African American History Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Germantown, Pennsylvania
Josephine Baker
African-American actress, singer, opera performer, first black women to star in major motion picture; she moved to France
First recorded protest against slavery
The Universal Negro Improvement Association. A Black Nationalist movement with Marcua Garvey as the leader. It was a Sepratist movement. The group advocated Black Pride and Black Ancestry.
Northern group that supports the riders (Congress of Racial Equality)
People of African and European descent
Equiano's narrative is an important part of African American history because he describes the main differences between slavery in Africa and slavery in the colonies. He gives insight to the harsh treatment and the actual process of the slave trade, being traded several times in the colonies before buying his own freedom from his owner. He also worked towards the abolition of slavery in Britain.
living quarters for slaves and indentured servants
Louis Armstrong
Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.
George Wallace
governor of Alabama who believed strongly in segregation
Benjamin Singleton
Leader of African American pioneers know as exodusters, who moved to the Great Plains after the Civil War.
It ties two times of discrimination together. Tituba was tried and killed not only for the fact that she claimed to practice witchcraft, but also because she was black and female.
Fredrick Douglas
american abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became the leading african american spokesperson and writer
Immediate demands issued by the CCCO-SCLC?
1.) Realestators-support-Nondiscrimatory-listings
3.)Chicago Housing Authority-improve-suppy- low income housing.
- defy authority
- isnt necess. outright change
- understanding human behavior
W.E.B. Du Bois
fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP
John Louis
black freedom rider who became a member of Congress
Obaudah Equiano
captured and sold into slavery in 1756, from West Africa
slavery goes from being a necessary evil to a ______
positive good
Zora Hughes Hurston
-Contributor to art during Harlem Renaissance
-1937 wrote "Their Eyes Are Watching God"
-Bethune-Cookman College award for education and Human Relations award for her acheivements
Grandfather Clause
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867; this was a way to keep black people from voting
John Phillip-Why?
John Phillip is important because he testified against a white man, which was particularly hard to do as a black man. He was given the right to testify because he was baptized as a Christian. Most blacks were not converted out of fear, but Phillips had been baptized prior to his arrival in Virginia, and therefore was given some source of status.
1964 Civil Rights Act
created legal basis for nondiscrimination in housing, education, public accommodations, federally assisted programs, and employment; prohibits discrimination based on: race or color, sex or religion, national original
Atlantic slave trade
Slave trade between Europe, West Africa and the United States. Slaves were brought across the Atlantic, which took close to a year. Slaves were either captured or sold. Once in America, slaves were sold to individuals and brought to work on plantations. The Atlantic Slave Trade was a huge source of income for Americans and eventually led to the civil war and racial tension in the US.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Court case that involved Louisiana's segregated train cars. The U.S. Supreme Court decision supported the legality of Jim Crow laws that permitted "seperate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Court case which led to "segregated but equal" (1896)
Boll Weevil
grayish weevil that lays its eggs in cotton bolls destroying the cotton (push factor) for migration
Slave Codes- Who?
All slaves and all states and countries that had codes
Located in the south of Egypt in the upper Nile valley, the Nubia region was a cultural, military, and resource hub in ancient Egyptian culture. Nubians established an independent kingdom known as Kush, which became extremely wealthy and powerful, lasting for thousands of years. Today, the Nubia/Kush region is a part of modern Egypt and Sudan.
British Gain Control of Slave Centers
1640s-1700s- Slavery becomes institution
Brown v Board of Education
Court ruled that segregation was unconstitutional, overturned Plessey v Ferguson; lead to the desegration of schools in 1954
Edwin Mc Cabe
one of the first Black to hold political office Kansas State Auditor
Indentured Servants
Finite date for end of service was 4 to 7 years
Who was involved in continuing the march?
