Sociology- Test - Learning Objectives 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
How does the symbolic-interactionist perspective analyze religion?
The symbolic-interactionist perspective on religion emphasizes how religious practices and beliefs are socially constructed and reinterpreted through everyday interaction. This perspective also emphasizes the meanings that people attribute to religion and religious practices and symbols in their daily lives. Rituals, such as daily prayer, the reading of religious text, and celebrating religious holidays, serve to maintain the boundary between the sacred and the profane, while also serving as a source of meaning for the practitioners. Religion and its norms serve as a reference group for people, allowing them to compare their everyday behavior to that expected by their religion. The proliferation of the “WWJD” (What would Jesus do?) bumper stickers and bracelets illustrate how religion can operate as a reference group.
What is human ecology?
Human ecology examines the relationship between the physical environment of the city and the people who live and work there. Human ecology investigates how both features of the natural environment (such as lakes, rivers, and mountains) and the economic and social activities of the citizens influence the layout and growth of a city.
What is global stratification?
Global stratification refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, power, prestige, and life chances between the different nations of the earth.
What is anticipatory socialization?
parents teaching kids the basics, socializing you to a world they see/ learning to play an occupational role before actually entering it
Why do functionalists argue that deviance serves socially useful purposes?
The functionalist perspective argues that though deviance involves a violation of social norms, the violation of norms serves four useful purposes. Deviance helps to sustain and define the cultural norms of a society. By responding to deviance, society also clarifies the boundaries between right and wrong, good and bad. Punishing deviance also reinforces cultural norms and promotes a sense of shared commitment and unity among group or societal members. Finally, the breaking of rules can promote social change by expanding the moral boundaries of the group or society.
Summarize modernization theory and its shortcomings. With which major sociological perspective is it associated?
Modernization theory is associated with the functionalist perspective in sociology. Modernization theory explains global inequality in terms of the cultural and technological differences between countries. It identifies four stages in the modernization process: the traditional stage, the take-off stage, the technological maturity stage, and the high mass consumption stage. In the first stage, societies remain largely unchanged, but the pull of tradition and custom is gradually weakened by new technological discoveries that facilitate economic growth. The second stage is characterized by rapid economic growth, accompanied by a growing belief in individualism, competition, and achievement. Further technological advancement, as well as investment in new industries and further acceptance of the culture of high-income nations, characterizes the stage of technological maturity. During the final stage, citizens begin enjoying a high standard of living. Critics of this approach argue it is Eurocentric because it claims that countries must adopt the core cultural components of high-income countries (such as the United States) in order to develop. Critics also charge that modernization theory arbitrarily labels less-developed countries as backwards.
What Social Stratification?
A system in which people are divided into layers according to their relative power, property and prestige.
Distinguish between primary and secondary deviance. What theory are these concepts associated with?
The concepts of primary and secondary deviance are associated with labeling theory. This theory views deviance as a socially constructed process. Primary deviance is the first act (or acts) of deviance that results in someone being labeled—or stigmatized—as a deviant. Secondary deviance is subsequent deviance that is a result of accepting the label and identity of deviant.
How does global inequality influence the life chances of people in different countries?
The uneven distribution of resources, such as wealth and power, between different countries leads to widely varying life chances among the people of the world. Poverty, especially absolute poverty, is more prevalent and concentrated among the low- and middle-income countries. This results in severely circumscribed life chances among these countries’ citizens. Moreover, infant mortality is greater and life expectancy is shorter among the lower-income countries, and hunger, malnutrition, and inadequate health care are far more common. Women are more likely to be exploited in low-income countries, and literacy rates tend to be very low relative to high-income countries.
What is the relationship between lifestyle and health?
Lifestyle influences health in three main ways. Diet and exercise influence health. Growing attention has been paid to the nature of people’s diets, and a number of people try to reduce the amount of saturated fat they consume and increase their consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Having unprotected sex can result in the contraction of sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS, which in turn can negatively impact one’s health. Finally, the use of alcohol and tobacco has been linked to extensive medical problems. Making changes in one’s lifestyle can improve one’s health.
