Sothers AP US History Exam Terms 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Barry Goldwater
unsuccessful presidential candidate against Lyndon
Johnson in 1964; he called for dismantling the New Deal, escalation of the
war in Vietnam, and the status quo on civil rights. Many see him as the
grandfather of the conservative movement of the 1980s.
Louisiana Purchase
an 828,000-square-mile region purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million; the acquisition doubled the size of the United States and gave it control of the Mississippi River and New Orleans. Jefferson uncharacteristically relied on implied powers in the Constitution (loose construction) for the authority to make the purchase.
Ku Klux Klan
terrorist organization active throughout the South during Reconstruction and after, dedicated to maintaining white supremacy; through violence and intimidation, it tried to stop freedmen from exercising their rights under the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.
Boston Massacre
confrontation between British soldiers and Boston citizens in March 1770. The troops shot and killed five colonials. American radicals used the event to roil relations between England and the colonies over the next five years.
Dollar Diplomacy
President Taft's policy that encouraged American business and financial interests to invest in Latin American countries to achieve U.S. economic and foreign policy goals and maintain control; if problems persisted, the United States reverted to the Big Stick option of the Roosevelt administration, turning to military intervention and employment of force to restore stability and peace.
Border States
Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri; these slave states stayed in the Union and were crucial to Lincoln's political and military strategy. He feared alienating them with emancipation of slaves and adding them to the Confederate cause.
Thaddeus Stevens
uncompromising Radical Republican who wanted to revolutionize the South by giving equality to blacks; a leader in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, he hoped for widespread land distribution to former slaves.
Frances Perkins
Roosevelt's secretary of labor (1993-1945); the first
woman to serve as a federal Cabinet officer, she had a great influence on
many New Deal programs, most significantly the Social Security Act.
Three-Fifths Compromise
agreement at the Constitutional Convention that broke the impasse over taxation and representation in the House of Representatives; the delegates agreed to count slaves as three-fifths of a person for both. This formula had been used in 1783 to make financial assessments among the states under the Articles.
Lincoln Steffens
leading muckraking journalist who exposed political corruption in the cities; best known for his The Shame of Cities (1904), he was also a regular contributor to McClure's magazine.
John Fremont
explorer, soldier, politician, and first presidential nominee of the Republican Party (1856); his erratic personal behavior and his radical views on slavery made him controversial and unelectable.
Brook Farm
utopian society established by transcendentalist George Ripley near Boston in 1841; members shared equally in farm work and leisure discussions of literature and art. Author Nathaniel Hawthorne and others became disenchanted with the experiment, and it collapsed after a fire in 1847.
Federalist Papers
eighty-five essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay and published in newspapers to convince New York to ratify the Constitution; taken together, they are seen as a treatise on the foundations of the Constitution.
Freedmen's Bureau
a U.S. government-sponsored agency that provided food, established schools, and tried to redistribute land to former slaves as part of Radical Reconstruction; it was most effective in education, where it created over 4,000 schools in the South.
white southerners who cooperated with and served in Reconstruction governments; generally eligible to vote, they were usually considered traitors to their states.
George Dewey
naval hero of the Spanish-American War; his fleet defeated the Spanish at Manila Bay and gave the United States a tenuous claim to the Philippine Islands.
Stephen Austin
leader of American immigration to Texas in the 1820s; he negotiated land grants with Mexico and tried to moderate growing Texan rebelliousness in the 1830s. After Texas became an independent nation, he served as its secretary of state.
Earl Warren
controversial Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1953-1969);
he led the Court in far-reaching racial, social, and political rulings, including
school desegregation and protecting rights of persons accused of crimes.
Cuban Missile Crisis
confrontation between the United States and the
USSR resulting from a Soviet attempt to place long-range nuclear missiles
in Cuba (October 1962); Kennedy forced the Soviets to remove them with a
blockade and the threat of force. The crisis enhanced Kennedy's standing
but led to a Soviet arms buildup.
Fair Deal
Truman's legislative program; it was largely an extension of
the New Deal of the 1930s, and Truman had little success convincing
Congress to enact it.
