Sociology terms 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
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Law
Govermental social control
Durkheim
Social Facts/Suicide Research/Father of Modern Sociology
Peters Parsons
2 irreducible functions
Primary socialisation - n&v children, society will not continue,
Structural-Functional Approach
preindustrial societies, distinctive roles for males and females reflect biological differences between the sexes.
FHA
-created in 1934
-insures mortgage loans
-set insurance standards
-decided who was too risky for loans
 
Statuses
-socially defined positions -ascribed: generally assigned at birth (Caucasian, black)-achieved: attained through one's effort (honor roll student)
mores
norms of considerable moral significance that carry serious consequences if violated
deviance
behavior that violates acceptable standards of conduct
Markets
Constructed by producers to make consumer tastes understandable
*Before rise of rock market was homogenous, after the market was a mosaic of distinct segments
Symbol
Something to which people attach meanings and then use to communicate with others
radical feminism 
Cutting-edge branch of feminism focused on sweeping social reforms, social change, and revolution. Argues against institutions like patriarchy, heterosexism, and racism and instead emphasizes gender as a social construction, denouncing biological roots of gender difference. Often paves the way for other branches of feminism.
social status
positions individuals occupy in relation to others.
Income
salaries wages and other money received
Society
composed of people living within defined territorial borders who share a common culture.
Ascribed
Inherits at birthinvoluntary later on in life
Weak Dependency
While international exploitation is the most significant factor, internal structural problems such as military domination, corruption, and hyper-stratification are also internal

In some situations dependency is beneficial for development
Prosecutor
Key Person

Decides whether to charge and what to charge
When was the welfare reform?
In 1966
communism
means of production publicly owned, but there are no social classes
social control
Techniques and strategies for preventing human deviant behavior in society, too much social control is bad
polarized
to divide into sharply opposing factions, political groups, etc.:
INTERACTIONISM
HOW PEOPLE INTERPRET THE SOCIAL WORLD THEY ARE IN
Racism
A system of domination operating in social processes and social institutions, or operating in the individual consciousness.
Domestication Revolution
Happened gradually over 1000's of years;changed human history; allowed development of division of labor; indirectly stimulated trade
Information society→
Information society→ a society no longer based primarily on the production of material goods but on the production of knowledge the notion of the information society is closely bound up with the rice of informational technology
"The Big Tilt"
Unequal participation w/in US society-class is defining variabledefining participation-voting, registration, campaiging, donatingNecessary "resources" for participation-money, time, laborWho matters?-"clearest and loudest"
Participant observation
a qualitative research method that seeks to observe social actions in practice
The author says that the trouble around difference is really about.a.Hated and Fearb.Apprehension and Tolerancec.Power and Privileged.Bigotry and Prejudice
C.
Profane
Anything that is considered to be part of the ordinary world and, thus, commonplace and familar
how do institutions, groups, organizations come about
through individual's behavior
laws
are norms enacted and enforced through the governance of a society
social regulation
rules and norms in society
(y axis)
The process by which individuals take on gender identities, behaviors, and actions. There is no such thing as a single, fixed gender identity, such as “man” or “woman.” Rather, this certain thing is a fluid process that intersects with other ident
Gendering
planned obsolescence
existing products that are given superficial changes and marketed as new, making the previous products out of date
Cooley's Looking Glass Self
humanness is socially created
self=reflection in mirror
informal economy
operates outside of govt regulation, bartering, drug sales
routine activities theory
criminal victimization when motivated and suitable targets converge (ex: easy to pick pocket at airports)
In-Group vs. Out-Group
Popular crowd vs. goth kids
institutional discrimination
The denial of resources and opportunities and rights to an individual based on gender, race, class, etc. Women once denied from medical schools b/c of their gender
innate
existing in one from birth; inborn; native:
interview
a survey method in which a trained researcher asks questions and records the answers
Social Credit Party
political party founded in Western Canada; opposed to capitalism
BEAUTY MYTH
Media causes women to determine their own self worth based on their appearance, and men to want a trophy wife and too treat women as though they are a prize of sorts. It also teaches women to use their beauty to get what they want.
Religious Nationalism
* The linking of strongly held religious convictions with beliefs about a people's social and political destiny (often linked with a claimed “homeland” or “salvation” through evangelism) * When multiple Religious Nationalism's occupy same territory ... o Typically leads to violent conflict
Conflict Perspective
argues that the structure of society and the nature of social relationships are the result of past and ongoing conflicts
People who are united by a geographic boundary who share many aspects of culture (political system, economy, languge)
society
Invisible religious influence
low awareness, low intention, high influence (behavior)
ranges from frowns and gossip to imprisonment and capital punishment
negative sanctions
Cultural Leveling
The process by which cultures become similar to one another and especially by which western industrial culture is imported and diffused into industrializing nations.
participant observation
(field work)
-researcher becomes part of the activity
-gives a sense of what it feels like to be a part of a spec. group
-researcher loses objectivity & feels he is part of group
Labeling Theory
Deviants are those people who have been successfully labeled as such by others
Control Variables
having control of all factors that might affect what the experiment is trying to measure
Goffman's Dramaturgical Approach
people's actions embedded with their roles in society.
Feminists and Conflict P
Understanding inequalities in gender and how they come about
dominant ideology
a set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interest
discrimination
Denial of equal rights, resources to a person or a group, also a function of a racist system- in order to solidify the race’s power in that institution, discrimination must occur (deny someone a job)
evolutionary theory
Human society is moving in a progressive state- good thing, progress understood positively
industrialization
To introduce industry into an area on a large scale.
the process by which societies are transformed from agriculture-based economic activity to manfacturing-based economic activity
Unemployment
being unable to find a job when one wants it. can lead to poverty...
a subset of the population to be studied chosen by an abstract and arbitrarymethod
random sample
Major axes of Stratification in US
-the Assimilation/Competition theory. Results of different groups intercting. Migration. Adaption.
 