Describe the conflict perspective on religion.
The conflict perspective on religion does not view religion as a positive influence in society. Instead, this perspective examines the manner in which religion serves to legitimize and promote social inequality in a country. Conflict theorists point out that most religions are patriarchal in organization and encourage the submission of women to the will of men. This maintains the gender hierarchy. In addition, the enslavement of Africans and the persecution of Native Americans were legitimated by the argument that members of those groups were uncivilized heathens, because they didn’t believe in the Christian conception of God. Finally, the belief in an afterlife, and that rewards come in that afterlife, encourages people to accept their position in this world. This helps to maintain the class hierarchy.
How did Durkheim believe that preindustrial and industrial societies differed?
Durkheim believed that primary groups and their strong social bonds were characteristic of preindustrial societies. He viewed secondary groups and their correspondingly weaker social bonds as characteristic of industrial societies. He used the term mechanical solidarity to describe the social bonds of preindustrial societies, in which face-to-face, intimate relationships with other people produced a strong sense of similarity and likeness based upon shared values and morals, and a minimal division of labor. Organic solidarity is the term used to describe the social bonds characteristic of industrial societies, which have extensive divisions of labor and specialization and a high degree of mutual interdependence between people. He believed the erosion of primary groups in modern society occurred as a result of increased social and geographic mobility as well as the increased pace of social change that diminished the importance of tradition, resulting in anomie—a condition in which society provides little moral or behavioral guidance to individuals.
Summarize the assimilationist and pluralist views on ethnic and race relations.
There are two main functionalist views on race and ethnic relations. Both models view ethnic and racial differences as ultimately contributing to the stability of a society, though the mechanisms differ. The assimilation model argues that the deprivation of minority group members encourages them to adopt the cultural characteristics of the dominant group. This is called cultural assimilation, and it serves to decrease the social distance between the subordinate and dominant group, often at the expense of the loss of the culture of origin of the subordinate group. Structural assimilation occurs when members of the dominant group extend acceptance to subordinate group members in everyday interactions. The second functionalist view is ethnic pluralism. This model argues that the equitable coexistence of a variety of different ethnic and racial groups within one society, involving the relatively proportional possession of social resources, contributes to social stability. However, pluralism can lead to an increase in social distance between groups if the cultural differences are viewed as barriers to social interaction.
In what ways do sociologists explain prejudice?
Sociologists explain prejudice in three ways. Cultural theories of prejudice emphasize that prejudice is an attitude learned through socialization. People learn which characteristics are socially defined as desirable and undesirable and that some groups are believed to possess more undesirable characteristics than others. It is further learned that one should keep more social distance from those groups believed to disproportionately possess undesirable traits. The frustration-aggression hypothesis states that prejudice is more likely to be found in and expressed by people who are frustrated with their inability to attain highly desired goals. This frustration leads some people to try and blame some other person or group for their failures. The frustrated person then begins to act prejudicially and aggressively towards members of the identified group. Theodor Adorno explained prejudice as a personality trait found in certain individuals, arguing that highly prejudiced people possess an authoritarian personality. Such a personality is characterized by rigid conformity to conventional expectations, submissiveness or obedience to authority, insecurity and intolerance, and stereotypical thinking. Such personalities are acquired through socialization within a family of dominating and cold parents who show little love and use physical punishment.
CH 3: Define the term re-socialization and provide examples of situations that may necessitate re-socialization.
resocialization- the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes and behaviors
ex's: getting a new boss who insists on a different way of doing things, a woman just becoming a nun, a man getting a divorce. leaving high school and starting college
CH 10: Explain gender relations in the workplace, including changes in the labor force participation rate that have produced the quiet revolution, the pay gap, the "glass ceiling" the "glass escalator", and sexual harassment.
"quiet revolution"
-ever increasing proportion of women in the workplace
-has had profound effects on consumer matters, relationships with significant others and co-workers, and in women's self- concepts.