Emancipation Proclamation
executive order issued January 1, 1863, granting freedom to all slaves in states that were in rebellion; Lincoln issued it using his constitutional authority as commander-in-chief, as a military measure to weaken the South's ability to continue the war. It did not affect the Border States or any region under northern control on January 1. However, it was a stepping stone to the Thirteenth Amendment.
Domino Theory
Eisenhower's metaphor that when one country fell to
Communists, its neighbors would then be threatened and collapse one after
another like a row of dominoes; this belief became a major rationale for U.S.
intervention in Vietnam.
Henry Clay
leading American statesman from 1810 to 1852; he served as a member of Congress, Speaker of the House, senator, and secretary of state and made three unsuccessful presidential bids. He was known as the Great Compromiser for his role in the compromises of 1820, 1833, and 1850.
Rugged individualism
Hoover's philosophy that called on Americans to
help each other during the Depression without direct government relief; he
feared too much government help would weaken the American character,
endanger liberty, and lead to totalitarianism in the United States.
Big Stick policy
Theodore Roosevelt's method for achieving American goals in the Caribbean; it featured the threat and use of military force to promote America's commercial supremacy, to limit European intervention in the region, and to protect the Panama Canal.
Betty Friedan
author of The Feminine Mystique (1963), which raised the issue
of a woman's place in society and how deadening suburban "happiness" could
be for women; her ideas sparked the women's movement to life in the 1960s.
Loyalists (Tories)
colonists who remained loyal to England; they often were older, better educated people who were members of the Anglican Church. The British hoped to use them as a pacification force but failed to organize them properly.
Warren Harding
weak but affable president (1921-1923) who allowed his appointees to loot and cheat the government; after his death, political and personal scandals tarnished his presidency. Harding is rated as a failure as president by most historians.
"slave power"
the belief that a slave-holding oligarchy existed to maintain slavery in the South and to spread it throughout the United States, including into the free states; this belief held that a southern cabal championed a closed, aristocratic way of life that attacked northern capitalism and liberty.
John Dickinson
conservative leader who wrote Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania; he advocated for colonial rights but urged conciliation with England and opposed the Declaration of Independence. Later, he helped write the Articles of Confederation.
Brain(s) Trust
name applied to college professors from Columbia University such as Rexford Tugwell, Adolf Berle, and Raymond Moley who advised Roosevelt on economic matters early in the New Deal; the Brain Trust took on the role of an "unofficial Cabinet" in the Roosevelt Administration.
Abby Kelley
effective public speaker in the American Anti-Slavery Society; her election to an all-male committee caused the final break between William Garrison and his abolitionist critics in 1840 that split the organization.
Shays's Rebellion
an uprising in western Massachusetts between August 1786 and February 1787 that dosed the courts and threatened revolution in the state; the central government's inability to suppress the revolt reinforced the belief that the Articles of Confederation needed to be strengthened or abandoned.
British passenger liner sunk by a German submarine in May 1915; among the 1,200 deaths were 128 Americans. This was the first major crisis between the United States and Germany and a stepping-stone for American involvement in World War I.
Lucretia Mott
Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
John Breckinridge
vice president under James Buchanan and Democratic presidential nominee in 1860 who supported slavery and states' rights; he split the Democratic vote with Stephen Douglas and lost the election to Lincoln. He served in Confederate army and as secretary of war.
theory that the states created the Constitution as a compact among them and that they were the final judge of constitutionality of federal law; the doctrine held that states could refuse to obey or enforce federal laws with which they disagreed. The theory was first presented in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798) and reappeared in Exposition and Protest (1828).
John Pershing
American commander in France during World War I; his nickname of "Black Jack" resulted from his command of black troops earlier in his career. Before being dispatched to France, Pershing led an American incursion into Mexico in 1916 in a failed attempt to capture Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa.
Coercive Acts (1774)
British actions to punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party; they included closing the port of Boston, revoking Massachusetts's charter, trying all British colonial officials accused of misdeeds outside the colony, and housing British troops in private dwellings. In the colonies, these laws were known as the Intolerable Acts, and they brought on the First Continental Congress in 1774.
William Penn
Quaker founder of Pennsylvania; he intended it to be a Quaker haven, but all religions were tolerated. The colony had very good relations with Native Americans at first.
William McKinley
president of the United States, 1897-1901; a reluctant expansionist, he led America during the Spanish-American War. His assassination in 1901 brought "that damn cowboy" Theodore Roosevelt to the presidency.
