Sociology Exam 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Intervention
"at-risk"
formal social control
patterns
 recurring characteristics or events
Joanne Naiman
social justice & social change issues; publicly-funded education
Joanne Naiman
Naiman the price
SOCIOLOGY
SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF SOCIAL INTERACTION
master status
draws everyone's attentionEX. disabled
Professions
a prestigious white-collar occupation that requires extensive formal education
status
-recognized social position.
-who we are in relation to others.
deindustrialization
workers replaced by technology, factory moved to cheaper town/country, capitalism benefits
ascribed status
in involuntary, race-ethnicity, sex, and the social class of your parents, as well as your statuses as female male, daughter or son, niece or nephew.
Modernization
The far-reaching process by which periphery nations move from traditional or less developed institutions to those characteristic of more developed societies
high-income countries 
or
industrial countries
nations with highly industrialized economies; technologically advanced industrial, administrative, and service occupations; and relatively high levels of national and personal income.
Social control
techniques and strategies for preventing deviant behaivor in society
Functionalism
social structures have functions, what is the structure there for
Shamanism
It is believed that spirits communicate with only one person in the group
Sect
Relatively small religions that break away from a larger denomination; usually short-lived
Tied Immigrants
Female immigrants are ____________, meaning that women have tended to immigrate with en who come to the U.S. for economic opportunity.
-A. Economic deprivation at home and opportunity in the U.S.
-B. Social Network (Female only)
-C. Family Decision (which usually means "men's" decision to migrate.
Variable
something that occurs in different degrees among individuals, groups, objects and events
nonverbal communication
communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech
norms
an established standard of behavior maintained by a society
stratification
the hierarchical or vertical division of society according to rank, caste, or class
Totem
an object in the natural world collectively defined as sacred
Bilingual Education
A system in which non-English speckingstudents are taught in their native languages
about four percent of the U.S. population, this group has no income, no connection to the job market, little education, inadequate nutrition, and substandard housing or none at all. They have no possibility of social mobility and little chance of achievin
underclass
Subculture
Values and related behaviors of a group that distinguishes members from the larger culture
Monozygotic vs. Dyzygotic
-they share an egg/DNA/identical-two eggs/fraternal
macrosociology
analysis of large scale social systems like the political system or economic order
The author points out that racial oppression has existed for most human history, therefore it will probably always be with us:T/F
False
___% of teens pregnant keep their babies
57%
oligarchy
rule by a few or small group
social protection
make the non-conformists incapable of repeating the same crime or committing other crimes (execution, incarceration or sterilization)
The average wedding has about ___ guests.
165
sociological imagination
(C.W. Mills) Connecting individuals to larger social forces to help see the world from a different perspective.
Ex. Look at a child's bad behavior based on the type of interactions he's getting in school
outsourcing
the process of transferring a specific task to a foreign country to save money
impression management
create specific impressions for others by using scenery props costumes
Harriet Martineu
Translated Comte's works, wrote the 1st book on soc methods, wome's rights, emancipation, religious tolerance
Sociologica Imagination
making a connection between personal experiences and larger social influences/institutions
homeschooling
usually 2 parent homes, reject public school system, special needs children, religion, higher test scores, BUT- social isolation possible
Structural Mobility
Changes associated with economy, real estate agents, car sales
crowd
Temporary gathering of people in close proximity who share a common interest (crowds have predictable behavior)
sex ratio
the proportional distribution of the sexes in a population aggregate, expressed as the number of males per 100 females
Mobility
a change in status within a society,it may be upward into a higher class, downward into a class, or horizontal across the same status level.
Power:
ability to make others do what you want; Power Elite (small group of individuals who are connected with the Gov’t and military to get legislature passed
Secondary group
A formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding.
