Sociology Final 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
inexorable
inflexible, unrelenting
Monogamy
One spousal mate
Dr. Keys 
low fat diet
Power Control Theory
John Hagan
functionalism
-society as a living organism-emphasized ways in which parts of society are structured to maintain stability
___ believes stratification influences peoples lifestyles
interactionist
ageism
prejudice and descrimination against older people
Biologically speaking, an arbitrary classification assigned on the basis of genetic characteristics (notably, skin color). From a sociological perspective, however, _____ is socially constructed. Its meaning in society is a cultural process. If members of
Race
isolation
Feral children, language learned through socialization, large impact of institutions on development and behavior
Primary deviance
deviance involving occasional breaking of norms that is not a part of a person's lifestyle or self-concept
Kuznet’s Curve:
the changing relationship between economic development and social inequality, named after its discoverer, Simon Kuznets (p. 225)
ego
according to Sigmund Freud, the rational, reality-oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure-seeking drives of the id.
Deviance
behaivor that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society
Adolf Wagner
german,published suicide rates study in several parts of Europe
social marginality
being excluded from mainstream reality
approach that generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to explain society as a whole
interactionist perspective
Except Essential
However nuclear family not essential, more do functions, only 250 studies not universal
Affinity-seeker stepparent
avoids disciplining stepchildren, but friendly and approachable
patrilineal family
recognizes only the father’s family as a child’s close relatives
Robert Merton
Macro. soc- large-scale phenomena, Micro. soc- small group phenomena, population vs sample
neocolonialism
Country is economically dependent upon an industrialized country
w.e.b. du bois
U.S. educator and writer.
glass elevator
the mostly invisible accelerators that push men into higher level positions
exploitation
 
CRITICISMS
not all minority groups are exploited equally
2.  prejudice occurs for reasons other than economic
3.  prejudice isnt necessarily rational and may undermine dominant group interests
White-collar crime
Illegal acts commited by affluent, "respectable" individuals in the course of business activities
Domestication Revolution
The first Social Rev. --domestication of plants/animals
Diaspora
the dispersal of an ethnic population from an original homeland into foreign areas, often in a forced manner or under traumatic circumstances
Matrix of domination
Cumulative impact of oppression because of race, gender, and class as well as sexual orientation, religion, disability status, and age.
The Holocaust is an example of _______.a.Genocideb.Slaveryc.Assimilationd.Segregation
A.
a social interaction with the express purpose of eventual marriage
courtship
August Comte
Founder of Sociology. His philosophy became known as positivism, a belief that the work can be understood through scientific inquiry, bias-free.
Sociobiology
The systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior.
STATE CENTERED THEORIES
argue that appropriate government policies do not interfere with economic developmetn but rather can play a key role in bringing it about
primary socialization
socialization when we are babies
Ex. Parents teach children how to act in different situations
intimate partner violence
includes rape, physical assaults, pertpetrated by current and former spouses
Status symbols
signs that identify a status