Social Gospel
movement that began in Protestant churches in the late nineteenth century to apply the teachings of the Bible to the problems of the industrial age; led by Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch, it aroused the interest of many clergymen in securing social justice for the urban poor. The thinking of Jane Addams, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and other secular reformers was influenced by the movement as well.
XYZ Affair
diplomatic effort by President John Adams to soothe the French, who were upset over Jay's Treaty and American neutrality in their conflict with Britain; three American delegates to France were told they must offer a bribe before any negotiations could begin. They refused, and the humiliation heightened tensions between the two countries and set off war hysteria in the United States.
Bay of Pigs
U.S.-supported invasion of Cuba in April 1961; intended to
overthrow Communist dictator Fidel Castro, the operation proved a fiasco.
Castro's forces killed 114 of the invaders and took nearly 1,200 prisoners.
The disaster shook the confidence of the Kennedy administration and
encouraged the Soviet Union to become more active in the Americas.
John Dean
White House aide who participated in the Watergate cover-up;
in a plea bargain, he testified that President Nixon knew and participated in
the cover-up. Many did not believe his testimony until the White House
tapes surfaced.
John Foster Dulles
Eisenhower 's secretary of state, 1953-1959; moralistic
in his belief that Communism was evil and must be confronted with
"brinkmanship" (the readiness and willingness to go to war) and "massive
retaliation" (the threat of using nuclear weapons).
Wilmot Proviso
measure introduced in Congress in 1846 to prohibit slavery in all territory that might be gained by the Mexican War; southerners blocked its passage in the Senate. Afterward, it became the congressional rallying platform for the antislavery forces in the late 1840s and early 1850s.
Maine Law (1851)
first statewide attempt to restrict the consumption of alcohol; the law prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol except for medical reasons.
William Jennings Bryan
a spokesman for agrarian western values, 1896-1925, and three-time Democratic presidential candidate (1896, 1900, 1908); in 1896 his "Cross of Gold" speech and a free-silver platform gained support from Democrats and Populists, but he lost the election.
New Left
label for the political radicals of the 1960s; influenced by "Old
Left" of the 1930s, which had criticized capitalism and supported successes
of Communism, the New Left supported civil rights and opposed American
foreign policy, especially in Vietnam.
Sugar Act (1764)
designed to raise revenue by stiffening the Molasses Act (1733), establishing new customs regulations, and trying smugglers in British vice-admiralty courts; this was the first attempt to tax the colonies in order to raise revenue rather than regulate trade. It actually lowered the tax on imported sugar in hopes of discouraging smugglers and thereby increasing collection of the tax.
The Maine
U.S. battleship sent to Havana in early 1898 to protect American interests; it blew up mysteriously in February 1898 killing 266 men. American newspapers blamed the Spanish, helping to cause the war. In 1976, it was discovered that the ship blew up accidentally.
House Un-American Activities Committee
congressional committee
formed in the 1930s to investigate perceived threats to democracy; in the
1940s, the committee laid foundation for the Red Scare as it investigated
allegations of Communist subversion in Hollywood and pursued
Alger Hiss.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
first federal action against monopolies; the law gave government power to regulate combinations "in restraint of trade." Until the early 1900s, however, this power was used more often against labor unions than against trusts.
George III
king of England during the American Revolution. Until 1776, the colonists believed he supported their attempt to keep their rights. In reality, he was a strong advocate for harsh policies toward them.
Stephen Douglas
a leading Democratic senator in the 1850s; nicknamed the "Little Giant" for his small size and great political power, he steered the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act through Congress. Although increasingly alienated from the southern wing of his party, he ran against his political rival Abraham Lincoln for president in 1860 and lost.
Salutary neglect
policy that British followed from 1607 to 1763, by which they interfered very little with the colonies; through this lack of control, the colonies thrived and prospered. It was an attempt to end this policy that helped create the friction that led to the American Revolution.
Compromise of 1877
agreement that ended the disputed election of 1876 between Rutherford Hayes and Samuel Tilden; under its terms, the South accepted Hayes's election. In return, the North agreed to remove the last troops from the South, support southern railroads, and accept a southerner into the Cabinet. The Compromise of 1877 is generally considered to mark the end of Reconstruction.
