Sociology- Test - Learning Objectives Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Antibodies induced by Mycoplasma in the patient that are useful for
diagnosing pneumonia.
cold agglutinins
Explain the functionalist perspective on social stratification.
The functionalist perspective, especially as articulated in the Davis-Moore thesis, focuses on the inequality of rewards (such as pay and benefits) between different jobs and positions in society. This perspective argues that unequal rewards motivate talented people to strive to fill the most important positions in society. Because the functionally important positions require extensive training and specialized skills, the promise of greater rewards motivates qualified people to acquire these skills and training.
What is institutional discrimination? How does it differ from individual discrimination?
Institutional discrimination refers to the arrangements or practices in social institutions and their related organizations that tend to favor one ethnic, racial, or gender group over others. It isn’t necessarily the result of conscious intent; rather, it simply arises from the normal, day-to-day functioning of society.
What is the symbolic-interactionist view of education?
The symbolic-interactionist view of education emphasizes classroom dynamics and the production of meanings and interpretations. For instance, if a teacher perceives some students to be less likely to learn (because of the students’ social class or color, for instance) they may direct less time, effort, and attention to helping them learn. As a result, the child learns less. This is an example of the self-fulfilling prophecy. Also, labeling students as slow learners or overachievers, often as a result of IQ tests, may lead to students internalizing labels and defining themselves according to a label.
What is medicalization?
Medicalization is the process by which nonmedical problems come to be defined and treated as an illness. It is associated with the symbolic-interactionist perspec
What is a cult?
A cult is a religious organization that is outside the dominant religious tradition of a society. For instance, Buddhism, Scientology, and the Unification Church would all be considered cults in the United States. Most religions begin as cults.
What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative research? What are examples of each kind of research?
The primary difference between quantitative and qualitative research is the type of data analyzed. Quantitative research collects and objectively analyzes data that can be represented numerically. Survey research typically yields information that can be represented and analyzed quantitatively. Qualitative research emphasizes the uncovering of subjective meanings and ways people interact in everyday life through the use of descriptive data. Participant observation is a form of field research through which the researcher participates in the routine activities of group members in an attempt to understand the nature of their interactions and the meanings that they create and attach to those interactions. Case studies involve the study of people in their natural settings.
CH 4: Differentiate from Emile Durkheim's concepts of mechanical and organic solidarity and Ferdinand Tonnies' constructs of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, and discuss why they continue to be relevant.
DURKHEIM: mechanical solidarity (in rural areas- the basis of cohesion is that people are similar to each other) and organic solidarity (the basis of cohesion is that everyone is a specialist and need each other to function) explain social cohesion- the degree to which members of a society feel united by shared values and other special bonds.

TONNIES: the answer lies in relationships
gemeinschaft- rural/ primary relations
gesellschaft- urban/ secondary relations
CH 10: Summarize the functional perspective on aging and explain both disengagement and activity theories.
Functional perspective
- examine age from the standpoint of how those persons who are retiring and those who will replace them in the work force make mutual adjustments

disengagement theory
- developed to explain how society prevents disruption to that society when the elderly retire
1. the elderly are rewarded (pensions) for giving up positions rather than waiting until incompetent or die; smoother transition
2. ^^ criticized because assumes that elderly disengage and then sink into oblivion

