more willing to have sustained interactions with other racial and ethnic groups?a.Older and less educatedb.Rural whitesc.Urban whitesd.Younger and
D.
Blue-collar occupations
Lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity
biological programming over which an animal has no control
instinct
theory
a set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to explain describe and occasionally predict how two or more social phenomena are related
drug
any substance-other than food or water-that, when taken into the body, alters its functioning in some way
Nonverbal communication
facial expression, gesture, posture. Culturally embedded.
communism
means of production publicly owned, but there are no social classes
rumor
People use rumors to understand ambiguous situations and manage people’s uncertainly (closing a dorm) - A piece of info gathered informally used to understand an ambiguous situations
popular culture
associated with the middle/ working class
sociology
science that studies human society and social behavior
Secondary Groups
Co-workers, club members, or another group that comes together for instrumental reasons, such as working together to reach common goals. Secondary groups make less of an emotional claim to one's identity than primary groups.
contagion theory
emphasizes the part that rapidly communicated and uncritically accepted feelings, attitudes, and actions play in crowd settings
Cultural Relativism
beliefs, values, norms, and attitudes, are not themselves right or wrong, but rather they should be judged in their own cultural context (empathy)
deviance (Durkheim)
-believed if people continue to violate norms, their behavior must offer some benefit to society (p. 190-191).-said crime brings together upright consciences and concentrates them-we only have to notice what happens. 
what percent of americans say they never want children
4%
Mass Media
Channels of communication that are available to very wide segments of the population.
Gerontology
The study of aging and the elderly.
Secularization
The process of transformation by which a society migrates from close identification with religious institutions to a more separated relationship.
For many people, ______is a more complex issue than ______ because they identify with several ethnic backgrounds
ethnicity
race
qualitiative research
research that empasizes the uncovering of subjective meanings and ways people interact in everyday life through the use of descriptive rather than numerical data
Elderly
Older adults- usually implies a level of frailty or disability
-body of beliefs that members agree upon-moral obligation
Gemeinschaft
Biggest problem of the 20th century for W.E.B Dubois?
Racism
gatekeeping
when a relatively small number of people in the media industry control what material eventually reaches the audience
correspondance principle
schools promote values expected of individuals in a specific socio-economic class. ie- chicago= vocational, suburban=college prep
sanctions
a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
periodic and non-periodic assemblies
Periodic- recurring assembly/meeting (soc class, chapter, white sox season tickets) Non- very infrequent, nontraditional, less formal (ANTM casting call, protest, Obama celebration)
laissez-faire
the theory or system of government that upholds the autonomous character of the economic order, believing that government should intervene as little as possible in the direction of economic affairs.
social role
an expected behavior associate with a particular status
Two Paycheck Families
60% of families with children
second shift- 2 jobs (one outside, one inside home)
Egalitarian
A family in which the mother and father share power.
a group of people sharing the same social position in society. Class is based on income, power, and prestige
class
Hispanic Heritage Week
coincides with when Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans were affirmed in the US as two different groups. President Nixon.
Bourgeoisie
Marx's term for the class of people who own the means of production in modern society, the capitalists (pp. 21,204)
institution
when what is normal becomes defined by rules, laws, and practices
Jessica decides that none of this would have happened if Spring Break did not prey on the vulnerable and exploit young women’s sexuality, and decides to campaign against Spring Break by holding protest rallies and writing opinion pieces to national
Liberal Feminism
social conflict
theorist hold that society is a complex system in which social changes evolves from some form of inequality. Ex of conflict theorist include Martiniau Addams, Marx, Dubois
value free sociology: what and who
keeping it unbiased

Weber
Disengagement Theory
How society forces older people to leave their current positions and conditions that they are in; Ultimate disengagement= death
secondary analysis
searching for new knowledge in the data collected earlier by another researcher
TYPES OF COMMUNITIES:
Suburbs
no simple definition
3 social factors differentiate suburbs from cities:
suburbs generally less dense than cities
suburbs have ‘private space’ (i.e. gated communities, etc.)
suburbs have more building codes that maintain standards
Suburban expansion – suburbs have expanded
Suburbanization – most popular trend in 20th century
Suburbs grew 1st along railroads, then along freeways
Predominantly White middle-class moved to suburbs
organizational restructuring in the work place
collective decision making- democratic, minimal hierarchy, work teams
conflict perspective
power relations and inequality w/in a society. what is the extent of inequality? How was is created?
exploitation theory
Uses race to exploit another racial group (minority) ex- keep people of color in low paying jobs
nonmaterial culture
the aggregate of values, mores, norms of a society; the ideational structure of a culture that provides the values and meanings by which it functions
Policy Research
a form of Evaluation research, if the research is intended to produce policy reccomendations then it is called this
Characteristics of Caste System
keeps people with their own kind
Vertical Mobility
movement up or down a hierarchy of positions in a social stratification system
criticisms of poverty index
-when the federal government developed the poverty index, about 1/4 of welfare benefits were in form of goods and services.- the poverty measure only looks at income, not assets.- food accounts for a smaller proportion of family expenses today than it did previously.

Sexual orientation is a key identifying factor for:
Homophobia / Visibility (labeling)
Define xenocentrism:
It's the belief that what is foreign is best and that one's own lifestyle, produvts, or ideas are inferior to those of others.
Structural Mobility
Changes in society that lead people up or down the ladder.
role vs status
hold a status vs perform a role
statuses are static, roles are dynamic
What is role taking?
Recognize and learn what social relationships are & learn the behaviors that are appropriate
society
a number of people who live in the same territory, are relatively independant of people outside, and they participate in a common culture
deviance and technology
Less social control in the technology which encourages ppl to participate in deviant behavior (illegal downloading of music)
life chances
Weber said class is related to the life changes you have- opportunities you have to social resources, #1 life chance= education, most people don’t have this chance
role strain
the stress or strain experienced by an individual when incompatible behavior, expectations, or obligations are associated with a single social role.
Second Shift
The belief that after a day at work, women also have household duties to complete (Arlie Hochschild)
Altruistic suicide
suicide that occurs as a result of too little social regulation
(after the age of about 12) children are now capable of abstract thinking
formal operational stage
how you can go up or down in society
absolute poverty
Difference between social & natural science
• Natural =physical features of nature and how they interact and change • Social features-features of humans and how they interact and change (social sciences)
Manifest and Latent function
M= the intended goal of an organization/society, L=the result that happens w/o intention
functionalist view of multinational corporations
When multinationals aid in development of non-industrial nations, integral in changing them, contribute to employment
Compare and contrast Sociology and Psychology.
Sociology studies human behavior in groups and how group dynamics affects that behavior.Psychology studies individuals and how separate and different factors influence him or her.
in his global study of gender, george murdock found
all of the above
What is the difference between a counterculture and subculture?
Countercultures oppose the dominant culture and subcultures exist within the dominant culture
How does Weber define power?
The ability to impose one’s will over another, some have more social than others- upper class, there is a varied degree of power that is used and not used
Thomas Robert Malthus's
was the first to offer a theory on the population change. He believed that the human drive for sex would grow population ultimately larger than food surplus. Although this never happened
factors that impact mobility in the U.S.
1) occupational mobility 2) education 3) race and ethnicity 4) gender
Sapir and Whorf did what?
They came up with a theory that states that there is a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it.
What was the consequence of such national attention for subsequent process of local dispute?
(ESSAY QUESTION)
How to accommodate turned into to how to exclude illegal immigrants. How to make their lives suck. Their overall original point to stop the hiring of illegal immigrants on streets and in general, turned to racial violence.
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