Thomas Jefferson
first secretary of state, who led opposition to the Hamilton/Washington plan to centralize power at the expense of the states; after founding the Democratic Republican Party to oppose these plans, Jefferson was elected vice president in 1796 and president in 1800.
Roger Williams
Puritan who challenged the church to separate itself from the government and to give greater recognition of the rights of Native Americans; he was banished in 1635 and founded Rhode Island. (Critics called it Rogue Island.)
Second Great Awakening
period of religious revivals between 1790 and 1840 that preached the sinfulness of man yet emphasized salvation through moral action; it sent a message to turn away from sin and provided philosophical underpinnings of the reforms of the 1830s.
Tweed Ring
scandal in New York City (1868-1871); William Marcy Tweed headed a corrupt Democratic political machine (Tammany Hall) that looted $100-200 million from the city. Crusading journalists and others pointed to this organization and its activities as another example of the need for social and political reform.
Stephen Douglass
a leading Democratic senator in the 1850s; nicknamed the "Little Giant" for his small size and great political power, he steered the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act through Congress. Although increasingly alienated from the southern wing of his party, he ran against his political rival Abraham Lincoln for president in 1860 and lost.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Filipino patriot who led a rebellion against both Spain and the United States from 1896 to 1902, seeking independence for the Philippines; his capture in 1901 helped break the resistance to American control of the islands.
Exposition and Protest
document secretly written by Vice President John Calhoun in support of nullification; calling on compact theory, he argued the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and that South Carolina could lawfully refuse to collect it.
Compensated Emancipation
approach to ending slavery that called for slaveholders to be paid for the loss of their "property" as slaves were freed; such proposals were based on the belief that slaveholders would be less resistant to abolition if the economic blow were softened by compensation. A variety of such programs were proposed, some with the support of government leaders, up to and even during the Civil War. Some compensated emancipation existed on a very small scale, as some anti-slavery organizations purchased slaves and then set them free.
Henry Cabot Lodge
chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee who accepted the Treaty of Versailles and membership in the League but demanded reservations to the League to maintain congressional authority in foreign affairs; Wilson's unwillingness to accept these conditions caused the Senate to reject the treaty.
Jane Addams
social worker and leader in the settlement house movement; she founded Hull House in 1889, which helped improve the lives of poor immigrants in Chicago, and in 1931 shared the Nobel Peace Prize.
George Washington
commander of the colonial army; while not a military genius, his integrity and judgment kept the army together. Ultimately, he was indispensable to the colonial cause.
American Colonization Society
organization founded in 1817 that advocated sending freed slaves to a colony in Africa; it established the colony of Liberia in 1827 and encouraged free African Americans to emigrate there as well.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
naval officer, writer, teacher, and philosopher of the new imperialism of the 1890s; he stressed the need for naval power to drive expansion and establish America's place in the world as a great power.
Langston Hughes
leading literary figure of the Harlem Renaissance who wrote verse, essays, and 32 books; he helped define the black experience in America for over four decades.
Liberty Party
political party formed in 1840 that supported a program to end the slave trade and slavery in the territories and the District of Columbia; James Birney ran as the party candidate in 1840 and 1844. In 1848, it merged into the Free Soil Party.
Free Soil Party
formed from the remnants of the Liberty Party in 1848; adopting a slogan of "free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men," it opposed the spread of slavery into territories and supported homesteads, cheap postage, and internal improvements. It ran Martin Van Buren (1848) and John Hale (1852) for president and was absorbed into the Republican Party by 1856.
Salem Witchhunt
period of hysteria in 1692, when a group of teenaged girls accused neighbors of bewitching them; in ten months, nineteen people were executed and hundreds imprisoned. The hysteria subsided when the girls accused the more prominent individuals in the colony, including the governor's wife.
A. Mitchell Palmer
attorney general during the height of the Red Scare (1919-1920) who led raids against suspected radicals; reacting to terrorist bombings, fear of Bolshevism, and his own presidential aspirations, Palmer arrested 6,000 people and deported over 500.
Coxey's Army (1894)
unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey who marched to Washington demanding a government road-building program and currency inflation for the needy; Coxey was arrested for stepping on grass at the Capitol and the movement collapsed.