pay gap
- women who work full time average only 69% of what men are paid despite their level of education, even when have more qualifications than males
-half of this pay gap results from women entering the work force in lower-paying jobs

"glass ceiling"
- an invisible barrier that women face in the work force
- men, who dominate see potential leaders as people who look like themselves so women lack mentors because men are afraid of gossip, sexual harassment charges, or women are weak

"glass escalator"
-for men, employment in traditionally female occupations (nursing, elementary school teaching, social work) means increased job opportunities, more desirable work assignments, higher-level positions, and larger salaries
CH 10: Discuss what effects industrialization has had on the aging process and identify factors involved in the "graying" of industrialized nations.
effects of industrialization on aging process
- life expectancy increases because of more plentiful food supply, safer water, control of diseases
- as elderly increases so does the cost of meeting their needs and young members face a growing tax burden

- is the proportion of older persons in U.S. - almost 13% is 65+
- life span has not increased
- soon those who are 65+ will be a large majority of pop.
- idea- men die earlier, who will take care of women?
-big concern- # of workers who pay into social security for each beneficiary is decreasing
- conflict theory- whats going to happen when fewer and fewer ppl are paying for S.S- going to be a conflict
What are gender roles? Provide some examples of the male and female gender roles.
Gender roles are the behaviors, attitudes, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex to exhibit. Men are expected to present themselves in one manner, and women are expected to act in a different manner. For instance, men are expected to be strong, rational, aggressive, independent, competitive, and insensitive. Women, in contrast, traditionally have been expected to be weak, emotional, receptive, dependent, cooperative, and emotional.
How does the conflict perspective assess the role of the family in society?
The conflict perspective on the family views the family as a social institution fundamental to the perpetuation of social inequality. Patriarchy and patrilineal descent are seen as contributing to the subordination of women, limiting their authority and access to economic resources. Endogamy directs people to marry within their social class and race or ethnic group. Endogamy is thus seen as serving to perpetuate the racial and ethnic hierarchy, as well as to perpetuate the class hierarchy. The class hierarchy is also maintained by the practice of handing down wealth and property within the family.
What are the latent functions of education?
There are four latent functions (largely unrecognized and unintended consequences) of education. The first is the creation of networks of relationships. In school, we meet people who may become our spouse or may be able to help us at some later time with jobs, housing, advice, and other assistance. A second latent function is to restrict one’s engagement in certain activities. Compulsory education keeps kids from working full-time, keeps them off the streets, and prevents them from engaging in illegal activities. With the growing number of single-parent households and dual-income families, a third latent function of schools is child care. Finally, because children learn information at school that may be in tension with what they have been taught at home, schools contribute to the creation of a generation gap.
Distinguish between the two forms of the elite model of politics.
The elite model of politics, associated with the conflict perspective in sociology, views power as concentrated in the hands of a small group of elites. The majority of people remain relatively powerless. There are two forms of the elite view. In the power elite view, the elite group comprises the top leaders in the military, government, and business. Control of vast resources gives this group its power. This view sees the masses as largely remote from and unable to influence the exercise of power. The ruling class view sees the elite as the corporate rich, whose vast wealth is the basis for their inordinate influence in politics. This ruling class influences power and politics through the process of candidate selection, appointment to government regulatory bodies, and participation in the special interest process through contributions to political action committees and lobbying efforts. This view, however, holds that the masses have the ability to influence power by organizing themselves into widespread social movements, such as the civil rights movement, that advocate for social change.
What is punishment? What are the different motivations for punishment?
Punishment consists of attempts to extinguish or stop undesirable behavior. It frequently involves actions to deprive a person of things of value because of something the person is believed to have done. The four main motives for punishment are retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and societal protection. Retribution is the oldest motive and involves an attempt by society to exact suffering upon a criminal proportional to the suffering the criminal caused. Deterrence seeks to punish people in order to discourage future criminal actions. Rehabilitation involves the attempt to reform and resocialize people in an attempt to prevent their future engagement in crime. Societal protection involves the removal of a person from society in order to render them incapable of committing crimes for a period of time.
How does control theory explain deviance?
Control theory focuses on the social factors that constrain people from engaging in deviance. People conform to accepted norms—they are constrained from deviance— when their social bonds are strong. People with weak social bonds are more likely to be deviant. There are four types of bonds. Strong attachments to others encourage conformity; weak attachments enable deviance. Strong commitments to legitimate means and accepted norms encourage conformity; weak commitments enable deviance. A high degree of involvement in conventional activities limits the opportunities to engage in deviance. Finally, the stronger a person’s beliefs are in the appropriateness of conventional norms, the less likely they are to engage in deviance.
How does economic inequality impact life chances?
Life chances are correlated with a person’s position in the social class hierarchy. As one moves down the class hierarchy, life expectancy and access to quality health care and prenatal care all decrease; infant mortality increases. Educational opportunities are also correlated with class position. Children born to more privileged parents are more likely to attend well-funded schools with academically enriched curriculums. Likewise, children born to poorer parents are less likely to attend college than comparably talented children of privileged parents. The reduced life chances experienced by the less-well-to-do diminish the quality of life experienced.
What is the difference between majority and minority groups?
A minority group is not necessarily one that is numerically smaller than other groups. Sociologically speaking, a minority group is any group that is assigned an inferior status in society and possesses less than its proportionate share of social resources, such as wealth, status, and power. The basic characteristic of a minority group is powerlessness. In contrast, a majority group may be smaller in numbers, but is a group that possesses more than its proportionate share of valuable social resources.
Describe the properties of minority groups that distinguish them from the majority group.
The main properties of minority groups include the following:

* Persons are treated unequally.
* Unfavorable treatment fosters a distinctive group identity based upon group members’ awareness of themselves as a minority group.
* Membership in minority groups is ascribed or inherited (usually at birth) and is not a status voluntarily assumed.
* Minority groups possess cultural and/or physical characteristics that are used to distinguish them from the dominant group.
* Minority group members tend to practice in-group marriage (endogamy).
CH 3: What are agents of socialization? List the major agents of socialization in American society, and talk about how each of these teach- and influence- people's attitudes, behaviors and other orientations toward life.
AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION- people and groups that influence our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behavior.
1. The family (primary)-
a. influenced by social class-
working class parents teach kids to conform, do what teacher tells you, be neat and clean, used to physical punishment.
middle-class parents: greter concern for the motivations for their children's behavior, more likely to punish by withdrawing priviledges and affection
b. the more closely supervised the job of the parent, the more likly the parent is to insist on outward conformity
2. The community-children from poor neighborhoods are more likely to get in trouble with law, to get pregnant, to drop out of schol and to end up disadvantaged- if someone challenges the community won't be good ex: blacks in schools
3. peers - kids want peers to pay attention to them- boys norms that make them popular: athletic ability, coolness, and toughness. girls: family background, physical appearance and interest in more mature concerns such as the ability to attract boys- is almost impossible to go against peer groups; those that become labeled as outsiders, nonmembers or outcasts
4 media-presents images to us that influence how we see ourselves ex: media tells us what toys girls should play with vs. boys
5. schools- there to reinforce community values,
6. religion-70% of americans belong to a local congregation, two/five attend a religous services weekly- influences morality, influences ideas about dress, speech and appropriate manners
7. workplace- corporate values, corporate goals, each workplace has own set of rules, if want to be a professional know how to be this profession ex: Dr. needs to know correct way to be a Dr., WE OFTEN identify ourselves in terms of our occupation
CH 8: Identify the major characteristics of the poor in the United States.
get trapped in a "culture of poverty"

1. Research indicates that most poverty is of short duration- a year or less, most often is due to a dramatic life change (event poverty)- only 12% poverty lasts 5 + years
2. Since the # of ppl living in poverty is fairly constant, this means that as many people move into poverty as move out of it
3. about 1/4th of the U.S. population is or has been poor for at least a year
What is the difference between the primary and secondary labor markets? In which market are college graduates likely to find employment?
Sociologists view jobs in the United States as falling into two broad categories. The primary labor market consists of relatively high-paying jobs that provide extensive benefits, job security, and the opportunity for advancement. Professions and upper-level corporate positions are found in this labor market. College-educated workers are likely to be found in this market as well. The secondary labor market consists of low-paying jobs that offer workers limited benefits, little job security, and few opportunities for advancement.
What are the typical stages of development in a social movement?
There are four identifiable stages of development that most social movements go through.

