Sociology: Deviance and Crime Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Victimasation :
Dobash and Dobash
Merton
Types of Deviance
Primary Deviance

Secondary Deviance

Tertiary Deviance
Micro-Sociological
Symbolic Interaction theories of deviance look directly at the interactions people have with one another and the meaning that people attribute to situations.
deviance
any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant cultural norms in the society or group in which it occurs
Punishment
Stop and searching
Criminal Justice stystem
Labelling
political crime
illegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials, or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government or overthrow it
Coroners
Officials who decide on cause of death.
Egoistic suicide
Durkheim's term for suicide in societies where people regard their individual happiness as very important.
Mood of Fatalism
Adolescents feel powerless; people pushing them around & telling them what to do.- To overcome this they need to rstore their 'mood of humanism'
Control Theory-DURKHEIM
relationship between crime and social control. he argued that during rapid social change, there was low social integration, anomie, thus weak social control and higher rates of crime and deviance. HIRSCHI developed this idea
Labeling Process
Because deviants are handled through bureaucratic organizations, bureaucratic workers "process" people according to rules and procedures, seldom questioning the basis for those rules or being willing or able to challenge them.
Differential Association:

Differential Learning
Attitudes about behaviors are learned through associations with others, usually in primary group settings. People learn motives, drives, and techniques of engaging in specific behaviors.
criminal gang
devoted to theft, extortion, and other illegal means of securing an income
Moral panic
Public concern, created by the media, about the behaviour of certain groups of people who are seen as a threat to the moral order and stability of society.
Informal social control
Routine, cultural ways of enforcing conformity.
When ANOMIE exists....
When ANOMIE exists crime rates increase and the stuation can be bought under control by reimposing the collective values
Delinquent Subculture
Alternative sets of norms and values, usually lower class adolescents.
Gordon (1976)
Crime and deviance is manily focused on  the working class  which means that the  Bourgoise use thier power to control them
 Therefore the BOURGOISE  can justify controlling by increasing the police force

If law breaking is linked to working class then this  distracts  the police force frok  ppaying attention at the crime made by the ruling class  
Conflict Theories:

Corporate Crime
Crime committed within the legitimate context of doing business.

Appropriating profit based on exploitation of the poor and working class is built into the fabric of capitalist society
Functions of Punishment
Retribution - the punishment should fit the crime.

Social Protection - restrict offenders so they can't commit further crimes

Rehabilitation - Return offenders to the community as law-abiding citizens.

Deterrence - Reduce criminal activity through a fear of punishment.

Socialization - It teaches cultural values

Inequality - Privileges some groups at the expense of others.
Labeling Theory:

Label
Once a person is recognized as deviant, he/she is labeled as such by the criminal justice system.
Deviant Identities:

Stigmas
Once applied, the deviant label is difficult to shed and it is difficult for the deviant to recover a non-deviant identity.
labeling theory: becker
acts are deviant or criminal because they have been labeled as such. powerful groups often label less-powerful individuals
Deviancy amplification
When the action of the rule enforcers or media in response to deviance brings about an increase in the deviance.
Status Frustation (Cohen)
Caused by dissatifaction in their low place in society - cannot get high status jobs - turn to crime - do not share the same culture as the mainstream society
Retreatist subculture
Being the one that takes the double failures, those who don't make it in crime or violence. The failures retreat into drugs and petty theft.
5 Techniques of Neutralisation...
1) Denial of Responsibilty- not admitting to hat they have done 2) Denial the act was wrong- an assualt on a person that 'does something wrong' eg. attack on a homeosexual, wasn' wrong but a favour to society 3) Denial of Injury- no-one got hurt and it was just a bit of fun.Eg. Joy riding 4) Condemenation of those who enforce the rules- Police are seen as corrupt and teachers as unjust & hypocritical 5) Appeal to higher loyalities- the law was broken to help a member of the family or a friend
Merton's Structural Strain Theory:

Types of Deviancy
Innovator
Has cultural goals
Does not follow rules
Conflict Theories:

Elite Deviance
Refers to the wrongdoing of wealthy and powerful individuals and organizations such as tax evasion, illegal campaign contributions, corporate scandals, etc.
Anomie
When a person who strives to attain a legitimate goal but is denied access to legitimate means will experience a state that reduces commitment to norms or the pursuit of goals.
secondary deviance: lemert
the process that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior
Victimisation (or victim) surveys
Where people are asked what crimes have happened to them over a particular period.
Famous concept of Durkheim
ANOMIE- in times of great social change/stress, the collective conscience may be weakened.
Enthnicity and  Crime and Deviance
 .There is a little diffrence between  Blacks and white  in the SRF
 But offical statistics show that back people commit more crime
Hirshi's Social Control Theory
Deviance occurs when a person's (or group's) attachment to social bonds is weakened.

Premises:
-common value system within society and breaking allegiance to that value system is the source of social deviance.
-most of the time, people follow the rules of behavior.
-people internalize social norms because of their attachment to others.
-people care what others think of them and therefore conform to social expectations because they accept what people expect.
-when conformity is broken, deviance occurs.
Durkheim's Suicide Theory:

Egoistic Suicide
When people feel totally detached from society. That is, there is a low degree of solidarity or social integration in society.
David Matza's crits of other Sociologists.......
They make deviants appear more distinctive than they really are- present on an over-deterministic view of deviance- Matza believes this ignores choice and alternative which are always avalible for human action.
Four bonds that bind us together
1- Attachment 2- Commitment 3- Involvment 4- Belief
Durkheim and Crime and Deviance
 See crime and devinace as somthing we have no control over
.There are 2 elements  of crime
.Crime increases during rapid of  social change
.  The way tolook at crime is to link it with social order thorugh rules and laws
. Criminal trails, punishment shows the rest of the society bounderies which promtes solidarity
 
.
Common Views on Crime
America is a fair society ruled by law. Most of its citizens are law-abiding and decent.

An individual is deviant or criminal when he/she breaks well established rules/laws in our society.

Criminals are bad people. They are people who have something wrong with them.

It is the responsibility of the criminal justice system to use its agents to enforce the law. Police and courts are key protagonists in solving the crime problem.

It has proven very effective to be tough on crime by giving harsh sentences and long prison terms to criminals.
Mood of Humanism
Wish to feel like a victim & to prove they are human too who can inluence events around them
what was etzioni's view on how crime can be solved?
only local communities and local face-to –face relationships can solve social problems.
Offical statistics and Gender in crime and deviance
 Women are more likely to be discharged and given community service
Women are more likely to be cautioned rather than sentenced after arrest 
 however we have to look at the type of crime thatwomen commit is less serious compared to mens  type  of crime
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