Trail of Tears (1838)
removal of some 18,000 Cherokees, evicted from lands in southeastern United States and marched to Indian Territory (Oklahoma); nearly 25 percent of the people perished from disease and exhaustion during the trip.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (1949)
military alliance of
the United States, ten Western European countries, and Canada; it was considered
a deterrent to Soviet aggression in Europe, with an attack on one
NATO nation to be considered as an attack on all members.
Jim Crow laws
series of laws passed in southern states in the 1880s and 1890s that segregated the races in many facets of life, including public conveyances, waiting areas, bathrooms, and theaters; it legalized segregation and was upheld as constitutional by Plessy v. Ferguson.
Navigation Acts
series of English laws to enforce the mercantile system; the laws established control over colonial trade, excluded all but British ships in commerce, and enumerated goods that had to be shipped to England or to other English colonies. The acts also restricted colonial manufacturing.
New Jersey Plan
offered by William Paterson to counter the Virginia Plan; it favored a one-house of Congress with equal representation for each state. It maintained much of the Articles of Confederation but strengthened the government's power to tax and regulate commerce.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
cartel of oilexporting
nations, which used oil as a weapon to alter America's Middle
East policy; it organized a series of oil boycotts that roiled the United States
economy throughout the 1970s.
Ngo Dinh Diem
American ally in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963; his
repressive regime caused the Communist Viet Cong to thrive in the South
and required increasing American military aid to stop a Communist
takeover. He was killed in a coup in 1963.
Missouri Compromise (1820)
settlement of a dispute over the spread of slavery that was authored by Henry Clay; the agreement had three parts: (1) Missouri became the twelfth slave state; (2) to maintain the balance between free states and slave states in Congress, Maine became the twelfth free state; (3) the Louisiana territory was divided at 36° 30', with the northern part closed to slavery and the southern area allowing slavery. This compromise resolved the first real debate over the future of slavery to arise since the Constitution was ratified.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
court case that established the principle of judicial review, which allowed the Supreme Court to determine if federal laws were constitutional. In this case, the Court struck down part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, which the justices believed gave the Court power that exceeded the Constitution's intent.
John Q. Adams
son of President John Adams and secretary of state who helped purchase Florida and formulate the Monroe Doctrine and president who supported an activist government and economic nationalism; after Jackson defeated his bid for a second term in 1828, he continued to serve America as a member of Congress.
Embargo Act (1807)
law passed by Congress stopping all U.S. exports until British and French interference with U.S. merchant ships stopped; the policy had little effect except to cause widespread economic hardship in America. It was repealed in 1809.
Federal Reserve Act (1913)
established a national banking system for the first time since the 1830s; designed to combat the "money trust," it created 12 regional banks that regulated interest rates, money supply, and provided an elastic credit system throughout the country.
Zachary Taylor
military hero of Mexican War and the last Whig elected president (1848); his sudden death in July 1850 allowed supporters of the Compromise of 1850 to get the measures through Congress.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
reaction against the Sedition Act; written by Madison for Virginia and Jefferson for Kentucky, they stated that when the national government exceeded its powers under the Constitution, the states had the right to nullify the law. Essentially, the resolutions held that the Constitution was a compact among the states and they were its final arbiter.
Treaty of Paris (1898)
ended the Spanish-American War; under its terms, Cuba gained independence from Spain, and the United States acquired Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The United States paid Spain twenty million dollars for the Philippines.
Declaration of Sentiments
series of resolutions issued at the end of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848; modeled after the Declaration of Independence, the list of grievances called for economic and social equality for women, along with a demand for the right to vote.
Roosevelt Corollary (1903)
addendum to the Monroe Doctrine issued after the Dominican Republic got into financial trouble with several European nations; the United States assumed the right to intervene in Latin American countries to promote "civilized" behavior and protect American interests.
Cult of domesticity
the belief that as the fairer sex, women occupied a unique and specific social position and that they were to provide religious and moral instruction in the home but avoid the rough world of politics and business in the larger sphere of society.
Brown vs. Board of Education (1954)
Supreme Court decision that
overturned the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision (1896); led by Chief Justice Earl
Warren, the Court ruled that "separate but equal" schools for blacks were
inherently unequal and thus unconstitutional. The decision energized the
Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s.