The first stage is emergence, during which concern and dissatisfaction exist among a group of people who believe that change is both necessary and possible.

During the second stage of coalescence, the movement begins to develop a coherent set of goals and strategies for achieving them. They may engage in public demonstrations as a way of bringing the issue to the attention of the public.

The third stage is institutionalization (or bureaucratization), during which the movement becomes formalized and professionalized organizationally. Defined offices and functions emerge, often discharged by paid staff members.

The final stage, when a movement begins to dissipate, is decline. Decline occurs for a variety of reasons, including repression, goal displacement, achievement of goals, and diminishing support.
In a patriarchal society, what patterns of residence, authority, and kinship would exist?
A patriarchy is a form of social organization in which men dominate women through control of key social institutions, such as the economy, politics, and education. In patriarchal societies, one would expect to find patriarchal families in which authority resides in the eldest male (usually the father) who holds power over other family members. These families would practice patrilineal descent, which is the tracing of kinship and the passing along of inheritance through men. One might also expect to find patterns of residence where the family lives near the husband’s parents (patrilocality).
How does the use of symbols and language shape how people interpret the world and communicate?
People communicate using symbols. The meaning of symbols varies from one society to the next. Language is a system of symbols, which can be verbal and nonverbal. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that people can only interpret, understand, and interact with the world around them in terms of the language that they use.
What is the difference between popular culture and high culture?
Popular culture refers to the cultural patterns that are widespread among a society’s working and middle classes, while high culture consists of those cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s elite from the working and middle classes.
Explain the Freudian view of how personality and self-identity develop.
Freud believed the mind was composed of three elements—the id, the ego, and the superego. The development of self-identity and personality is shaped by the interplay of these three elements. The id represents basic biological needs and demands immediate gratification. The superego represents the moral and ethical elements of personality and is composed of internalized understandings of important cultural standards of conduct. Essentially, it is one’s conscience. The ego is the conscious and reality-oriented part of the mind. It attempts to balance the id’s need for immediate gratification with the superego’s need to restrain certain behaviors. The ego channels the id into socially acceptable outlets of expression.
Describe the main methods used to conduct sociological research.
There are four main methods of sociological research. Field research is the main qualitative research method. This involves the study of social life in its natural setting. There are also two quantitative research methods. Experiments are carefully designed controlled environments in which the researcher seeks to study the effect of specific variables on the behavior or attitudes of the experiment’s subjects. Survey research uses questionnaires or interviews to collect information from people that can then be statistically analyzed. Finally, the secondary analysis of existing data involves the use of research previously done by others to try and formulate answers to one’s stated research question(s). Secondary analysis of data can be used for both qualitative and quantitative research.
CH 4: What is dramaturgy? Who pioneered it? Know the key components of dramaturgy and discuss how people try to control other people's .impressions of them through assigned roles, teamwork, and face-saving behavior.
DRAMATURGY- an analysis of how we present ourselves in everyday life.

