Solar System Vocabulary 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Olympus Mons
the important information
5.4 km/s
Rotation- 16.11 hours CC
Revolution- 165 years CC
Hydrogen helium and methane atmosphere
Bright clouds
weigh the least on
Asteroid belt
(between mars and Jupiter)
colored layer of the sun
icy body orbiting the sun
What formed when planetesimals collided and combined?
a meteoroid that strikes Earth's surface
gas giants
The outer planets are called_________________.
Great Dark Spot
storm in Neptune's atmosphere
Nuclear fusion
how the sun produces energy
rock particles from comet breaking apart and enter Earth's atmosphere
Sun centered universe; used telescope to view moon & Jupiter's moon; had evidence that all planets orbited around the sun, the moon orbited around Earth & that Jupiter had moons
the planets travel around the sun.
Direction moon orbits earth
Counter-clockwise/eastern (when viewed from above North Pole)
measure of how elongated an ellipse is
the two transitional times between two extreme season, summer and winter
small piece of comet's nucleus that has broken apart
the hottest planet and nearest to Earth
chunk of rock or dust in space
a measure of the average kinectic energy of all the particles in an object
compare and contrast the planets with earth
During a lunar eclipse, the Moon eventually moves into complete darkness. This is because it is moving into this part of the Earth's shadow.
Round pits in the moon's surface, which show evidence of impact of others bodies such as meteoroids, and asteroids.
an irregular shaped rock that orbits the Sun
a group of stars that form a pattern
outer planets
the four planets located past the asteroid belt, which include Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune; also known as the Gas Giants, or Jovian planets
the measure of the amount of light reflected; 0.0 = no reflection, 0.5 = 50% of incident light is reflected, 1.0 = a mirror
is the outer layer of the sun's atmosphere.
a star above the North Pole which helps find directions at night
venus atmosphere
is made up mostly of carbon dioxide
The rise and fall of the ocean's surface.
seventh planet from the Sun; is large and gaseous, has a distinct bluish-green color, and rotates on an axis nearly parallel to the plane of its orbit
The point in orbit farthest from the planet. The opposite of periapsis.
kuiper belt
A region near Pluto's orbit that contains several objects, called KBO's ( dwarf planets, moons, other objects )
large group of stars, dust, and gas held together by gravity; can be elliptical, spiral, or irregular
a huge, reddish loop of gas that protrudes from the sun's surface, linking parts of sunspot regions
what formed first: the sun or the Earth
Mercury 1
-every feature seen on our moon
-maria are evenly distributed
-craters are shallower due to high mass,gravity,density
-scarps (cliffs) found for miles due to contracting core
-3:2 tidal lock, 3 rotations:2 revolutions
-no atmosphere, high day to night temp range 1000 degree F
Big bang
the initial explosion that resulted in the formation and expansion of the universe.
The star (medium sized) at the center of the solar system
a planet with large rings around it that is sixth
orbit period
The period of time required for an orbiting object to complete one revolution of the central object
Solar System
The sun and all objects that move around it.
venus is the
brightest object in sky besides moon and sun
geocentric model
Earth was at the center of the universe; all the other planets, the moon, the sun, and all the other stars revolved around the Earth; Earth didn't move at all.
1) Round 2) Orbits the Sun 3) cleared most of its orbit of derbis
Radiation zone
a region of very tightly packed gas int he suns interior where energy is transferred mainly in the form of light.
Who thought the sun was at the center of the solar system?
neutron star
the type of star that can eventually become a black hole
the path an object in space takes as it goes around a planet or the Sun
when the sun shines at it's maximum in one hemisphere and at its minimum in the opposite hemisphere
Extraterrestrial life
What Life other than on Earth would be called
black hole
remnant of a star that is so dense that nothing, not even light, can escape its gravity field
lunar eclipse
The Earth is between the sun and the moon and blocks the light
the planet Venus is similar to Earth in this
density and eternal structure
winter and summer solstices
The Sun's rays strike Earth at their northernmost and southernmost positions during
A space capsule orbits the Earth.
Why does the occupant not feel gravity?