CORE's Director Floyd Mckissick

Miss."s NAACP President Charales Evers

NAACP National President Roy Wilkins

Urban LeaugeNational President Whitney Young

SNCC Chairperson Stokely Carmichael

SCLC's President M. L. King
Dred Scott Case
An 1858 Supreme Court case in which a slave sued for his freedom but the court ruled against Scott because he wasn't a U.S.citizen
what newspaper did douglass write and what did it promote?
the North Star promoted abolition
Describe the beginning of desegregation of the military.
The beginnning of the desegregation of the army started with military leaders being worried about Black participation in a potential war with the Soviet Union. Blacks were fed up of having to defend a country that had them under Jim Crow rule. So A. Philip Randolph formed the League for Non-Violent Civil Disobedience. This was so important because Blacks just came to the decision that no matter what even if they were impriosned that they would not serve in the Armed Forces. This united action tied the government's hands and then Order# 9981 desegregated the armed forces. Slow and persistent insistence and keeping the problems that faced blacks in the forefront, will begin to pay off. It didn't change everything; it didn't change anything immediately or radically, but it did begin change. As you go through all these examples during the 20th century, and especially from WWII to present day, look at these little steps as the foundation of bigger changes to come.
W. E. B. Du Bois
“I remember once offering to an editor an article which began with a reference to the experience of last century. ‘Oh,’ he said, ‘leave out the history and come to the present.’ I felt like going to him over a thousand miles and taking him by the lapels and saying, ‘Dear, dear jackass! Don’t you understand that the past is the present; that without what was, nothing is? That, of the infinite dead, the living are but unimportant bits?”
what is the freedmens bureau?
it was an organization ran by the government that found jobs and houses for newly freed slaves
What was the Chicago Renaissance?
Chicago was the center of the black culture in the 1930 and 1940's. In contrast to some of the artist of the Harlem Renaissance, the leading writers in Chicago harbored no illusions that art would solve the problems caused by white supremacy and black subordination. Chicago's industrial economy attracted working class black people, it also nurtured artists who drew inspiration from and reflected this stratum of moving and striving, strolling and styling black people who wanted to transgress class and geographical lines. During the 1920's African-Americans emerged in Chicago, fueled in part by new migrants. These men and women expanded the consumer base and gave rise to a cadre of education professionals and entrepreneurs who developed an appreciation for the arts. Chicago south-side became a black city with in a city and music was the primary inspiration for the creativity of black cultural movements in America.
four major forces that king felt that kept the ghetto in place?
1.)lack of economic power
2.) political disenfranchisement
3.) lack of knowledge and information 
lack of self respect and self dignity among people in the ghettos.
4.)lack of self respect and self dignity among people in the ghetto.
W.E.B. DuBois / Closing Ranks
A term DuBois used during WWI to encourage black soldiers to fight against the enemies of democracy, and democracy will be shared when they return home.
why was slavery bad in the deep south?
because the people used life-draining labor, the climate was very hot and the plantations were very scattered which caused lonliness
What was the situation in the 1968 election?
Robert Kennedy was assassinated in 1968. The most tumultuous political convention w/ Chi police gassing and beating antiwar protestors. George Wallace (apart of the American Independence Party) was apart of this election, Nixon won
what was the civil rights act of 1866?
a federal law that protected Africans from harrassment in the south (went unenforced)
Why was the dream of racial integration fading in the 60s
The was a lot of opposition to integration and banning discrimination. Change was very slow pace and Johnson's legislation to help blacks was failing.
LAW: A slave must be granted written permission to leave
LAW: Masters can disipline slaves by any means necessary
What was happening with Nixon and the Vietnam War? What was Nixon's downfall?
In 1969, Nixon began to reduce US involvement in the war; he told people that the Vietnamese in the South had gained the ability to fight for themselves. This was not the whole truth. Nixon did not share with the public that drug abuse was high among soldiers and some soldiers had killed their officers. However, Nixon's promise to minimize involvement in the war won him the election in 1972. Nixon escalated the war because of his refusal to lose. In 1973 the US and North Vietnam signed a peace agreement.The beginning of Nixon's downfall had to do with the legislation he pushed through Congress that gave local law enforcement the power to use wiretaps and enter onto premises without prior notification/warning. Watergate in 1972 resigned in 1974
1688- When?