ex. wedding ring, uniforms, badges etc..
socialism
means of production are publicy owned, goal- meet population's needs, social health care, public schools
types of norms
formal- written, specify punishment, informal- generally understood, not precisely recorded (manners), mores- norms deemed necessary to the welfare of a society, Folkways- governs everyday life
bilateral descent
trace lineage through both parents equally (hyphenated last name)
institutional discrimination
The denial of resources and opportunities and rights to an individual based on gender, race, class, etc. Women once denied from medical schools b/c of their gender
Natural Science
Studies the physical features of nature and how they interact with one another. (bio, chem, physics)
mass society
a society characterized by having impersonal relations, a high degree of physical and social mobility, and a tendency to conform to popular norms
Internal
Ex.  how old were you? Somebody fills in their age. Its a name, its a rank, It tells you how much more
Ans. ? How much more or how much less.
Relative Poverty:
a state of deprivation resulting from having less than what the majority of the people have (p. 231)
Out-group
A group or category to which people feel they do not belong.
Society→
Society→ a group of people who live in a particular territory, are subject to a common system of political authority, and are aware of having a distinct identity from other groups
Comparable Worth
policies that attempt to remedy pay gap by adjusting pay so that those in female dominated jobs are not paid less for equvialent work
Context
The social setting in which racial and ethnic categories are recognized, constructed, and challenged
impression management
act of presenting a favorable public image of oneself so that others will form positive judgments
acid rain cycle
begins with power plants burning fossil fuels which releases sulfuric and nitrous oxides into the atmosphere which then form acids and precipitate as rain
Who coined the phrase, "only the most capable and intelligent members of the society survive, while the less capable die out."
Herbert Spencer
Unprejudiced Discriminator
Treats the members of some groups unequally because it is convenient or advantageous to do so rather than out of personal antipathy toward them. (salespeople in Africa)
Intragenerational mobility
the mobility that occurs within a person's lifetime
*Social Change*Social Movement Organization
Formed to advocate social change
How does culture spread?
Cultural diffusion, globalization of culture
impression management
altering of presentation of the self in order to create distinctive appearances and satisfy audiences
narcotizing dysfunction
when the media provide such massive amounts of coverage that the audience becomes numb and fails to act on the info
alienation
the worker is not part of the produciton process, no control over the work environment
sexual harassment
1. behavior in the workplace where career advancement is given in exchange for sexual favors, 2.lude comments or gestures, any form of inappropriate touching any type of display of pornographic material => creates a hostile environment
minority group
Subordinate group that has less power w/in society (women- 50% of the population, but are a minority b/c women have less power)
looking-glass self
the self-image an individual forms by imagining what others think of his or her behavior and appearance
CONTROL THEORY/Walter Reckless
2 control systems work against our motivations to deviate. Our inner controls vs outer controls
Milgram’s research –
found people are willing to obey authority even if it would hurt another person. None of the subjects challenged the process of giving electric shock to determine if punishment improves a person’s memory.
McDonaldization
process by which fast food is going to dominate america and the world
social movement
a long term consious effort to promote or prevent social change
nuclear family
a family composed of one or two parents and their children; also known as conjugal family
Survey
A study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire, that provides researchers with information about how people think and act.
What cultural norms are good for democracy?
individualism, tolerance, compromise
Life Expectancy
The average life span of a country's population
Interactionist perspective
How people relate to one another and what that demonstrates in societies as a whole. - family dinners
Lenski on technology
cultural info about how to use material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires
modernization and modernization theory
modernization: process where a country moves from nonindustrial to industrial modernization theory: functionalist set of theories,people's lives are improved through modernization ex: clean H2O
feminization of poverty
Most poor people are women and children (single parents household), 51% of single parent households are poor, childcare not cheap sexual harassment and job discrimination don’t help women get out of poverty
patterns of intergroup relations
1- genocide- 1 majority group systematically kills minority group, 2- expulsion- major group gets rid of minorities (deport), 3- amalgamation- major and minor intermarry, creating a new group, 4- assimilation- minority adapts to major, 5- segregation- physical separation, 6- plurism- intergroup relations which force people to accept others
social integration (Durkheim)
the degree to which people are united by shared values
Traditional Society
a society in which the past is thought to be the best guide for the present; characterizes tribal, peasant, and feudal societies
Structural Functional Approach on Sexuality--universal norms
-incest taboo: keeps family relations clear-and other norms to control sexuality in order to maintain social order
What did Michel Foucault believe?
Michel Foucault maintained that the body is a central location for the expression and reproduction of power relationships. Through self-surveillance and everyday disciplinary practices, he argued, individuals internalize and reproduce hierarchies of social status and power, transforming their bodies into “carriers” or representatives of relations of domination and subordination.
Marx on class differences
Class is divided by the “haves” and “have nots,” access to certain key resources in society determines success
role of language in culture
the foundation of culture, displays the priorities of culture, certain words tell what is important to a culture
functionalist view of multinational corporations
When multinationals aid in development of non-industrial nations, integral in changing them, contribute to employment
rites of passage
events that mark the passage of a person's change in status. religious, educational, legal, etc
C Wright Mills
when 1 or 2 individuals have a problem its for counselorslearn to justify norms when we learn themwhen its more than that its a public issue
Who tends to be victimized more?
Lower social class, men, minorities, the older they are the less likely it is
systems of stratification
1- slavery- who is free and who is not, a system of human bondage, slavery still exists in the US (trafficking), 2- Caste system- levels of strata w/in a hierarchy, rigidly fixed, inherited, legally and religiously enforced, 3-class- determined by economic standing, some mobility to change groups
Asserts that an individual is more likely to deviate when her/his social ties are broken or absent.
control theory / social bond theory
what is the objective method of measuring class?
A quantitative measurement of class, observing wealth and income and assets
What does self fulfilling prophecy mean?
When someone lives up to the label they have been given
Does prison work to prevent future crimes? Why?
No. Because of recidivism rates are high.
As age increases, does poverty also do the same?
no - as age increases they are less likely than the general population to be poor
founded psychoanalysis,
Freud
hostile environment
uncomfrotable situationsinnappropriate comments, looks, jokes, etc
Tonnies Theory (Industrial)
Gesellschaft "society"
 