activity theory
- examines people's reactions to this exchange of one set of roles for another
- older ppl who maintain a high level of activity tend to be more satisfied with life than those who don't- level of activity is connected to key factors such as social class, health and individual orientation
How does the conflict perspective explain deviance?
The conflict perspective addresses why activities or conditions are defined as deviant rather than addressing the motivations of people engaging in deviance. This perspective argues that people with political and economic power are likely to define any type of behavior that threatens their interests and privilege as deviant.
Compare and contrast the relative deprivation theory of social movements with resource mobilization theory.
The relative deprivation theory of social movements states that movements emerge among groups of people who feel disadvantaged compared to some other group(s) in society. From this view, people join movements because they feel they are not getting their “fair share” of societal rewards. As the gap between expectations and reality widens, the stimulus for a social movement to emerge develops. The resource mobilization model argues that strain, conflict, and deprivation are ever-present phenomena in a society. In order for this discontent to be translated into a social movement, resources are necessary for people to effectively act together. Resources include time, money, people, alliances, and access to the mass media, among others. Acquiring resources enables people to meet, plan, and organize plans and activities believed necessary to accomplish their aims.
CH5: Explain the relationship between cliques and social networks. Discuss how networking addresses some of the social barriers within a socially diverse society.
social networks consist of people linked by various social ties and cliques are a kind of this.
social networks tend to perpetuate social inequality- who you know may be more important than what you know
CH5: State the def. of bureaucracy, list its essential characterisitics, explain why it tends to endure over time and plays an increasingly central role in our social lives.
BUREAUCRACY- type of organization whose goal is to maximize efficiency and results
a formal organization with a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, emphasis on written rules, communications, and records; and impersonality of positions
1. a hierarchy with assignments flowing downward and accountability flowing upward
2. division of labor
3. written rules- dysfunctional: no leway (goal displacement- ex: go to doctor and just want to get help but have to fill out all this paperwork)
4. written communications and records
5. impersonality

rationalization of society- Weber predicted that bureaucracies would dominate social life because they are such a powerful form of social organization
CH 8: Compare structural vs. individual explanations of poverty in the United States.
structural explanations of poverty- inequalities in education, access to learning job skills, racial, ethnic, age and gender discrimination, large-scale economic change to explain patterns of poverty- poor education, lack of jobs, health problems (stress)