Colonial Era
Rosa Parks
-1913 in Tuskegee Alabama
-seamstress, active in social issues in civil rights movement
-started nation change in treatment of blacks by refusing to give up her seat
-Montgomery Bus Boycott
North America and West Indies
Hank Aaron
United States professional baseball player who hit more home runs than Babe Ruth
Tuskegee Institute
equipped African Americans with teaching diplomas and useful skills in the trades and agriculture, started by Booker T. Washington
Miles Davis
1940s&50s; black jazz musician invented bebop, rejecting white expectations for black music; challenged traditions, spontaneous, FREE; inspired challenging of authority and encouraged people to stand up for civil rights
Joe Louis
1930s black heavyweight boxing champion; model to ghettos of how a poor man could rise to fame and fortune
Slavery becomes an economic social foundation
nonviolent protests in which a person sits and refuses to leave; it was a way to protest in a nonviolent way
found in 1732 as an philantropic colony for poor whites in England
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African. American better themselves individually to achieve equality.Help founded NAACP, thought African American should focus on economic change over political change, influential black leader; his "Atlanta Compromise" speech (1895) proposed blacks accept social and political segregation in return for economic opportunities in agriculture and vocational areas. He received money from whites and built Tuskegee Institute into a powerful education and political machine.
Freedom Rides
Freedom Riders rode in interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the ruling of unsegregated public places
The most important city of Mali's empire. It was a major hub for trade in gold, slaves, and salt. It became a center for Islamic learning and supported a cosmopolitan society. Today it is scarcely populated and weakly protected, but it has been named a world heritage site.
Branding Symbols
Coat of Arms- Showed ownership, "spoken for"
Jim Zwerg
white freedom rider who gets violently attacked and injured
White Patronage
White patrons and support was crucial to the movement. The money allowed many of the the talent of the era to be able to concentrate on their art. Also lent legitimacy to the movement...which now also raises the question of authenticity; that is how much intrusion or intervention was caused by the white patron. How much of a writer's work in her own?
color consciousness
describes the process of how whites, in response to guilt for their role in perpetuation racial discrimination for racial minorities focus predominantly on racial differences. Can be a from of unintentional racism.
The SPG in foreign parts proves the contradiction allowing blacks to take part in religion. It was often a debate as to whether or not to convert slaves out of the fear that it would give them the opportunity to congregate and lead to revolt. It also gave the opportunity to be educated, learn to read and write, etc. By being part of the SPG, it was somewhat like creating a religious affiliation for the "foreign parts"
Jesse Owens
This African American athlete, born on an Alabama sharecropping farm, won three individual and one team gold medal in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany. He became the first Olympian ever to win four gold medals. Adolf Hitler left the stadium to avoid congratulating him.
Give the details of Selma and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Middle Passage
Slave voyage from Africa to the Americas
Malcom X
gave fame to the Black Muslims; went to Mecca and had an epiphany, then changed his ideas and began preaching equality like MLK
what was the black panther party?
advocates for violent reforms
Poll tax
a tax required before a person can vote
To what religion or denomination did Malcolm Little convert while in prison?
Nation of Islam
How many African Americans have served in the United States Senate?
Six African Americans
Over time colonists depend on..
Production of crop (cash crop)

TABACCO, sugar, rice
The Great Migration
Primarily from 1910 - 1930 when an estimated 4 million black Americans fled the racism, oppression, and poverty of the South to move to Northern cities in search for opportunity. Many landed in Harlem NYC because housing became available after real estate developers had a surplus of housing in Harlem that were originally slated for the middle and upper class whites. Not being able to sell the properties, these developers sold the properties to black real estate agents who then sold them to blacks. Thus, Harlem came to have the largest concentration of black Americans than any other city.
Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC)
-created by Roosevelt to investigate complaints of discrimination
-no mention of military industry but in 1941, discrimination on race, color, gender was no longer allowed
How did Vietnam affect black participation in the armed forces?