Because according to Newton’s laws (and Kepler’s) the trajectory of a satellite (as
long as it is still low mass compared to the planet) does not depend on the mass or
any other property of the of the satellite. The astronaut and the capsule can both be
considered satellites in the same orbit and therefore they move together.
we know what we know about the planets from
probs and satilites, the most successful were voyager 1 and 2 probes launched in 1977
Is the earth or moon larger? By how much?
The earth is about 4 times as big as the moon.
main sequence
48 km/s
425°C -170°C
Rotation- 59 days CC
Revolution- 88 days CC
.39 AU
No atmosphere
Smallest planet
Cliff craters
Milky Way
Our galaxy
A large rock in space.
huge, reddish loops of gas
Terrestrial planets
Rocky-surfaced, relatively small, dense inner planets closest to the Sun—Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
Meteoroid that passes through the atmosphere and hits earths surface
Earth-centered model
Earth = center of universe
any natural satellite of a planet
Like Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus, ________ is a "gas planet"--a planet made mostly of gas.
What planet is beside the Venus?E____.
Cosmic String
A tube-like configuration of energy that is believed to have existed in the early universe. A cosmic string would have a thickness smaller than a trillionth of an inch but its length would extend from one end of the visible universe to the other.
Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are known as _ planets or rocky inner planets
Jupiter's fourth largest moons that is the most volcanically active in the Solar System
the time after sunset and before sunrise while it is dark outside
discovered that a planet has an ellipse orbit and verified the heliocentric theory
the inner layer of the sun's atmosphere. "Photo" means light.
Johannes Kepler
studied orbits of planets, elliptical, and that planets travel at different speeds in their orbits
shape of earths orbit around the sun
any celestial body orbiting around a planet or star
Super Nova
An explosion of a Super Star.
Radial Velocity
The movement of an object either towards or away from a stationary observer.
Gas Giant
The four outer planets- Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptune.
Much larger and more massive than earth and do not have solid surfaces.
Sixth planet from the Sun which is surrounded by three planar concentric rings of ice particles
the moon, planets and comets shine due to ____ light
Gravity is also the forc that keeps the ________orbiting the planets.
One of the different shapes the moon seems to have as it orbits around the Earth.
convection zone
the outermost layer of the sun's interior
is the largest planet in our solar system
Inner Rocky Terrestrail Planets
Mercury , Venus, Earth, Mars
The partical or total blocking of one object in space by another.
An oval shape, which may be elongated or nearly circular.
a pattern
yes yes NO yes yes NO yes yes NO

A pattern is a repeating visual or letter sequence.
Oort Cloud
A theoretical shell of comets that is believed to exist at the outermost regions of our solar system. The Oort cloud was named after the Dutch astronomer who first proposed it.
is a group of stars that form a picture
dark spots on the sun that are cooler than the rest of the photosphere
The _________ ________ _______ is used by all countries to refuel and rest there shuttle
International space station
rocky objects that are too small to be planets
Solar Eclipse
The blocking of sunlight to Earth that occurs when the moon is between the sun and Earth.
spiral galaxy
bulge at center and spiral arms made of gas, dust, and new stars
The rise and fall of the ocean mainly due to the m
cool, dimmer stars
Which type of stars have the least mass?
is at the center of the sun and is where the suns energy is produced
Frigid atmosphere because of distance from the sun
Neptune ( -225 degrees Celcius )
According the viewpoint from the moon, what is the "New Earth?"
Sun is behind the Earth
What is a comet?
A body made up of rock, dust, gases, and ice particles that orbits the sun.
Which of the following MUST happen if two bodies formed
far apart in the solar nebula are to be trapped in orbit
about one another and become a planet / satellite pair?
Energy must be dissipated somehow, often through collision(s) or through the pres-
ence of a third body.
Why do we expect a magma (rock) ocean layer resulting in
the formation of continents only on the surface of a
sufficiently large planetesimal?
Impactors gain velocity as they are attracted by gravity. This results in sufficiently
violent impacts to melt the surface layer which then freezes back over between impacts.
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