individual explanations- values, characteristics of individuals (sociologists reject explanations that focus on qualities of laziness or lack of intelligence)
What is the relationship between differential socialization and gender roles?
There are different gender roles for men and women. These different roles are learned through socialization. In this context, differential socialization refers to the process of raising boys and girls differently because of the different roles each is expected to play as an adult. Families tend to encourage more aggressive behavior in boys. Girls receive different types of toys and clothing than do boys. Peers transmit gender stereotypes to girls and boys about the way each is expected to behave. Schools also treat boys and girls differently, devoting more time, energy, and attention to boys than to girls. This reinforces the stereotype that boys are more important than girls. The media transmit different images about what it means to be male and female, frequently portraying men in positions of dominance and women in positions of submissiveness. The different messages that boys and girls receive from these agents of socialization serve to inculcate and reinforce the socially expected gender roles.
What is the Malthusian view of population?
The Malthusian view notes that population increases exponentially, while the supply of food expands only arithmetically. Malthus theorized that the more rapid increase of population meant that population would exceed the available food supply at some point, resulting in the deprivation of some members of the population (if not all). Population growth could be checked positively by events that cause mortality such as wars, famines, and disease. Preventive checks on population growth include birth control and abstinence. This view draws our attention to the dependent relationship between a population and its food supply.
What is the difference between education and schooling?
Education is a social institution that provides members of a society with important knowledge of their culture and transmits basic job skills. Schooling is formalized education and the transmission of knowledge and skills under the guidance of specially trained teachers. The key difference is that schooling is the formalized and specialized delivery of knowledge and skills, whereas education can occur anywhere—in the family, from the media, in church, and from our peers, among others.
What are some of the basic characteristics of capitalism?
Capitalism is an economic system characterized by the private ownership of natural resources and income-producing property. There are four distinctive features of capitalism. The first is the private ownership of property. The second is the right of individuals and groups, such as corporations, to pursue profit. The third feature is competition. People and companies compete in the marketplace for economic advantages and profits. In the ideal form of capitalism, people are believed to regulate capitalism through their decisions as consumers. The fourth and final feature of capitalism is the lack of government intervention in the operation of markets.
What is the difference between endogamy and exogamy? Give an example of each.
Exogamy is the practice of marriage outside of a group or social category. Most commonly, this means marrying someone outside one’s immediate family or kinship network. Endogamy is the practice of marriage within a group or social category. Frequently, this means marrying someone of the same religion, social class, or racial or ethnic group.
In an egalitarian society, what patterns of residence, authority, and kinship might one find?
In an egalitarian society (in which men and women are treated equally), bilateral descent and egalitarian families would be expected. Bilateral descent is the practice of tracing kinship through both men and women. Egalitarian families are those in which both partners share authority and power equally.
How does the pluralist model describe the distribution of power in the United States?
The pluralist model (associated with the functionalist perspective) views power as widely dispersed and balanced between many different special interest groups competing for representation and power. Because there are many of these special interest groups, and because their interests are narrowly focused, negotiation and compromise is commonplace. This ensures a balanced distribution of power while limiting its abuse. Moreover, power is not seen as cumulative. Gaining representation on one issue is not seen as increasing a group’s advantage in subsequent policy discussions.
What is social control? How is it implemented?
Social control involves collective attempts to ensure conformity to societal or group norms. Control is attempted in two ways. The most common form of social control is informal social control. This form of social control is a byproduct of everyday interactions. Gossip, stares, and reprimands are all forms of informal social control. Formal social control involves agents of society, such as the police and the courts, in the apprehension and punishment of people believed to have broken laws.
Describe the difference between status consistency and status inconsistency.
The concepts of status consistency and status inconsistency are derived from Weber’s multidimensional analysis of how status is determined in a stratification system. Weber identified three factors that shaped a person’s position in society: class, party, and status. He envisioned each as a continuum. Status consistency exists when one occupies comparable positions in each of the three continuums. Status inconsistency exists when a person occupies divergent positions in each of the three continuums. Status inconsistency is characteristic of American society.
What is human cognition? Describe Piaget’s model of how human cognition develops
Human cognition refers to how people think. Piaget believed that the capacity for human cognition undergoes four stages of development, beginning at birth. During the sensorimotor stage, children understand their world only through their five senses. During the preoperational stage, which begins at age two, children begin to interpret the world around them using symbols and mental images. The concrete operational stage begins at age seven. In this stage, children think in terms of specific events and objects and perceive causal relationships and can look at the world from the viewpoints of others. During the formal operational stage, which begins at age twelve, the ability to think abstractly and critically develops.
What are achieved and ascribed statuses? How do they differ? Provide an example of each.
An achieved status is a social position that one occupies voluntarily as a result of one’s effort, talent, or choice. College student is an achieved status. An ascribed status is a social position that is inherited at birth or acquired involuntarily later in life. Gender and the status of a felon are ascribed statuses. They are both recognized social positions that people occupy, though not as a result of personal choices.
What are the differences between primary and secondary groups?
Primary and secondary groups can be distinguished based upon the degree of concern and intimacy their members have for one another. Primary groups are small groups of people who share strong emotional ties and interact frequently with each other. Primary groups are means-oriented, providing members with a sense of intrinsic satisfaction as a result of interacting with each other. Secondary groups are large and impersonal groups whose members interact with each other in pursuit of a shared goal or interest. Interaction with group members generally revolves around only their shared interests and pursuits, and group members have weaker emotional ties to one another than do primary group members. Secondary groups give members a sense of purposive satisfaction—pleasure derived from making progress toward or achieving their shared goal.
What is the feminization of poverty?
The feminization of poverty refers to the trend during the last thirty years for women to be increasingly overrepresented among the poor, relative to men. Currently, over 60 percent of all poor adults are female. Several factors contribute to this trend. Divorce has become more socially acceptable in the United States. However, because women on average earn 60 to 70 percent of what men earn, women are more likely to experience economic hardship when divorce occurs (especially when alimony is difficult to secure). Moreover, if children are involved, women are more likely to gain custody because of dominant cultural norms. This added expense, combined with the likelihood that a woman is paid less than a man, contributes to the growing presence of women among the poor.
What are the characteristics of high-income, medium-income, and low-income countries?
The World Bank, which specializes in providing economic aid to low- and middle-income countries, breaks the world’s countries into three different categories based upon a country’s GNP. High-income countries, such as the United States and the western European nations, are those that have a GNP in excess of $9,655 U.S. dollars per capita. Middle-income countries are those with a GNP between $785 and $9,655 U.S. dollars per capita. These include many of the countries in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Low-income countries are those with GNPs below $785 U.S. dollars per capita. These include much of Africa and Asia. The majority of the world’s population lives in low-income countries.
According to structural strain theory, what factors are needed for the emergence of a social movement?
The structural strain (or value added) theory of social movements is associated with the functionalist perspective in sociology. It identifies six factors that contribute to the emergence of a social movement. Structural conduciveness is the first stage; for movements to arise, people or groups in society must begin to recognize that there are substantive problems that need to be addressed. Structural strain is the next stage and occurs when people experience discontent or strain at society’s inability to meet people’s expectation that something be done about the problem they have identified. Generalized belief is the third stage. This stage involves the development of clear statements of the causes and acceptable solutions to the problem. Precipitating factors is the fourth stage, which notes that some type of triggering or precipitating event is necessary in order to channel the generalized discontent into specific action. Mobilization for action occurs in the fifth stage, as leaders and events organize and spur people to action. Finally, weakened, ineffective, or an absence of social control is necessary for collective action by the movement to emerge and be sustained.
CH 3: What is total institution? Discuss how different settings, including total institutions, may go about the task of re-socializing individuals.
total institution- a place where people are cut off from the rest of society and care under almost total control of agents of the institution