 
 - Power/Conflict theory. focus on economic subordination and institutionalized discrimination.
Ideology
A set of beliefs taken to be accurate accounts and explanations of why things are as they are. The beliefs are not challenged or subjected to scrutiny by the people who hold them
Coercive
one is forced to jointend to have very formal rules- jail, mental institution
infant mortality
rate means the # of deaths among children under the age one for each 1000 births durign the year. In 1998 it was 7.2
Cultural theory
• when you grow up in that particular society, that society has enemenies
• kids learn what good and bad guys are depends on culture
post conventional morality
Kohlberg's term for the practice of judging actions actions by taking into account the importance of conflicting norms
cultural universal
a common practice or belief found in every culture
4 dysfunctions of racism
1-society fails to use resources appropriately- only using part of talent and ideas, 2- discrimination aggravates social problems- make poverty worse, 3- society wasting resources, maintaining social segregation, 4- racism used to undercut good will btw nations, neg. impact on global scale
How does weber understand class?
Economic standing, status- hierarchy w/ in society not as an economic result, power- all account for class understanding
open vs. closed system
Open- class system of stratification where mobility happens, closed- system in which wherever you are born, you can never move
Define Cultural Relativity.
Cultures are neither right or wrong. They are only different. Culture is diverse. (Humbolens, Lefola)
INTERACTIONIST VIEW OF STRATIFICATION
interested in the importance of social class in shaping a person's lifestyle. ex: rich people purchase more cars then neccesary, or build houses wiht more rooms then they can occupy
a national civil rights movement too place in
the 1950s and 1960s
what is disengagement theory?with which sociological perspective is it associated?
diengagement theory is associated with the functinalist perspective. this theory states that aging and death threaten to disrupt the functioning of society. in response social processes and practices such as mandatory retirement ages attempt to disengage the elderly from positions of responsibility in order to maintain the smooth and stable functioning of society
dysfunction in society
any occurence w/in a society that puts it off-balance, contributing to instability. creates jobs and the justice system
conflict perspective and gender
Gender roles are to hide power differential in men and women, women paid less, women work more (day job and home maker), women have less leisure time
5 properties of a minority group
1- Physical or cultural differences/characteristics, 2- Must be treated unequally, 3- membership is not voluntary, 4- sense of solidarity among the group (is there collective consciousness?), 5- minority groups members tend to marry each other
instrumentality vs. expressiveness
Inst.- men’s roles act in balance of one another, a focus on how men do a certain job exp.- women’s roles (nurturer and emotional care taker) with a focus on why women have to do these jobs rather than how they are done; we switch btw inst. And exp. Functions
The number of children a couple must have to "replace" themselves.
What is replacement-level fertility?
what is the differnence between manifest and latent functions? Provide examples
Manifest functions are the intended expected or overtly recognized consequences of an activity or institution. Latent functions are the largely unrecognized or unintended consequences of an activity or institiution.For expample the manifest funtion of attending college is to obtain skills and knowledge to better prepare one for success in the working world. Ltent functions of attending college include gaining independence from one's parents. developing a network of contacts and friendships and identifying potential marriage partners.
five properties of a minority group
1) physical and cultural differences 2) treated unequal 3) imposed membership (ascribed status) 4) sense of solidarity (in group vs out group) 5) tend to marry on another (in group marriages)
It means one whole body, worship
What does social justice mean in Islam
U.S. Social Class- Lowerwhat are some typical characteristics of the homeless?
44% work part time
1/3 substance abusers
1/4 mentally ill
1/3 entire families.
Located mostly in urban cities.
1/5 are considered poor
The Voting Rights Act of 1965
an act to enforce the 15th amendement to the Constitution of the US, and for other purposes.
(3) Policies to Protect the Caller
Do not discuss calls; do not give out information; destroy written call information
how is gender a factor in social movement?
1- the structure tends to be gendered – 1960s- leaders were male, even though the favored equality (except for the women’s movement) – power reflects gender norm in society, 2- the role of emotion is not down played in social movement- gender dynamics lean toward females, but men use emotion as fuel also- having passion for an issue
manifest functions
intended
Low Income Countries
Africa