Blacks served in increasing percentages, and were sent out for combat frequently.
Women and children kept separate in barracks
Separation allowed disorientation, suppression of fear
what was the name of the trip africans took when they fled the south and settled in the north?
the great migration
Civil Rights Act of 1964
-piece of legislature in U.S. that outlawed discrimination against blacks and women and racial segregation
-ended unequal practice of voter registrations, schools, workplaces and public facilities
What did Carmichael say Black Power meant?
Positive self-identity, racial pride, and independent economic and political power.
Marcus Garvey "Africa for Africans"
Purpose of the article is to respond to criticism of the UNIA from both blacks and whites.
Begins by discussing the objectives of the UNIA: the Negro peoples of the world should concentrate upon the object of building up for themselves a great nation in Africa.
Claims that there are Blacks interested in a program to build a racial empire of their own in Africa, the Motherland.
Colonizing Africa with the surplus Negroes of North America and the Caribbean.
Claims that this is a practical vision.
Garvey states that the colonization is not to oppress the natives but to establish brotherly coopeation with Native Africans.
-To have the common interest to develop African for the interest of the Black race.
American, West Indian, and Central American are sympathetic with the aspirations of the native African.
Is useless for these Western blacks to think that they will be privileged or have race superiority among the Native Africans.
Asks that all work to create and African Empire with its own aristocracy.
Calls for independent self-determination.
Explains that the UNIA is organized for the purpose of bettering their condition, industrially, commercially, socially, religiously and politically.
Organized not to hate others but to lift themselves up.
Why did Paul Robeson's successful career end?
He became a communist, and was targeted for his political beliefs after World War II
What are the controversies that emerged regarding the march?
1.) over the participation of the Louisiana-based Decons for Defense and justice.
1a.)King's silence during the dicussion helped Carmichael dissuade the NAACP and UL from taking
1b.) Carmichael insisted that his behavior was intentional to for king to make a stand on Black Power.
2.) While marching in Yazoo, Mississippi, the leaders of CORE and SNCC began to chant "Black Power"
2a.)Leaders of core asserted that that non-violence has outlived it's usefulness and that blacks should break the legs of the statue of liberty and"Throw her into the mississipi."
what was the brown VS. board of education trial about?
it ended school segregation and challenged the plessy VS. ferguson case
What was the "Moynihan Report" and FAP? What was going on with busing?
The Moynihan Report was a report written by Moynihan describing the problems with money, education, politics, etc. within the inner - city. Many prestigious black scholars and black women did not like the portrayal it had on black men and disagreed with the writer's viewpoints. FAP (Family Assistance Plan) was a program that Nixon wanted Moynihan to help him with. This program would offer annual assistance to poor families of four. This program could not get passed in government and ended up failing. Busing was done to help black and white schools integrate but many white people disagreed with this program and politicians felt that integration should not be forced. Violence struck out big in Boston and continued to do so for two years.
LAW: Punishment for petty crime was harshest for slaves
LAW: Marriages between slaves and free people against the law
What happens in the Clinton Admin?What happens with the economy in the Clinton Administration? What was the Welfare Reform Act and its results?
How did the Republicans challenge Clinton? What was the significance and outcome of the 2000 election?
The economy was on a rise, African Americans loved him. The Welfare Reform Act was a disappointment to blacks cuz the act supposedly discouraged poor ppl to work and the act denied benefits to legal immigrants, reduce food stamps, and limited families to five years of benefits.ill Clinton supported minority rights as well as women equal rights. He appointed many African Americans as well as whites and women in his office for various positions. His cabinet mirrored the diversity of the American population . Clinton became the first Democratic president to win a second termt. Clinton focused primarily on the economy- he wanted to make opportunities for African Americans and other excluded groups. He increased the tazes of higer income Americans, expanded of the earned income tax credit to help poor Americans, amd omcreased federal loan benefits for students. The economy boomed and poverty rate was very low
What was the reaction of many white Southerners to Truman's interest in African-American rights?