1. person enters
2. greeted with a degradation ceremony current identity is stripped away and replaced (ex. fingerprinting, shaving head, banning personal items, being forced to strip/ wear a uniform
3. total institutions isolate people from outside influences and info, supervise their activoities, suppress previous roles, statuses and norms, and replace them with new rules and values, controlling rewards and punishments
CH 7: Describe and evaluate the major theories pertaining to the origins and maintenance of global stratification.
1. Colonialism- when industrialized nations made colonies of weaker nations and exploited their labor/ natural resources for the benefit of the "mother country"- more powerful European nations planted their national flags in a colony and sent representatives to run the government while the U.S. planted corporate flags in the particular colony and let corporations dominate the territory's government. Western colonialism shaped the Least Industrialized Nations, drawing lines across a map to divide up their spoils, creating states without regard for cultural considerations.

2. world system theory (Immanual Wallerstein)- according to this theory, industrialization led to four groups of nations-
a. core nations- countries the industrialized first (Britain, France, Holland, Germany)
b. semiperiphery- economies stagnated because they grew dependent on trade with the core nations
c. periphery/ fringe nations- developed even less, easter Euroean countries, sold cash crops to the core nations
d. external area- left out of the development of capitalism altogether

3. dependency theory- attributes lack of economic development in the Least Industrialized Nations to dominance of the world economy by the Most Industrialized Nations- those nations that first industrialized turned nations into their plantations/ mines, taking whatever they needed= many of the Least Industrialized Nations began to specialize in a single cash crop AND by becoming dependent on the Most Industrialized Nation these countries did not develop independent economies
What is politics? What is the relationship between government and political parties?
Politics is the social institution in a society through which power is organized, distributed, and exercised by some people and groups over others. The government is the formal organization that has the legal and political authority to direct the political life of a society. Political parties are formal organizations of people that seek to acquire, occupy, influence, and control positions in government. Essentially, political parties seek to influence the politics and the exercise of power in society by controlling the government.
Describe and differentiate between the four main types of political systems.
There are four main types of political systems found in the world.

Monarchies are political systems in which a single family rules society and whose power is transferred across generations through lines of inheritance; being a monarch, such as a king, is an ascribed (inherited) position.

Totalitarianism is a political system in which many aspects of people’s public and private lives are closely monitored and regulated by the government, such as China’s one-child policy.

Authoritarianism is a political system in which people are denied the ability to participate in government, but in which the government does not attempt to intrude into and regulate the important aspects of citizens’ day-to-day lives.