Symbolic Interactionism

 

"micro"
 interactions between people are based on mutual understood symbols.

 
Polytheism
Belief in many gods
upward social mobility
to move up
Concrete Operational
-age 7-12-develop logical principles
Democratic Socialism


1. Public
ownership of certain basic industries (ie water and energy, education and
health care), most property is privately owned, and competition in the pursuit
of profit is the main motive for business activity, just as in capitalist
societies

 2.
government intervention in the market







+ conventional goals
-- conventional means
Innovation
fad
Temporary pattern of behavior involving large numbers of people, which springs up independently of the culture and does not have a successor (tomagachi, furby)
Stereotype
an exaggerated description applied to every person in some category
T/FDonna Kossy views conspiracy theory as a black hole That "sucks in" everything it touches
T
spoiled identity
identities extremely low in status
ecclesiae
religious organizations that claim to include most or all of the members of a society and is recognized as the national or official religionchurch and govnt work togethervery large and pretty rare
Natural Sciences
The intellectual and academic disiplines designed to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environment.
VERTICAL MOBILITY
movement along the socioeconomic scale
Education
The social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms and values
culture
the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
industrial society
goods are produced through mechanization- corporations
fashion
A mass involvement that features acceptance by society and has historical continuity, fashion comes from well established line of culture (video games)
expressive crowd
emotional crowd where the behavior would not typically be accepted into other settings
strain theory
when the legitimate means for achieving cultural goals are blocked-- this leads to deviance.
negative sanction 
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution
maintains that different groups in a stable society can treat each other with mutual respect and that minority cultures can maintain their own distinctiveness and stillparticipate in the greater society without discrimination
pluralism
Hispanic
Socially constructed in the US that identifies people of Latin American and Spanish descent living in the US today. Used by Census of Population. Homogenizes Spanish speaking people into one category
Shaming
a way of punishing criminal and deviant behavior based on rituals of public disapproval rather than incarceration.  The goal is to maintain the ties of the offender to the community
School integration
Multiracial schools are replacing the apartheid system but for some, the change is occurring too fast or not fast enough.
Ego
The part of the self representing reason and common sense
family--functionalism (6)
outcome of the family6 functions:1) reproduction2) protection--dependence for survival3) socialization4) regualation of sexual behavior (monogomy, sex ed, etc)5) affection and companionship6) providing social status
Direct transfer
dominant group forces minority to leeave
Private troubles
Obstacles that individuals face as individuals rather than as a consequence of their social position.
This doctrine stated that children were incipient citizens and that the state had an interest in ensuring their proper upbringing. This doctrine did not apply to slave children.
Parens Patriae
health care
any activity intended to improve health
Results of Industrialization:
Human relations changes
Human relations changes: diversity
cultural transmission
Crime is learned through daily interactions, you grow up in media you are exposed to (determine your criminal behavior) , interactionist
sanctions
a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm
homeschooling
usually 2 parent homes, reject public school system, special needs children, religion, higher test scores, BUT- social isolation possible
crowd
temporary gathering of people in close proximity who share a common interest, they have predictable behavior ex: ANTM car threat
socialism
means of production are publicy owned, goal- meet population's needs, social health care, public schools
ethnocentrism
the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own ethnic group or culture
SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM
BELIEF THAT EACH SOCIETY RUINS ITSELF; FOCUS ON PEOPLE RATHER THAN ORGANIZATIONS
Wage Gap
The level of women's income relative to that of men
Formal organization
Group designed for a special purpose and structured for maximum efficiency.
what is technology
cultures tools and methods for producing the things we need
Middle Class
a social class composed broadly of those working in white-collar and lower managerial occupations
Values
the standards by which ppl define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
socialization
The process by which people learnt to participate in group life
oligarchy
the rule of the many by the few
a ystem of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
language
Question: Which nation has the highest percentage of female representation in its elected national political positions today?