Mores
Rules or norms that people have a strong reaction and feeling towards
Environmental Theories of Behavior
varies by space and time
Socialization into emotions
6 basic emotions culture, social class, and relationships shape how we show emotionschildhood socializations
Military-Industrial complex
the close association of the federal government, the military, and defense industries
When everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study, this is called what?
random sample
Independent Variable
A variable that causes or produces change in the value of another (dependent) variable
Sets of cultural beliefs, values, and attitudes about the genders that contribute to the rationalization of inequalities in society. For example, ________ __________ about women’s roles and the lower value of their work help to perpetuate the lower wage
Gender Ideologies
Collectivity
A large number of people whose minimal interaction occurs in the absence of well-defined and conventional norms
Postconventional Stage
move beyond their society's norms to consider abstract ethical principles
sapir-whorf hypothesis
concerning the role of language in shaping our interpretation of reality, language is culturally determined
organizational restructuring in the work place
collective decision making- democratic, minimal hierarchy, work teams
voluntary associations
membership is paid or voluntary, no compensation, more women, built around common interest
types of crime
1- victimless- willing exchange of illegal goods, 2- professional- occupational, 3- organized- network institutions, 4- white collar- business activity, 5- transitional- occurs and crosses national borders
the contact hypothesis
If people from different racial backgrounds interact, racial prejudice will decrease, ex- remember the titans
prophetic
having the function or powers of a prophet, as a person.
Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination
Exists when the practices or arrangements within social institutions have the intent or effect of favoring one group over another.
Scientific management approach
Another name for the classical theory of formal organizations.
data (the plural of datum)
empirically obtained information often used to test theories
Functional Analysis
theory that views society as a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together; when fulfilled, contribute to society's equilibrium; also known as functionalism/structural functionalism
Feminist perspective of gender
-want an equity of access/opportunity beyond biology; systemic interactions of oppression and exploitation
Validity
The degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study.
Micro Level Theory
studying on a very individual level. Studying what causes a person's individual actions
Medicalization of Deviance
The transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
value added model
Looks at social conditions that lead to collective behavior, social conditions that lead to a willingness to act collectively
What is Sociology?
the scientific study of human behavior and human groups. - interactions, institutions, operation
ethnocentrism
The idea that one norm should apply to all groups, white privilege- all groups conform to white standard
How does weber understand class?
Economic standing, status- hierarchy w/ in society not as an economic result, power- all account for class understanding
rulers who hold the power and dont allow others to participate.
What is authoritarianism?
Religion is about beliefs that transcend everyday human activity
o salvation, life after death, etc. o Therefore, we don't try to disprove religion. Religion requires faith. + Faith: belief anchored in conviction rather than scientific/empirical evidence
hunting and gathering
the use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetaion for food
telecommuters
when one does all or part of work from home, no traditional office setting, parents balance responsibilities
conflict perspective on deviance
Deviance tends to support the interest of the wealthy, white collar crimes have less harsh punishment, where you go- how much you spend
functionalists on gender
Men and women’s roles act in balance of one another; women are becoming sole bread winners
in-group vs out-group
in- a group you feel membership in, out-a group you don't belong to
Systems of Racial and Ethnic Classification
A systematic process that divides people into racial or ethnic categories that are implicitly or explicitly ranked on a scale of social worth
What are two types of crimes?
1) crimes against persons
2) crimes against property
what is a public?
a dispersed group of people who share an interest in and issue ex- democrats and republicans
myths about the poor
- people are poor because they are to lazy to work. -Most poor people are minorities, and most minorities are poor.-most of the poor are single mothers with children.
primary group vs secondary group
p- group you interact with and have intimate contact with, s-formal contact, impersonal group
Which of the following phrases best describes a random sample?
Everyone in the population has the same chance of being included in the study.
This is not of the criticisms raised agsint WTO
it does not advocate free trade (because it does)
How We Learn to Take the Role of the Other: Mead’s Three Stages
Stage 1: Imitation Children under age 3 No sense of self Imitate others
Stage 2: Play Ages 3 to 6 Play “ pretend” others ( princess, Spiderman, etc.)
Stage 3: Team Games After about age 6 or 7 Team games (“ organized play”) Learn to take multiple roles
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