Democracy is a political system in which the people as a whole exercise power, either directly or indirectly through elected representatives.
How does the functionalist perspective account for the existence of gender inequality?
A minority group is any group that receives less than its proportionate share of valuable social resources, such as good jobs, leisure time, and fair pay. Sociologists consider women to be a minority group for several reasons. First, reflective of the patriarchal nature of social organization, men treat women unequally. Second, women experience several gaps in the way they are treated relative to the way men are treated. The wage gap refers to the fact that women receive less pay then men, earning approximately 75 percent of what men do for similar work. Women also experience a leisure gap. Even though most men and women now work full-time outside the home, women are expected to fulfill the traditional role of homemaker when they return home, often while the husbands relax. Women do more of the domestic chores than men. Women also experience occupational sex segregation into subordinate jobs, such as secretary, nurse, and teacher, as compared to executive, doctor, and principal. All of these forms of unequal treatment lead sociologists to consider women a minority group.
What is strain theory? How does it account for deviance?
Developed by Robert Merton, strain theory states that every society has socially approved goals that members are encouraged to strive for through socially approved means. In the United States, the approved goal is material success and the approved way to achieve it is through education and hard work. Strain is experienced when the approved goals cannot be achieved through the approved means. Deviance is the result of blocked or rejected means; those labeled deviant do not follow the culturally acceptable norms. The most common form of deviance is what Merton labeled “innovation”; the goals are accepted, but the means to attain them are blocked. People then use illegal or illegitimate means, such as crime, to attain the goal of material success.
What is the difference between open and closed systems of stratification? Provide an example of each type of system. What type of system is characteristic of the United States today?
The difference between open and closed systems of stratification is the presence of social mobility (movement between positions in a stratification system). Closed systems, such as slave and caste systems, are characterized by the absence of social mobility. Statuses in closed systems are ascribed; one inherits their position at birth. Open systems, specifically class systems, are characterized by the opportunity for mobility and achieved statuses, though ascribed factors such as ethnicity and gender still influence the attainment of positions. The stratification system in the United States is a class system, which is the only open form of stratification systems.
Describe and distinguish between the main sectors of an economy. Which sector is most prominent in the United States today?
There are three sectors to an economy. Though all three sectors are present at the same time, each sector is correlated with a stage of societal development. The primary sector of the economy is engaged in the extraction of raw materials and natural resources from the environment. The primary sector is most important in agricultural societies. The secondary sector involves the transformation of raw materials and natural resources into finished products. This sector is most important in industrialized societies. Finally, the tertiary sector involves the creation and delivery of services. This sector is most important in postindustrial economies such as the United States.
CH5: identify the consequences of hidden values in the corporate culture, especially noting their impact on women and minority participants.
1. workers who fit in are given opportunities to advance- outperform others, are committed while outsiders experience few opportunities, think poorly of selves, less committed, work below potential.
2. the hidden values that create this self-fulfilling prophecy remain largely invisible
3. females and minorites do not match the hidden values of this culture and may be treated differently- may experience showcasing (being put in highly visible but powerless jobs so the company can show how progressive it is)
CH 7: Describe and provide examples of the three major systems of social stratification.
1. initially- based on debt, punishment for violation of the law, or defeat in battle- many women
2. could be temp. or permanent- owned no property, no power (not universally true, however)
3. American colonists first tried to enslave Indians and then turned to Africans, which were being brought to the Americas- when American slave owners fond it was profitable to own slaves for life, they developed an ideology around the idea and made slaves inheritable
4. although illegal- still exists today

Caste System
- the class you are born into/ determined at birth, is lifelong, is a closed system
1. ascribed status (a master status that was given to you) is the basis of a caste system- tries to make certain boundaries: endogamy (marriage within own group) and developing rules about ritual pollution (teaching that contact with inferior castes contaminates the superior castes).
2. developed in U.S. when slavery ended- all whites considered higher than all African Americans (separate accommodations in the South)