They left the Democratic Party to form the Dixiecrat Party, which favored white supremacy.
LAW: When a person is declared a slave their property is given to servants
[No regulation of white men sexuality. Laws do not limit their actions]
Madame C.J. Walker
wheat provoked the hamburg massacer
Harriet Jacobs
Ex-slave, popular for narrative
What did southerners mean when they
Larger and darker; non-threatening mom figure; love white family; more asexual
Southern Democrats that wanted the disfranchisement of African Americans. Worked to make tactics to intimidate African American voters or keep them from voting.
Freedmen's Bureau
Reconstruction agency established in 1865 to protect the legal rights of former slaves and to assist with their education, jobs, health care, and landowning; 1st welfare agency, attempted to secure equality in the courts.
Richard Wright
wrote famoust book "Uncle Tom's Children" "Black Boy", and "Native Son"
Duke Ellington
famous composer, performed over 20,000 shows
Freedman's Schools
Established by the Freedman's burearu during Radical Congressional Reconstruction. The schools were established in the south by free Black from the North and White missionaries. These schools allowed African Americans to exercise their rights as freed men and women, provided them with the basic education they would need to advance in society, and laid the foundation for HBCUs.
Black Ethnology
A way Africans resisted racial ideology. Africa went back to roots and said they were human
"Production & Reproduction"
Adolescence marks transition to womanhood
Motherhood= right of passage
Middle age= hard working
Elderly= lessened & sometimes freed
Radical Republicans
A group of republicans during reconstruction era that wanted extreme measures to ensure equality of African Americans; they were the abolitionists and were the minority to the moderat republicans.
Great Northern Drive
organized by Chicago defender to promote black migration
Harlem Renaissance
creative period of black art, music and literature centered in Harlem
The state of holding power or command control
D of I
More of an inspirational document; publicly announced the Revolution
Hypocritical document against enslaved Africans
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free if they did not comply to the union's wishes; led to the creation of the 13th amendment which was the abolition of slavery.; freed all except those who had been convicted of a crime and destroyed the racial hiearchy and society of the south.
Jim Crow
enacted by Democrats in the south after 1877. state and city laws that prohibited African Americans from interacting with whites. establishment of the color line
Fifteenth Amendment
Ratified in 1870 prohibits the federal or state government from denying persons the right to vote because of race or previous servitude. Made equality before the law and transformed the relationship between the federal and state governments .
Missouri Compromise
1820- Allowed Missouri to be a slave state and Maine to be a free state (part of Massachusetts). Banned slavery North of 36/30 latitude line.
Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896
Supreme court case that legalized segregation. It ruled that blacks and whites would be "separate but equal".
Fourteenth Amendment
Formerly the Civil Rights Act of 1866 which prohibited states from denying the rights and protections of U.S. citizens, made Black codes illigal, Gave the federal government the power to enforce this, but it did not give african americans the right to vote
what three states were still unredeemed in 1876?
florida, south carolina, and mississippi
personal liberty laws
laws which require a jury trail for alleged fugitive slaves in northern states
what was one change that mansa musa brought to the malian society
education and religion
"Ten-Percent Plan"
when 10 percent of the voters of a state took an oath of loyalty to the Union in 1860, the State could form a government and adopt a new constitution that banned slavery
who was the last black man from the south to serve in congress until andrew young in 1972
George H. White
Williams Joseph Simmons
leader of KKK tried to make the movie birth of a nation a documentary
waht was a belief of the populace party?
government ownership, the railroads, and communication system
who were the carpet baggers and scally wags?
carpet baggers were white republicans from the north, and scally wags were southerners who supported republicans, they wanted a modernized south/more diversified.
before jim crow laws came into affect acroos sthe south what had whites already began to do?
restrict balcks access to public places
how did location influence the development of ancient egypt
it was easy to grow food, improve their society and spend time on their pursuits
what former confederate states had the most blacks holding offices during reconstruction?
south carolina. there was 14 blacks in the house of representatives and the majority of the house of senate was controlled by blacks, the speaker was also black.
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