Some Organic Chemistry definitions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
isopropyl
propyl
-CH3CH3CH3
cycloalkane
cyclopentane
phenol
9
non
-O-
ether
Carbon Molocules
...
ester
=O, -O-
phenyl group
C6H5-
Benzyl bromide
Esters
=O & -O
Carbonyl
Carbon to Oxygen
Structure:
meta
1,3 disubstituted compound
heterolytic cleavage
unsymmetrical cleavage
formalin
Saturated aqueous Formaldehyde solutions are known as
anhydride alcoholysis to ester
ROH
Oxygen containing Acid Chloride
RCOCl
oxidation/reduction: gain of H+
neither
Thermodynamic product
preference is an enolate
Glycerol
is also known as Glycerin
alkynes
one or more triple bonds
Prostaglandin
Controls inflammation, pain, and fever.
Atomic Number: 17
Atomic Weight: 35.45
Valence e-: 7
Cl
organic chemicals are easily decomposed in what?
heat
Carbocation
A.) Carbocation (carbonium ion): Carbon that lost electron or a positive charge on a carbon. resonance will determine stability. 3' 2' 1' methyl
Chiral compound
Optically active compound, has optically active center
organic compound
any molecule that contains carbon
Hair
contains amide, made from alpha keratin protein
amines smell...
bad, also are strong bases
Ketone
-carbonyl group (carbon double bonded to oxygen) on middle carbon -name ends in "-one"
cis
prefix for geometrical isomers with the groups on the same sides of the bonded carbons
enzyme inhibitors
certain chemicals selectively inhibit the action of a specific enzyme. this will interfere with the enzymes ability to function (DDT inhibites enzymes in the nervous system
hydrocarbon
an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
Polar Reactions
Electron pairs react, generating charge.
Homologous
A series with a fixed numerical relationship among numbers of atoms (E.g. alkane)
carboxyl group
the functional group in organic acids
meth
prefix for a chain of 1 carbon
Proteins
Made of Amino acids. ex. muscle tissue, hormones, hemoglobin, and enzymes.
optical isomers (archaic)
compounds with identical properties except for the direction in which they rotate polarized light
induced dipoles
dipole moment that is momentarily induced in an otherwise nonpolar molecule- common in nature and weaker than permanent dipoles
carboxylic acids
In an oxidation reaction under abrasive conditions, primary alcohols become...
Sterick Hendrix
Interference between two bulky groups hitting.
Valence shell
The outermost occupied electron shell of an atom
Halide
A hydrocarbon that contains a halogen on the end.
R-X
written - methane chloride
Disaccharide
A sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharide linked by a dehydration reaction.
Hammond Postulate
In an endothermic reaction, the transition state is closer to the products. In an exothermic, it is closer to the reactants, in terms of reactivity and energy.
Optical rotation
When polarized light passes through a solution containing an optical isomer the plane if polarization rotates to the right
Adenine
The base that pairs with Thymine in DNA
physical reaction
reaction where no energy is produced by the substance
cholesterol
can cause buildup and blockage in the arteries
Phospholipids
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
Cohesion
______ is the reason water forms into droplets when spilled.
they won't react
polar vs. nonpolar is important because if you can't get molecules in solution,
Catenation
the covalent bonding of an element to itself to form chains or rings
Nitro benzene
Benzene with a nitro group substituted onto it
dihedral angle
the angle created by two intersecting planes
"if alkane contains a polar molecule, solubility in water as lengthened"
further decreased
C4H8
Which one of the following is a cycloalkane if none of the compounds contain double bonds?
Covalent Bonding
When two non-metals share their outer shells in order to achieve a stable 8-electron valence
Markovnikov's rule
In addition of HX to alkenes, hydrogen attaches to carbon with fewer alkyl substituents and x attaches to carbon with more substituents
Saturated fats
fat molecules that have 1 bond between carbon atoms;
includes ANIMAL FATS, like lard and butter
Substitution
one atom or group in a compound is replaced with another atom or group
formal charge
#v.e's - (lone pair e's + (1/2) bonding e's)
amino acid
organic acid that contains one or more amino groups
Structural Formula
A formula showing the pattern or form in which atoms are bonded.
Plane of Symmetry
An imaginary plane passing through an object dividing it so that one half is the mirror image of the other half
What are all of these? Mercury, lead, aluminum, antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, silver, zinc and tin?
Heavy metals
Saturated Hydrocarbons
each C bonded to max # of H
either straight or branched
tertiary protein structure
the overall arrangement of atoms in a protein molecule.
Conjugate Acids
The molecule or ion that forms when a base accepts a proton.
Why does electron delocalization increase acidity?
Affects the equilibrium of the reaction by stabilizing the conjugate base pulling equilibrium towards it.
Ts- tosyl group
S is central w/ 2 double bonded Os, and benzyl-CH3 connected to it
Protic acid
An acid that is a proton donor in an acid-base reaction
physical properties of aldehydes and ketones
have higher bp than alkanes and alkenes of similar mw. cannot h bond with each other so they have lower bp than corresponding alcohols, good solvents and are water soluble when small
alkene formulas and names
C1H2 (DOES NOT EXIST - C must have 4 bonds); C2H4 - ethene; C3H6 - propene; C4H8 - butene; C5H10 - pentene; C6H12 - hexene; C7H14 - heptene; C8H16- octene; C9H18 - nonene; C10H20 - decene
what reagents are needed for allylic substitution reactions?
needs to be done in the presence of high temps, light, or low concentrations of the halogen
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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