Class System- based on the possession of money or material possession's
1. an individual's initial social class position is based on that of their parents (ascribed status)
2. a class system allows for social mobility- movement up or down the social class ladder- based on achieved status
What are social facts? What two social facts that reflected substantive changes in the way societies were organized contributed to the development of sociology as a discipline in the social sciences?
Social facts are patterned ways of behaving, thinking, and feeling. Social facts are generated at the individual level by behavioral and attitudinal choices. When these choices are aggregated, they can be observed at the societal level as social facts. The two main social facts that influenced the development of the field of sociology were industrialization and urbanization. The transformation of societies from agriculture-based economies to manufacturing-based economies is called industrialization. Industrialization was accompanied by and encouraged urbanization—the movement of an increasing proportion of a society’s population to or near cities. These changes stimulated the development of sociological thinking.
What is the difference between ideal culture and real culture?
Ideal culture refers to the values a culture professes to be important, while real culture refers to the actual values embodied in the day-to-day behavior of a society’s members. For example, the core cultural value of democracy is part of ideal culture in the United States. In reality, the majority of adults choose not to vote.
How many social classes does the Weberian model identify in the United States? List the largest and the smallest classes.
There are six social classes in the United States: the upper class, the upper-middle class, the lower-middle class, the working class, the working poor, and the underclass. The lower-middle and working classes are the two largest classes—each containing about 30 percent of the population. The upper class is the smallest class—about 3 to 5 percent of the population.
What is the difference between health care and medicine?
Health care is any activity that is undertaken to improve health. Health care can take many forms, ranging from exercise to visiting a health care professional. Medicine is one form of health care. Medicine is an institutionalized system providing for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and the improvement of health.
How can the behavior of crowds be understood?
There are three main approaches to understanding the behavior of crowds. Contagion theory argues that crowds provide a cloak of anonymity to their members, enabling them to abandon personal responsibility and engage in irrational and irresponsible behaviors that they wouldn’t otherwise engage in. This theory views crowds as characterized by the absence of shared normative orientations and hence the presence of uncivilized behavior that people would not otherwise engage in, whether alone or in small groups. Convergence theory argues that people bring like-minded behavior into crowds. Crowds don’t induce the behavior so much as people that are disposed toward a particular behavior and enter or form a crowd to carry out the behavior. In this way, crowds behave rationally. Finally, emergent norm theory emphasizes that the behavior of crowds is varied and difficult to predict, though it notes that crowd members are drawn together by similar interests. These shared interests enable the emergence and expression of distinctive patterns of behaviors, or norms. Crowd members themselves determine these norms and rules through their interaction with one another.
Distinguish between the sacred and the profane. What is the relationship between faith and the sacred?
The profane is the secular realm of ordinary, mundane, everyday life. The sacred, in contrast, involves the realm of the supernatural and the extraordinary aspects of life that inspire awe and reverence in people. Because the realm of the sacred involves the supernatural, the existence of faith is necessitated. Faith is the acceptance of beliefs based upon conviction rather than scientific evidence. A belief in a god is rooted in faith and not upon scientific evidence.
What are the three forms of authority? Which is most common in industrialized societies?
There are three main forms of authority. Traditional authority is power legitimized by long-standing cultural customs and habits within a society. Charismatic authority is power legitimated by the extraordinary characteristics or accomplishments of a person that inspire awe and obedience among others. The most common form of authority in industrialized societies is rational-legal authority. This is a form of authority in which power is legitimized by law or written rules and regulations. This type of authority is often rooted in a socially recognized position, such as president of the United States, senator, or judge.
What are the different types of crowds?
There are five basic types of crowds: protest, expressive, acting, casual, and conventional. A protest crowd is an organized group of people acting together and whose activities are directed toward the achievement of specific political aims. An expressive crowd is a crowd that provides the opportunity for people to express pent-up emotions, such as those found at celebrations, religious events, and sporting events. An acting crowd is a collectivity that gathers and focuses its attention so intensely that it may erupt in displays of violence or destruction. There are three forms that acting crowds can take: a panic, a riot, or a mob. A casual crowd is a relatively large number of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time, though they may interact with each other little (if at all). A shopping mall is an example of a casual crowd. Finally, a conventional crowd is a group of people who come together for a scheduled event such as a graduation ceremony.
CH 8: What is the Horatio Alger Myth? What are the social functions of the myth and discuss the myth's sociological implications.
Horatio Alger Myth
-anyone who really tries can get ahead
- most Americans, including minority and the working poor, have an average or better-than-average chance of getting ahead
- impossible