Alien and Sedition Acts
series of acts designed to suppress perceived French agents working against American neutrality; the acts gave the president power to deport "dangerous" aliens, lengthen the residency requirement for citizenship, and restrict freedoms of speech and press.
Hundred Days
term applied to the first weeks of the Roosevelt
Administration, during which Congress passed 13 emergency relief and
reform measures that were the backbone of the early New Deal; these
included the Civilian Conservation Corp, the Glass Stegal Act (FDIC),
Agricultural Adjustment Act, Federal Emergency Relief Act, and the
National Industrial Recovery Act.
John F. Kennedy (JFK)
president, 1961 1963, and the youngest president ever elected, as well as the first Catholic to serve; he had a moderately progressive
domestic agenda and a hard-line policy against the Soviets. His
administration ended when Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated him.
Battle of Yorktown
siege that ended in October 1781 when Washington trapped 8,000 British soldiers on a peninsula in Virginia after a British campaign in the southern colonies; this defeat caused the British to cease large-scale fighting in America and to start negotiations, which eventually led to the colonies' independence.
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
Quaker sisters from South Carolina who came north and became active in the abolitionist movement; Angelina married Theodore Weld, a leading abolitionist, and Sarah wrote and lectured on a variety of reforms including women's rights and abolition.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, a best selling novel about the cruelty of slavery; often called the greatest propaganda novel in United States history, the book increased tension between sections and helped bring on the Civil War.
Compromise of 1850
proposal by Henry Clay to settle the debate over slavery in territories gained from the Mexican War; it was shepherded though Congress by Stephen Douglas. Its elements included admitting California as a free state, ending the buying and selling of slaves in the District of Columbia (DC), a more stringent Fugitive Slave Law, postponed decisions about slavery in the New Mexico and Utah Territories, and settlement of the Texas-New Mexico boundary and debt issues.
Act of Toleration
an act passed in Maryland 1649 that granted freedom of worship to all Christians; although it was enacted to protect the Catholic minority in Maryland, it was a benchmark of religious freedom in all the colonies. It did not extend to non-Christians, however.
Society of Friends (Quakers)
church founded by George Fox which believed in "The Inner Light "-a direct, individualistic experience with God; the church was strongly opposed to the Anglican Church in England and the Congregationalist Church in America. In 1681, William Penn established Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers persecuted in England and in the colonies.
Industrial Workers of the World (Wobblies)
revolutionary industrial union founded in 1905 and led by "Big Bill" Haywood that worked to overthrow capitalism; during World War I, the government pressured the group, and by 1919, it was in serious decline.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration (1933)
New Deal program that paid farmers not to produce crops; it provided farmers with income while reducing crop surpluses and helped stabilize farm production. The Supreme Court declared major parts of this law unconstitutional in 1936, helping lead FDR to his court-packing plan.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
an engineer and his wife who were accused,
tried, and executed in the early 1950s for running an espionage ring in New
York City that gave atomic secrets to the Soviet Union; long considered
unjustly accused victims of the Red Scare, recent evidence suggests that
Julius was indeed a Soviet agent.
National Organization for Women (NOW)
founded by Betty Friedan
and others in 1966; it focused on women's rights in the workplace, fought
against legal and economic discrimination against women, and lobbied for
the Equal Rights Amendment.
Saturday Night Massacre (October 1973)
name given to an incident in
which Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire Archibald
Cox, the special prosecutor who was relentlessly investigating Watergate;
Richardson refused and resigned along with his deputy, who also refused to
carry out Nixon's order. A subordinate then fired Cox. The incident created
a firestorm of protest in the country.
Granger Movement (National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry) (1867)
a farmers' organization and movement that started as a social/educational association; the Grange later organized politically to pass a series of laws to regulate railroads in various states.
Board of Trade and Plantations
chief body in England for governing the colonies; the group gathered information, reviewed appointments in America, and advised the monarch on colonial policy.
Treaty of Ghent (1815)
agreement that ended the War of 1812 but was silent on the causes of the war; all captured territory was returned and unresolved issues such as ownership of the Great Lakes were left to future negotiation.
Battle of New Orleans
a major battle of the War of 1812 that actually took place after the war ended; American forces inflicted a massive defeat on the British, protected the city, and propelled Andrew Jackson to national prominence.
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