Supreme Court Cases APUSH 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Munn v. Illinois
Upheld state-passed Granger laws
Marbury v. Madison
Established judicial review; MC (1803)
Worcester v. Georgia
Established tribal autonomy within their boundaries, "distinct political communities, having territorial boundaries within which their authority is exclusive." Georgia cannot take Cherokee land. Andrew Jackson response "John Marshal has made his decision, not let him enforce it."
u.s. v. nixon 1974
court overrules executive privilege
Slaughter-House Cases
1873 Determines that the federal government is under no obligation to protect the "privileges and immunities" of citizens of a particular state against arbitrary actions by that state's government
Engel v. Vitale
The 1962 Supreme Court decision holding that state officials violated the First Amendment when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New York's schoolchildren.
Miranda v. Arizona
Required that those subjected to in-custody interrogation be advised of their constitutional right to an attorney and their right to remain silent; WC (1966)
Texas v. White
States cannot secede from the Union.
Korematsu v United States
japanese internment camps were constitutional
Gibbons vs. Ogden
Clarified the commerce clause and affirmed Congressional power over interstate commerce.
Mapp v. Ohio 1961
Est. Exclusionary rule; illegally obtained evidence that cannot be used in court- it is "excluded," Warren Court's judicial activism.
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
established the "Lemon test," guidelines that allow some government support to religious schools
Johnson v. McIntosh
1823, Marshall: only the federal government can take land from Native American tribes
Roe v. Wade
(1973). The court legalized abortion by ruling that state laws could not restrict it during the first three months of pregnancy. Based on 4th Amendment rights of a person to be secure in their persons.
In Re Debs
(1895): labor and injunctions. The Supreme Court denied a writ of habeas corpus to
Eugene Debs, president of the American Railroad Union, after he was cited for contempt for violating an injunction against the Pullman Strike. The court ruled that the strike interfered with the federal responsibility to transport the mails and its authority over interstate commerce
Muller v. Oregon
Brandeis Brief, recognized a 10 hour workday for female laundry workers on the grounds of health and community concerns.
Miranda v Arizona
1966, Police cannot use statements as evidence unless the speaker had been given his rights. Created a card for police officers
Muller vs. Oregon
First case to use the "Brandeis brief"; recongized a 10 hour work day for women laundry workers on the gorunds of health and community concerns
Cohens v. Virginia 1812
_____ illegally sells lottery tickets, Marshall sides with Virginia but est. right of Supreme Court to review decisions of State Supreme Courts.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
established the doctrine of "separate but equal" for a Louisiana railroad company
Wabash Case
1886 States have no power to regulate interstate commerce
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831, Marshall: established US as "guardian" of Native American tribes; gave a "trust" relationship between the US and Native Americans
Baker v. Carr
(1962). Declared that the principle of "one person, one vote" must prevail at both state and national levels. Decision required that districts be redrawn as that each representative represented the same number of people.
E.C Knight case
Due to a narrow interpretation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, the Court undermined the authority of the federal government to act against monopolies (1895)
Muller v. Oregon (1908)
Laws limiting the number of hours women can work are valid, as women require different considerations that men.
Civil Rights Cases of 1883
Legalized segregation with regards to personal property.
Commonwealth vs. Hunt (1842)
declared that labor unions were lawful organizations and a strike was a lawful weapon
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Separate but = OK. Segregation is not unfair discriminatn. Reversed by Brown Involved segregated rail cars.
Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia
The conditions of the Indians in relation to the United States is perhaps unlike that of anay two people in existence, Cheif Justice John Marshall wrote, "their relation to the United States resembles that of a ward to his guardian..(they were a) domestic dependent nation." Established a "trust relationship" with the tribes directly under federal authority.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831
Marshall Court determined that they did not have the authority to hear this case
Schenck v. United States (1919)
regarded WWI dissident and socialist leader Charles Schenck; established the idea that all speech was protected--"unless" that speech posed a "clear and present danger" to the US
Brown v. Board of Education
1954: declared "separate but equal" unconsitutional; desegregated public facilities, like schools
"Insular Cases"/Downes v. Bidwell
Confirmed the right of the federal gov't to place tariffs on goods entering the U. S. from its territories on the grounds that "the Constitution does not follow the flag."
US vs. Richard Nixon (1974)
rejected Richard Nixon's claim to an absolutely unqualified privilege against any judicial process
Dred Scott vs. Sanford
Former Slave not a citizen MO Comp unconstitutional. Property rights of slave owners protected.
muller v. oregon 1908
upheld law limiting women to 10 hour workdays, claiming that women's health & reproductive systems needed protection; this restricted them to menial jobs
Ex parte Endo (1944)
decided on the same day as Korematsu; determined that the government could not continue to detain a person who had already been deemed loyal to the US
Brown v. board of education of topeka
1954 supreme court ruling reversing the policy of segregation, declaring that seperate can never be equal and a year later ordered the integration of all public schools with all deliberate speed society became less racist
"Insular Cases"/ Downes vs. Bidwell (1901)
confirmed the right of the federal government to place tarrifs on goods entering the US from US territories on the grounds "the constitution does not follow the flag"
Scott v. Sanford 1865
a slave that sues for his freedom, due to his years in a free state. Taney Court determines slaves aren't citizens so they can't use the courts & the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was found unconstitutional.
Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois
Declared state-passed laws that regulated interstate commerce unconstitutional.
Pollock vs. The Farmers loan and trust Co.
Declared the income tax under Wilson-Gorman Tariff to be unconstitutional.
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer
Limited the power of the president to seize property without Congressional approval or as outlined in the Constitution. Truman tried to seize steel plants to prevent a strike during the Korean War.
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