1. socialization-people learn to perform on the stage of everyday life through socialization
2. impression managment- the person's efforts to manage the impressions that others receive of her or him
3. front stage- when performances are given (wherever a person delivers his or her lines)
4. back stage- when people rest from their performances, discuss their presentations, and plan future performances
5. role performance- the particular emphasis or interpretation that an individual gives a role or the persons style
6. role conflict- when the expectations of one role are incompatible with those of another role; conflict between roles
7. role strain- conflicts that someone feels within a role
8. face-saving behavior- when a performance does not happen as planned, flaws are ignored in someone's performance
ex; covering up a burp with a cough
CH 8: Know how the United States government defines poverty and the implications of that definition.
US government defines poverty - including families who spend about one-third of their incomes on food- compute a low-cost food budget and multiply it by 3- families whose incomes are less than this are poor- those whose incomes are higher (even by a dollar) are "not poor"

implications- certain social groups are disproportionately represented among the poor population: poverty is not evenly distributed among states, race ethnicity is a major factor in determining poverty, only 2% of ppl who finish college end up in poverty compared to one in four of those who drop out of h.s., the sex of who heads the house determines- divorce, unwed mothers, lower wages to women, the percentage of poor people 65 +is lower than national average
Describe the main steps in the deductive model of sociological research.
There are four main steps in the deductive model of sociological research. The first step involves selecting a topic of interest, reviewing previous research that is pertinent to the topic, and developing a specific statement or hypothesis that one is going to investigate. The second step involves selecting the most appropriate research method and determining the most appropriate population and sample to use in the research question(s) or hypotheses. The third step consists of collecting the data through the appropriate method and recording and analyzing this data. The fourth and final step consists of drawing conclusions from the research and sharing these results with others.
What are the two different types of leadership? What three styles of leadership exist?
Leadership is found in both primary and secondary groups. There are two main types of leadership. Expressive leadership is concerned with the well-being and emotional support of the group members. Instrumental leadership is primarily concerned with the completion of tasks and attainment of goals. There are three main leadership styles. Laissez-faire leaders are minimally involved in decision making, allowing group members to make decisions largely on their own. In contrast, authoritarian leaders make major decisions themselves and assign tasks to members. Democratic leaders are expressive leaders who encourage group deliberation and involvement in decision making. Effective leaders frequently employ each style and type of leadership, depending upon the situation, though most leaders have a dominant leadership type and style.
Why do sociologists consider women to be a minority group?
A minority group is any group that receives less than its proportionate share of valuable social resources, such as good jobs, leisure time, and fair pay. Sociologists consider women to be a minority group for several reasons. First, reflective of the patriarchal nature of social organization, men treat women unequally. Second, women experience several gaps in the way they are treated relative to the way men are treated. The wage gap refers to the fact that women receive less pay then men, earning approximately 75 percent of what men do for similar work. Women also experience a leisure gap. Even though most men and women now work full-time outside the home, women are expected to fulfill the traditional role of homemaker when she returns home, often while the husbands relax. Women do more of the domestic chores than men. Women also experience occupational sex segregation into subordinate jobs, such as secretary, nurse, and teacher, as compared to executive, doctor, and principal. All of these forms of unequal treatment lead sociologists to consider women a minority group.
Which ethnic/racial group in the United States is considered the charter group?
A charter group is the group that sets the cultural tone of a society and establishes its cultural foundations. WASPs (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) made up the charter group in the United States.
Which conflict models of race and ethnic relations view the experience of African Americans as distinctly unique? Why?
There are four conflict models of race and ethnic relations. Two of them view the experience of African Americans as uniquely different from the experience of other minority groups: the caste perspective and the colonial imperialism model. The caste perspective argues that racial and ethnic inequality is a permanent feature of society and the experience of African Americans is unique because their mistreatment was legally sanctioned, both under slavery and the caste-like Jim Crow system. The stereotypes necessary to justify such harsh discrimination have become deeply embedded in the cultural beliefs and attitudes of dominant American culture, helping to maintain the distinctive experience of African Americans. The internal colonialism model is the other perspective that argues the experience of African Americans is uniquely different. From this view, however, the uniqueness derives from the forcible economic and political repression of African Americans by the dominant group, which lingers to this day.
What is feminism? Describe the types of feminist approaches toward and solutions for gender inequality.
Feminism is the belief that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. There are three ways in which feminism explains gender inequality. Liberal feminists accept the organization of society but argue that women should be accorded equal opportunity, equal treatment, and reproductive freedom. Socialist feminists believe that gender inequality is a result of capitalist forms of economic organization. A socialist revolution is believed necessary to free women from patriarchal subordination. Radical feminists believe that liberal and socialist feminists do not go far enough to eradicate gender inequality. In this view, gender inequality is rooted in the very notion of gender. To eliminate such inequality, the notion of gender itself must be eliminated. Doing this would involve the use of new reproductive technologies that would free women from the childbearing role. This would eliminate the basis for gender distinctions and would hence lead to an end of male domination.
CH 8: Talk about recent changes in welfare policy in the United States and the controversies associated with those changes.
recent changes:
- states must place on lifetime cap on welfare assistance
- compels welfare recipients to look for work and take available jobs
- max. length of time someone can collect welfare is 5 years
- unmarried teen parents must attend school and live at home or in some other adult- supervised setting