 characterized by weak family ties and less personal social relationships   $$$$
-societal conditions (economy, population)-cultural diffusion (spread of cultural practices, "Westernization")-innovation (technological advances)-imposition of change (outside force)-cultural lag (culture slow to change)-popular culture (beliefs, traditi
Socialization
senescence
natural physical process of aging
exchange mobility
upward & downward mobility
Karl Marx
key concept= class structurecapitalism: emphasize on people's economic needs, only rich getting richer and poor getting poorer
crime
an act prohibited by law
Hill
Network size with Christmas cards. Neocortex recognized approximately 150 people, avg network size was 153.5 according to Hill.
Heterogamy
A marriage between individuals who have different social characteristics
folkways
informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture.
Obedience
Compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure
Individualistic Explanation
Tendency to attribute people's achievements and failures to their personal qualities.
Secondary Social Groups
Goal OrientedLess Frequent InterationLess Intimate*Some people use their work groups as a primary group rather than secondaryEx. Groups of students in class.
expecting different attitudes and behaviors from us because we are male or female
gender socialization
This modern type of marriage emphasizes individual self-development and self-satisfaction, implying that the best/happiest marriages involve two well-developed, independent individuals
Independent/Interdependent
Suburbs
Urban areas beyond the political boundaries of a city
capitalism
means of production are privately owned
social control
Techniques and strategies for preventing human deviant behavior in society, too much social control is bad
luddites
Craft workers, France; individuals who fought against changes that industrial revolution and factories brought, sabotage- created word, throw shoes in machines; term used to describe anyone who resisted technological change
functionalist theory
people are deviant for different reasons, goals vs. means
wealth
something of an accounting term. take a persons property and subtract their debts.
counterculture 
a group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
Kuznets Curve
Inequality increases during the early stages of capitalist development, then declines, and eventually stabilizes at a relatively low level.
Social Statics (definition)

study of stability and order.
 
"Comte"