Social Functions of Horatio Alger Myth
-functional for society- encourages people to compete for higher positions-BUT it places the blame for failure on individual
- helps to stabilize society -since blame is on individual not society, this reduces pressures to change the system

Myth's sociological implications-
-rich look around them- sense superiority, anticipate control over their society
- poor look around them- sense defeat and anticipate that unpredictable forces will batter their lives
- both rich and poor believe in the dominant ideology- their particular niche in live is due to their own efforts
Distinguish between a crowd and a mass.
A crowd is a temporary gathering of a large number of people who share a common focus of activity or attention and who influence each other. A mass is a large number of people who share a specific interest or activity but are spatially dispersed. The key difference between a crowd and a mass is that the mass is spatially dispersed, while the crowd is spatially concentrated. For example, attending a Madonna concert is an example of a conventional crowd, while being a member of Madonna’s fan club is an example of mass behavior.
According to Mead, how does the sense of self develop?
Mead believed that the sense of self developed in three stages. Children largely imitate the world around them during the preparatory stage. During the play stage (ages three to five), children learn to use symbols, which enables them to take the role of the other—to see themselves as specific other people see them. This enables children to evaluate themselves more objectively, and this ability represents the development of the part of the self that Mead termed the “me.” During the game stage, which begins when children enter school, children start to view themselves and the world from the perspective of multiple different roles. The child develops a sense of the generalized other in this stage, which is the internalization of commonly accepted cultural norms and values.
What is a population? Describe the processes that effect change in a population.
A population is a group of people who occupy a specific geographic area. Three processes can create change in a population: fertility, mortality, and migration. Fertility is the level of childbearing in a population. The crude birth rate is a measure of fertility that counts the number of births in a year for every one thousand people in the population. Mortality is the incidence of death in a population. The crude death rate is a measure of mortality that counts the number of deaths in a year for every one thousand people in a population. Migration is the movement of people into or out of an area, country, or region. Increases in immigration and the fertility rate can create pressure on social services, the availability of affordable housing, and the availability of jobs. Emigration and mortality can diminish a population.
CH-2: List the core values in American society as identified by Robin Williams and supplemented by James Henslin.
steve is WET. help mom find purple DEER. RIM.
1. achievement and success (especially doing better than others)
2. individualism (success due to individual effort)
3. activity and work
4. efficiency and practicality
5. science and technology (using science to control nature)
6. progress
7. material comfort
8. humanitarianism (helpfulness, personal kindness, philanthropy)
9. freedom
10. democracy
11. equality (especially of opportunity)
12. racism and group superiority
13. education
14. religiosity (belief in a Supreme Being and following a set of matching precepts)
15. romantic love (as the basis for marriage) and monogamy (no more than one spouse at one time)
CH 10: Discuss the patterns of violence against women, explain why female circumcision is a uniquely special case of violence leveled against women, and summarize the feminist explanation of violence against women.
- every year in the U.S., 7 of every 10,000 females aged 12 and older is raped
- date rape
- males are more likely to commit murder than females AND 89% of the murders involve women victims
- victims of family violence- spouse battering, marital rape, incest, genital circumcision

genital circumcision- family reasons, cultural reasons, religion reasons, to prevent sexual pleasure -NO REAL REASON TO DO IT

feminist explanation
- use symbolic interactionism to understand violence against women- u.S. culture promotes it by males to teach men of power, dominance, strength and superiority and to solve it we must break the link between violence and masculinity
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