- 3/5 still in poverty or back on welfare
- 1/3 of those forced off welfare have no jobs
- some can't work because of health problems/ lack transportation/ overcrowding at day care/ addicted to drugs and alcohol/ stuck in economically depressed communities where there are no jobs/ those who have jobs but earn so little that remain in poverty
What is a social movement? How is it different from crowd or mass behavior? What different forms can social movements take?
A social movement is an organized group that acts collectively and intentionally to promote or resist social change. Movements are different from crowds and mass behavior. Social movements are more organized than crowds or masses and their group behavior persists over a longer period of time than that of crowds or masses. Movements also have specific and shared goals that motivate their activities, and they tend to act together in concert, such as at a protest demonstration, rather than being spatially dispersed as masses are. There are four basic forms that social movements assume, varying by the nature of their goals and the scope of change they seek to achieve. Reform movements seek a specified (though limited) change in a society that would apply to all members of that society. Mothers Against Drunk Driving is an example of a reform movement. Some reform movements seek to promote a new cultural pattern or policy, while others are reactionary and seek to prevent or undo social change. Revolutionary movements seek widespread social change and typically work outside established, institutional channels in an attempt to thoroughly remake society. Examples in the United States include the Aryan Nation white supremacist movement and its attempt to create an all-white homeland in the Northwest that would secede from the United States. They may engage in terrorism to achieve their aims. Expressive movements seek to produce substantive change within individuals rather than in society at large. Examples include the Hare Krishnas and Alcoholics Anonymous. Alternative movements seek limited changes within individuals or in some aspect of their behavior, such as vegetarians and the Women’s Christian Temperance Union.
CH. 9: List the six patterns of intergroup relations that develop between minority and dominant groups and provide examples for each.
1. Genocide
- annihilation of a race/ ethnic group who has been labeled as less than fully human by the dominant group
ex: the holocaust and the treatment of Native Americans

2. Population transfer
- the involuntary movement of a minority group, involves making life so unbearable that the minority group members leave
ex: the combination of genocide and population transfer in Bosnia when Serbs engaged in the ethnic cleansing the wholesale slaughter of Muslims and Croats- forced survivors to leave area

3. Internal colonialism
- a society's policy of exploiting a minority by using social institutions to deny it access to full benefits
ex: slavery

4. segregation
- formal separation of groups- often accompanies internal colonialism- the dominant group exploits the labor of the minority while maintaining social distance
ex: black bathrooms, white bathrooms

5. assimilation
- the process by which a minority is absorbed into the mainstream
FORCED assimilation occurs when the dominant group prohibits the minority from using its own religion, language, and customs
ex: before the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russians (dominant) required that Armenian children attend schools where they were taught in Russian- could only celebrate Russian holidays
PERMISSIVE assimilation is when the minority adopts the dominant group's pattern in its own way and own speed

6. multiculturalism (pluralism) -
permits or encourages racial and ethnic variation
ex: switzerland- four ethnic groups: French, Italians, Germans, Romansch - have kept their own languages, live peacefully in political and economic unity
Why is it said that race is a socially constructed category?
Race is said to be a socially constructed category because the important physical traits thought to characterize a racial group are socially defined and vary between societies.
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