 
Achieved Status
a position that is earned, accomplished, or involves at least some effort or activity on the individual's part
Segregation
The physical or social separation of categories of people
Culture
The complex system of meaning and behavior that defines the way of life for a given group or society
patriarchy
authority is vested primarily in the fathertraditional
Cultural leveling
when cultures become similar, refers especially to western being exported and diffused
Dramaturgical approach
A view of social interaction popularized by Erving Goffman in which people are seen as theatrical performers.
secondary group
an impersonal and frequently larger group whose members interact for the purpose of pursuing a shared goal or activity
Discrimination
An act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or group.
Mob
A highly emotional crowd that pursues a violent or destructive goal
Malthus Theorem
Reverend Thomas Malthus (1798)
One of the 1st to think about populations
Food supply
Food supply increases arithmetically (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.)
World’s populations increases geometrically (1, 2, 4, 8, etc.)
Advocated postponement of marriage
Didn’t advocate birth control due to religious beliefs
periodic and non-periodic assemblies
Periodic- recurring assembly/meeting (soc class, chapter, white sox season tickets) Non- very infrequent, nontraditional, less formal (ANTM casting call, protest, Obama celebration)
formal organization
formed in order to maximize efficiency
4 subcultures among college students
collegiate=social, academic=enjoy class, vocational=goal is to get a job after college, non-conformist=don't like college, reject the college culture
stigma
Used to describe to labels that society gives to devalue members of certain groups, negative label
Jane Addams
Founder of social work, created juvinile court system, fought against chicago school segregation, the Hull House
custom
a group pattern of habitual activity usually transmitted from one generation to another
anomie
loss of direction felt in society when social control of individual behavior becomes ineffective
Institutional Racism
Developed in the 1960s; the belief that white supremacy structured all social relations.
a criminal act by an offender motivated by bias against race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, or disability status
hate crime
globalization
people are exposed to and effected by ideas.
Social Statification
the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative property, power, and prestige; applies to both nations and to people within a nation, society, or other group
Social Location
the group memberships that ppl have because of their location in history and society
ex. jobs, income, gender, education, race
Status
a position a person occupies within a social structure
personal space
the surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy
tangible things created by members of a society
material culture
Smuggling
1. Person knows they are engaged in illegal activity
2. Person is free once they meet their destination
3. They are NOT innocent victims
Society
People who share a culture and a territory
class conflict
marx's term for the struggle between the capitalists, who own the means of production and the proletariat who do not
A ______________ is a secondary group whose goal is the achievement of explicit objectives or tasks
Formal organization
bureaucracy
formal, meant to aid in the function of a formal organization. - division of labor, hierarchy, written rules, impersonal, employment=technical qualifications
subculture
a segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of a larger society
What is homophobia?
Fear of homosexuality, used to socialize one into a certain gender, keeps you in rigid gender roles (tomboy, etc)
dependency theory
Comes from world systems analysis- as core nations develop, periphery stays behind = power imbalance
social environment
the environment developed by humans as contrasted with the natural environment; society as a whole, especially in its relation to the individual
What is the name of the theory, introduced by Charles Horton Cooley, that suggests that our definition of self is a product of our social interactions??
Interactionist perspective
forces that lead us to follow social norms. Includes outer controls (people who influence us into following social rules) and inner controls (internalized socialization, etc.)
social controls
Max Weber
argued that property is only part of the picture. Social class he said has three components: property, power and prestige
Random sample
subjects chosen in a way that allows every member of the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample ( should be a representative sample)
heterosexism
a view that labels anyone who is not heterosexual as \"queer\"
True or false and what percent
Most uninsured are poor unemployed minorities
58% say false
What are status offenses?
status offenses are only crimes because of the "status" of the people who commit them.
Interpretive Sociology
study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world; 3 types: focus on the meaning people attach to their action, what people do in their everyday lives, qualitative data on how people understand their surrounding lives;
Mead's research of gender
Central to gender studies, gender isn’t biological, A-tribe= same U.S. gender roles, M-tribe= men and women both aggressive, less labor division, T-tribe= men are passive and vain (shop and curling hair, etc)
intention of minimum wage
Help workers maintain a minimum standard of living
Gan's view on poverty
Deserving vs underserving poor= this is an incorrect and unhealthy notion/ idea- society benefits from poverty- 1- menial labor, 2- poverty creates jobs, 3- when society uses poor as scapegoats it enforces social norms, 4- having poor guaranteed a raise in social status for others, 5- poor absorb the cost for institutional change
DuBois and the Conflict Perspective
Understanding power and inequality must be supported by understanding of race w/in a society.
subculture vs. counterculture
-subculture is a group within a larger culture-counterculture is a group that rejects the values and norms, then makes a new set of cultural patterns
Weber beliefs of inequality
-agrees with Marx that means of production has impact on equality
 - but also--> status: presige level and
power: peoples influence over others 
relationship between social class and the likelihood of embracing deferred gratification
social class prenetrates our consciousness, shaping our ideas of life and out \"proper\" place in society

General Strain Theory/Coercion Theory
you get angry when treated unfairly and will respond hostily to future events
telecommuters
when one does all or part of work from home, no traditional office setting, parents balance responsibilities
prestige vs. esteem
p- looking at the amount of respect given to an occupation in society- connection to financial reward, E- the amount of respect someone has w/ in a certain occupation- famous doctors, lawyers, etc
5 properties of a minority group
1- Physical or cultural differences/characteristics, 2- Must be treated unequally, 3- membership is not voluntary, 4- sense of solidarity among the group (is there collective consciousness?), 5- minority groups members tend to marry each other
Social constructionist approach to the body
-Through interaction with others, we develop awareness of how they see us which influences how we see ourselves
-Presentation fo self: we manage information in order to present a particular impression to those with whom we interact
when members of a racial or ethnic minority adopt aspects of dominant culture, e.g., language, dress, values, religion, and food.
Cultural assimilation (a.k.a., acculturation)
The way you see yourself is based on the way you think others see you
Agents of Socialization
mobility in industrial norms
1- Parents and children tend to have same social status in industrial nations, 2- mobility is effected by structures (prevalence of labor unions made more peeps mid. Class) 3- immigration is large factor with mobility (diff country/city -> US/other city)
Macionis on low, medium, and high income nation
Low standard of living--most people are poor.Average standard of livingHigh standard of living
why are females classified as a minority group
it refers to people who are discriminated against on the basis of physical or cultural characteristics, regardless of their numbers
What was C. Wright Mills basically saying? (2 points)
1. society shapes the way we behave 
2. our behaviors also shape society
/ 175
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