Sociology Culture Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
"how to"
knowledge
drives
impulse to reduce discomfort
Culture shock
Personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
afrocentrism
emphasizing and promoting African cultural patterns
norms
rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior. may be formal (specific, written down) or informal ( understood but not recorded)
Eurocentrism
is the dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns
Sociobiology
A theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture
folkways
nrms for routine and causal interaction, (right vs wrong)
culture
the language, beleifs, values, norms, behaviors and material objects that characterize a group and are passed from one generation to the next
Counterculture
Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
Multiculturalism
A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting respect and equal standing for all cultural traditions
Negative Sanction
Include crititcism, fines, and imprisonment, are intended to stop socially unacceptable behaviors.
"C"ulture
"big idea" global ties: religion, love, etc
transmission of culture from one generation to another
acculturation
cultural Integration
the close relationships among various examples of a cultural system
moral holidays
times/ places where norms are temporarily loosened
-red light districts
-mardi gras
-superbowl city
Beliefs
Specific thoughts or ideas that people hold to be true
ethnocentrism
tendency to view ones culture superior to the rest
Symbol
is something to which people attach meaning and that they then use to communicate with one another.
SUBCULTURE
CULTURAL PATTERNS THAT SET APART SOME SEGMENT OF A SOCIETY'S POPULATION
Technology
Knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
cultural transmission
the process by which one generation passes culture to the next
Cultural relativism
is the perspective that a foreign culture should not be judged by the standards of a
home culture and that a behavior or way of thinking must be examined in its cultural context.
taboo
a rule of behavior, the violation of which calls for strong punishment
cultural universals
common practices and beliefs shared by all society ex) sports, sex
ontology
the study of being(there are many ways of being)
social control
various means by which members of a society encourage conformity to norms
Values are what?
Abstract standards of what 'ought to be' (i.e. equality of opportunity)
elements of culture that are shared by people of certain social categories but not the entire population
cultural specialties
Edward Wilson (1975)
an insect specialist, set of an uproar when he claimed that human behavior is also the result of natural selection. Human behavior, he said, is not different from the behavior of cats, dogs, rats, bees or mosquitoes -- it has been bred into Homo sapiens--A member of the genus Homo and especially of the species H. sapiens.
Cultural Relativism is important when?
Important as people of the world come into more and more contact with each other
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