a) Sweden
b) Rwanda
c) India
d) Botswana
e) Norway
b) Rwanda
Rhonda Lenton
writer in areas of gender, family violence, & health,
Rhonda Lenton
give up violence for Lenton
gender identity
people's images of what they are socially expected to be and do on the basis of their sex
_________ is the term for the quality of the consistency of a measurement
Reliability
coalition
when a group is united toward a certain goal
diffusion
the process by which a cultural item spreads from group to group or society to society
hate crime
Crime that is committed against a victim based on some physical or cultural characteristic
world systems analysis
Manuel Wallerstein- 1- core countries, 2- peripheral countries (like inner and outer zones)
organic solidarity
social cohesiveness that is based on division of labor and interdependence and is characteristic of complex, industrial societies
dysfuncitons of racism
fail to utilize all human potention and limits search for talent/ leadership to dominant group
aggrevates social problems adn places the financial burden of solving those problems to dominant group
investment of time and money to defend barriers taht prevent full participation of all
undermines diplomatic ties between nations and affects efforts to increase global trade
inhibits social chance bc this may assist a minority group
promotes disrespect for law enforcement adn the peaceful settlments of disputes.
Classical Theory
An approach to the study of formal organizations that views workers as being motivated almost entirely economic rewards.
which factors are not included in the food pyramid?
fruits,milk/dairy products,vegetables
cultural universals
traits that are part of every known culture
What does invisible walls mean?
Segregate/divide female and male occupations
What is a decentralized economy?
disperses economic decision making power among a wide range of households, firms, and individuals
The text points out that as family members separate and then join new families formed by remarriage, the new kin do not so much replace as __________ kin from the first marriage.
add to
Lenski on technology
cultural info about how to use material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires
Charles Horton Cooley
study of small groups, the "looking glass self"-how you learn your social role
vested interests
Refer to groups who have something to lose with the advent of social change. Groups suffer due to social change ex: doctors like healthcare the way it is
Interactionist perspective
How people relate to one another and what that demonstrates in societies as a whole. - family dinners
Max Weber's theory on religion
Roman Catholics were encouraged to follow traditonalways of life and believe they were on the road to heaven.
Protestants embrace change, undermined ppl's social security, and didnt' believe they were on the road to heaven just b/c they were church members
Found that capatilism was more likely to flourish in protestant cuntries.
deviance clarifies rules; unites a group; promotes social change
3 things deviance does are...
5 Elements of Functionalism
1. Elements of a society are interrelated and compliment each other. 2. These elements function just like organs of a body3. There is strong consensus over what is needed for society. 4. Too much change or too rapid change causes problems--delicate system.5. Society is an independent entity, greater than the individuals who compose it.
Symbolic Interactionist Theory
Meade; taking the role of the other, you are born without any concept of self; we have as many selves as we have groups whose opinions we care about
Mead's Theory of Self
children view themselves as the center and develop the ability to be influenced by the people around them
Durkheim (fuinctionalist) on deviance
Punishments in culture help to define acceptable behavior, if an action doesn’t lead to consequences/ punishments, then people will participate in deviant behavior
conflict perspective on deviance
Deviance tends to support the interest of the wealthy, white collar crimes have less harsh punishment, where you go- how much you spend
The 7th out of 7 Realities
Human beings are symbol shifting magicians
Who tends to be victimized more?
Lower social class, men, minorities, the older they are the less likely it is
Family of Orientation
The family into which a person is born and in which early socialization usually takes place.
what is a public?
a dispersed group of people who share an interest in and issue ex- democrats and republicans
What are the two goals of studying sociology brought about by C. Wright?
1) question your social surroundings
2) understand how we're influenced by our social surroundings
primary group vs secondary group
p- group you interact with and have intimate contact with, s-formal contact, impersonal group
What did Max Weber think was distinctive about modern society?
- Weber thought it was different because of the invention and spread of rationalism.- was interested in the operation and expansion of large-scale enterprises in both public & private sectors of modern societies (bureaucratic coordination of human action- behavior was more controlled by governments and corporations.
What did Marx predict would happen in the conflict view of stratification?
He felt that workers would overthrow into a socialist society and then a classless society.
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