African American History I Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Colonial Era- 1741
Josephine Baker
African-American actress, singer, opera performer, first black women to star in major motion picture; she moved to France
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality
Joe Louis
1930s black heavyweight boxing champion; model to ghettos of how a poor man could rise to fame and fortune
Langston Hughes
-born in Missouri
-poet, novelist, playwright and columnist
-early innovators of literary art during Harlem Reniassance
Hank Aaron
United States professional baseball player who hit more home runs than Babe Ruth
Slavery Becomes an economic social foundation
Barack Obama
The first African American President of the United States
Denmark Vessy
leader of the first attempted rebellion in the South
American Negro Academy
-1897 Episcopal Preist, Alexander Crummel
-assemble to discuss and publish works in literature, science, religion and history
-allowed black intellectuals the opportunity to think about what it meant to be black in America and develop a racial consciousness
-matured during Harlem Renaissance and disabanded in 1928
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor
One of the first well-known figures from sub-Saharan Africa. Also known as Piye, he was the kushite king in Egypt. He began the conquest of Lower Egypt, which resulted in the establishment of the 25th dynasty of pharaohs.
Seasoning Process
forcing the enslaved Africans to accept their new lives as menial workers with no rights before the law.

a process of behavior modification
Emancipation Proclamation
issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free
Marcus Garvey
black man who preached about returning to Africa; believed in Black Nationalism
Characteristics of Realism
Portrayed the gritty realities of urban living for black Americans.
Tended to depict unrelieved despair.
New Negro
advancement of the perspective of the African American a term coined in 1925 by sociologist and critic Alain Locke., African Americans who challenged the caste system that confined dark-skinned Americans to the lowest level of society confronted whites who insisted that race relations would not change. Saw the rise of the NAACP, U.N.I.A. shipping company Black Star Line. There was an extraordinary mix of black artists, sculptors, novelists, musicians and poets in Harlem deliberately set out to create a distinctive African American culture that drew on their identities as Americans and Africans.
1964 Civil Rights Act
created legal basis for nondiscrimination in housing, education, public accommodations, federally assisted programs, and employment; prohibits discrimination based on: race or color, sex or religion, national original
Slave Codes-Why?
THe codes prove that the African Americans and black population as a whole was viewed as property. One of the most obvious examples of this is that when a black man raped a white woman he was sentenced to where as if he raped a black woman he was charged with trespassing, most commonly associated with property.
Rosa Parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement
Who is widely credited with assassinating King?
James Earl Ray
Examples of Resisting
- running away
- practicing own religion
- learning to read and write
- pretending
- speaking another language
Little Rock 9
9 black students who integrate Central High in Little Rock, AK
what did the 13th amendment in 1865 do?
abolished slavery
Duke Ellington
he was one of New York's most successful bandleaders, resident at Harlem's Cotton Club
What was the debate over old and new civil rights? Give the details of affirmative action? What was the backlash of affirmative action? Describe black political activism in the Age of Conservative Reaction
What happened in 1890-1908?
State legislatures pass voting laws requiring literacy tests and poll taxes to keep African Americans from voting.
Over time colonists depend on..
Production of crop (cash crop)

TABACCO, sugar, rice
what were the problems for abolitionists?
violent resistance (fear of competition), seen as agents of disunion and movement splinters among various factions
Herman Marion Sweatt
-1946 denied entry to UT Law School because of race
-filed suit with Judge recognizing lack of "sep but equal" clause and requested they adopt one
-seperate professional schools were not equal
-laid ground work for courts decision in Brown case in 1954
African Meeting House
The Meeting House was the host to giants in the Abolitionist Movement. It is also the oldest black church building still standing in the United States. Today, it is a part of the heritage trail and is a national historical landmark.
Commodities traded for slaves
Weapons introduced to W. Africa they inspire warfare and conflict
what is the American Anti-Slavery Society?
the first national organization for abolition
Message to the Grassroots
speech Malcolm X made in 1963 in MI
-described diff between "house negro" and "field negro" during slavery and the diff between "Negro Revolution" and "Black Revolution"
-Mention March on Washington
David Walker
David Walker's Appeal
David Walker a free man (his mother was free)
who was born in North Carolina and moved to Boston.  Went into business near the harbor.  He sold used clothes to sailors. He also became a featured speaker t anti-slavery rallies.
His pamphlet was the spark that set off the militant anti-slavery movement.  It was also distributed in the South by means of cthe clothes of the sailors.  Pamphlets were hidden inside of the clothes.
"The New Negro" by Alain Locke
This essay considered the text that defined the mood and psychology of the Harlem Renaissance.
Question: Who is Alain Locke's New Negro.
A new generation of black Americans who threw away the psychological depression of the previous era to thrust new spirit in the life of the black American of the day.
The New Negro is confident and vibrant, viewing the old as a myth and not really human: The myth focused on the Nation's moral debate and historical controversy over the plight of the Negro. I.E. What are we to do with them?
The New Negro embodies a renewed self-respect and self-dependence, shedding the Mammy and Uncle caricatures.
The migration caused the New Negro to transform because she has a new vision of opportunity, a vision of attaining a piece of the American Dream as it professes to be for everyone.
This new phase brought about by the New Negro calls for less charity and more justice and more understanding.
The New Negro is more independent than the old, seeking less help, wanting to stand on his own, setting his own objectives.
Resents being spoken of as a social problem and seeks to contribute to society.
The New Negro expects to share in the Democratic process.
How were Oscar Micheaux's films different from standard Hollywood fare?
He produced movies for and about blacks, and often focused on race within black culture.
[europeans set out to discover gold ivory and ultimately slaves. Slaves were not intentional no conscious effort]
[slave trade controlled by different europeans at different times]
what was the compromise of 1877?
when hayes and tilden ran against each other for president and they tied, they had to come up with a compromise
What was the situation with Amnesty International in the US?
Amnesty International is a group in which condemns the abuse of human rights in countries with oppressive governments. In October of 1998 Amnesty International reported brutality in the US. They reported violations of the UN Code of Conduct and UN Basic Principles. Amnesty also found that most of the victims in these cases were minority citizens. The issue with the violence that ensues on the streets is a very touchy topic. Police officers are under a lot of stress on a daily basis and constantly dealing with violence can alter their moral perspective and they may loose their judgment on when to use force.
As slaves live earlier and healthier...
Fertility goes up, and slaves are able to have more children, cause more dependence on slave law
Give the details of George W. Bush's black cabinet? Describe the background and outcomes of No Child Left Behind.40. What is the debate on reparations?
Bush made Colin Powell, a Jamaican immigrant, the secretary of state and Condoleeza Rice the first African American women to be the national security adviser. Rice and Powell were two important figures in Bush's cabinet during his presidency. No Child Left Behind was Bush's campaign to reform public education. The program was to give parents the option of where to send their children to school through the voucher program. This program backlashed when people started to see that the money was not given to proportionately to schools poorer than others. People also felt that the goal of testing and scores were unattainable.
What was the name of the movement that James Meridth began .
the 220 mile "Walk against fear"
Describe the situation that led to the sit-ins in the early 60s. What was the Student nonviolent coordinating committee? What were they aiming at doing?
SNC a group of college students tired of being denied to local arenas...nonviolent movement. The Sit-in at Greensboro started all of the sit in in the 60's
who was the KKK made up of and what was thir purpose?
made up of former confederate soldiers that wanted to keep blacks from voting
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