Sociology Terms 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Two-member group
penalties or rewards
estate systems
nobility, church, peasants
Sociologist Judith Wallerstein conducted lengthy interviews with 50 predominantly white, middle-class couples in northern California. In order to participate, both husband and wife had to define their marriage as
use info from men for everyone
the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a status
miasha theory
bad smells cause disease
Social structure
patterned, recurring social relationships
Generalizations that are unreliable about specific groups that don’t take into account individual differences, dangerous- can be used against certain groups
4th technique Collecting Data
2 types
-Participant Observation
-Non Participant Observation - Ex. Herione Addicts
Zero Tolerance
Set punishments for serious offenses
values and beliefs passed from generation to generation
"success" cluster
individualism, work, material comfort, efficiency
A marriage between individuals who are, in some culturally important way, similar to each other.
A powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity.
deviance represents mental illness
medicalization of deviance
that portion of an individual's personality composed of self image and self awarness
process of shifting federal programs to the states
the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
Nonverbal communication
facial expression, gesture, posture. Culturally embedded.
People use rumors to understand ambiguous situations and manage people’s uncertainly (closing a dorm) - A piece of info gathered informally used to understand an ambiguous situations
study of artifacts from past societies to determine the lifestyle, history, and evolution of those societies
theory that saw each succeeding society as improving on the one before it
social Darwinism
affirmative action
1.  positive effort to recruit minority group members, for jobs, promotions and educational opportunities
Estate system
System of stratification under which peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exhange for military protection and other services
Ethics in Sociological Research 
Participants are not harmed.
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
Functionalist Perspective
interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system
Global culture
Diffusion of a single culture throughout the world
The extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results.
The separation of sex from procreation. The pluralizing and normalizing of sexual activity—and especially the increased sexual freedom of women—have been described as this term. But to some observers, particularly feminists, this term was viewed as se
Sexual Liberation
Norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society.
Charles Horton Cooley
symbolic interactionist who identified the concept of looking glass self in which one's sense of self is based on the imagined reactions of others
percent males that engage in a homosexual act
-nomadic bands of 100 people or less-rely on what they gather and hunt-little accumulation of wealth-central Africa (Ethiopia)-everyone chips in and works
Morbidity rates
When incidence figures are presented as rates or as the number of cases of a disease per 100,000 in a population

Morbidity rates generally tell us whether a specific disease occurs more frequently among specific groups or segments of a population

Social class, race, gender, and age call all affect a population’s morbidity rates
scientific management approach
people motivated by economic needs
egalitarian family
mother and father make decisions together and contribute to the family
the influence society has on an individual, society changes = people's loss of direction
Sudden or disruptive even that over taxes a community’s resources so that outside aid is necessary (hurricane Katrina)
Harriet Martineu
Translated Comte's works, wrote the 1st book on soc methods, wome's rights, emancipation, religious tolerance
differential association
people who behave deviantly tend to form social bonds with other deviants
total institutions
regulates all aspects of a person's life under a single authority
Social Distance
refers to how closely people are willing to interact with members of som category
breaking a social rule, or refusing to follow one
Unobtrusive Measures
Observing behavior of people who do not know they are being watched
Class System
a form of social stratification based primarily on the possession of money or material possessions
a group in society that shares values, norms, and behaivors that are not shared by the entire population
a politcal system in which the people hold the ruling power either directly or through elected representatives.
secondary group
a large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
Erving Goffman
Argued that the stigma of negative social labels can ruin a person's identity.
Ascribed VS Achieved
Ascribed status involves age, gender, race, and ethnicity. Achieved involves quarterback, college ballet or pickpocketing
What is an achieved social status?
earn through effort.
the analysis of how people define the world in which they live
____________ refers to the extent to which social actor, group, or collectivity is proficient with the dominant culture
Cultural capital
nuclear family
household where there are two married parents with children (1/3 of US families)
members feel pressured to conform to a prevailing view point and withhold questions, concerns, and criticisms
functionalists on racial hostility
Racist beliefs provide justification for inequality, inequalities discourage minorities from questioning their status, racial myths discourage change
public opinion
expression of an attitude on matters of pubic policy that are communicated to decision makers, often used by lawmakers, the info is usually controlled in some way- dominant groups, power (conflict theorists)
iron law of oligarchy
organizations begin as oligarchy (democratic) and move to bureaucracy
social environment
the environment developed by humans as contrasted with the natural environment; society as a whole, especially in its relation to the individual
macro level orientation
broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole
(structural and social(also micro)
small group
A group small enough for all members to interact simultaneously .
Different from primary groups because they do not necessarily offer intimate personal relationship characteristics
Cast System
status is determined by birth and is lifelong. someone who is born into a low status group will always have low status, no matter how much that person may accomplish in life

Q: In “American Apartheid,” Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton argue that the culture of poverty perspective (the idea that poverty is cultural and passed on generation to generation) fails to account for this.
A. What is structural factors

*residential segregation can also be explained by structural factors
rationalization of society
Weber's term for the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought
unintended bias built into the operation of society's institutions including schools, hospitals, the police, and the workplace.
Conflict Theory
Society is viewed as a group of composed group of people competing for scarce individuals.
set of two or more people who interact on the basis of shared expectations
Interactionist perspective
How people relate to one another and what that demonstrates in societies as a whole. - family dinners
life chances
Weber said class is related to the life changes you have- opportunities you have to social resources, #1 life chance= education, most people don’t have this chance
feminist perspective and gender
Related to conflict, how institutions privilege 1 gender over the other
interactionists on class differences
How one demonstrates social class through lifestyle , importance of items demonstrating class status, social class leading to life meaning
reference group
the group you use to compare yourself with, 1- enforce standards of behavior, 2-used for comparison
functional analysis
society is a whole unit which is made up of interrelated parts that work together.AKA: functionalism or structural functionalsim
structural social mobility
a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society than to individual efforts
What is extended socialization? What does this imply?
Longer periods of socialization (emerging adulthood) lead to more opportunities for sexual experimentation without responsibilities of child-rearing, maintaining marital fidelity, making a living
Gender Ideologies
expectations for what it is to be male or female; influence behaviors
Mead's Theory of Self
children view themselves as the center and develop the ability to be influenced by the people around them
feminist perspective on deviance
Law tends to favor men, domestic violence not punished for very long; women favored in custody battles
conflict perspective on deviance
Deviance tends to support the interest of the wealthy, white collar crimes have less harsh punishment, where you go- how much you spend
1st Step
State the Problem
*This is where we state the ? we want to do research on.
Includes a lg. # of important factors:
Theory, Proposition, Hypothesis, Concept & Variable
You have to come up w/a Theory you are going to use to explain that.
FYN: THEORIES COME from library research, scientific journals, (papers are people opinions)
What is a protective pressure group?
Groups who seek to defend/protect their members interests
Crude Death Rate
The number of deaths in a given year of every 1000 people in a population
what is a public?
a dispersed group of people who share an interest in and issue ex- democrats and republicans
What is the matrix of domination?
The convergence of social forces that contribute to the subordinate status of low-status women
What is the social construction of gender?
The expectation and roles society builds around biological sex
Strain Theory - Merton (5 types of people)
1)Conformist - does what they're supposed to do

2) Innovator - finds a way to reach the goals because they don't have the means

3) Ritualist - hates goals, but goes through life monotonously

4) Retreatist - Detached from society

5)Rebels - completely reshape it all (ie. meditation for peace)
When does the development of the "self" end?
Never - it is never a finished project, but is always in process
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