Systems 8 Flashcards

OS
Terms Definitions
directory
A collection of files
Modern OS's are ________ driven?
interrupt
compaction
relocate programs to coalesce holes
802.11a
Wireless networking standard that operates in the 5GHz band w/a theoretical output of 54 Mbps
Review Swap on page 232.
Continue.
In the enhanced second chance algorithm, which of the following oredered pairs represents a page that would be the best choice for replacement?
(0,0)
interactive systems
provides direct communication between the user and the system, using an input device. Type of on-line operation.
True or false: Deadlock detection allows the system to enter an deadlocked state and uses a detection algorithm to detect the deadlock. It then uses a recovery scheme.
True
access control
Security concept using physical security, users and groups,authentication and security policies
Vmware esx
A hypervisor patricianing physical servers in multiple virtual machines.
Should an instruction to modify entries in a device status table be privileged?
Yes.
Operating System
Provides a consistent environment for other software to execute commands
The Linux operating system does not rely on segmentation and uses it mininmally. (T/F)
True
CPU I/O overlap
disks/drums in spooling systems allowed for I/O and computation to be done on the same machine.
interrupt
hardware mechanism that causes the CPU to stop the current process in CPU and run another.
RAID-3
has a parity disk. Uses block interleaved parity striping. Allows one to recover from the crash of any one disk
True or False: The directory structure is used to organize files.
True
True or False: The LRU algorithm replaces the page that has not been used for the longest period of time.
True
True or false: the physical address can be found by adding the logical address to the base.
True.
DIR command
command used in the command-line interface to display the entire contents of the current working directory
Resource Management
Helps us maximize performance (ex: harddrives)
Review Peterson's solution on page 230 of the textbook.
Continue.
Should an instruction to turn off interrupts be privileged?
Yes.
Virtual Memory
The method by which the Operating system uses space on a hard drive to supplement the RAM in the Machine
a)Disk Defragmenter
Which of the following utilities will rearrange the files on your hard drive to occupy contiguous chunks of space?a)Disk Defragmenterb)Windows Explorerc)Scandiskd)Windows Backup
PAGEFILE.SYS
Located in the root directory of the drive which has the OS Files there is a file that is referred to as a swap file .. What is the name of the file and its extension?
A(n) ____ page table has one page entry for each real page (or frame) of memory.
Inverted
client
a process that can invoke a service using a set of operations
ready queue
list which contains the processes that are residing in main memory and are ready and waiting to execute.
real-time systems
used when rigid time requirements have been placed on the operation of a processor or the flow of data. Can be rate-monotonic (priority=1/rate) or deadline (priority= release time+period).
free list
records all the free, usable disk blocks.
multiprogramming level
number of processes in the ready queue
best-fit
program is placed in the hole closest in size to the program
global replacement
possibly replace the page of another process
True or false: The VFS, or virtual file system, provides an OOP way of implementing file systems.
True
active partition
On a hard drive, primary partition that contains an operating system
cold boot
Boot done when the computer is physically switched on
CPU(central processing unit)
"brain" of the computer. microprocessor that handles primary calculation for the computer. CPUs are known by names such as Core i5 and Phenom
Bare metal hypervisor
One of many virtualization techniques which allow multiple operating systems, termed guests, to run concurrently on a host computer, a feature called hardware virtualization. Bare metal hypervisors run directly on the host's hardware to control the hardware and to manage guest operating systems.
What command will create an emergency repair disk for Windows NT 4?A RDISK.EXEB ERD.EXEC EMERGENCY.COMD FORMAT /ERD A:
A RDISK.EXE
kernel
core of the OS consisting of basic minimal functionalities
Should a function to clear memory be privileged?
Yes.
List five scheduling criteria.
1) CPU Utilization 2)Throughput 3)Turnaround time 4) Waiting time 5) Response time
Display Properties
The Screensaver can be changed in the ______ _______dialog box.
NTLDR
This file starts the loading of an OS on the computer.
Given the reference string of page accesses: 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 1 2 1 1 and a system with three page frames, what is the final configuration of the three frames after the true LRU algorithm is applied?
4 1 2
balanced system
a system in which each process gets enough CPU time to avoid the convoy effect
waiting time
the sum of the periods spent waiting in the ready queue
I/O bound
a process which spends more of its time doing I/O than it spends doing computations
rotational latency
wait for the sector to appear under the head
window size
the number of references that can be made before a certain page is replaces if not referenced.
page frame
physical memory is split up to equal sections, each section is called a page frame
True or false: First fit and best fit are better than worse fit in terms of speed and storage utilization
True.
cluster
basic unit of storage on a floppy or hard disk. multiple sectors are contained ina cluster
compatibility modes
feature of Windows 2000 and beyond to allow software written for previous versions of Windows to operate in newer OSs
In Windows 9x, the System Configuration Editor is used to view and edit which of the following three files? (choose 3)A WIN.INIB BOOT.INIC SYSTEM.INID MSDOS.SYSE CONFIG.SYS
A WIN.INIC SYSTEM.INIE CONFIG.SYS
What is deferred cancellation?
The target thread periodically checks whether it should terminate, allowing it an opportunity to terminate itself in an orderly fashion.
Should a function to read the clock be privileged?
No.
b)Copy and move filesc)Change file attributes
Multiple Choice:The Windows Explorer program can be used to do which of the following? (Choose all that apply)a)Browse the Internetb)Copy and move filesc)Change file attributesd)Create backup jobs
MMC Microsoft Management Console
a front-end that you can run administrative tools in.
From the user's point of view, which of the following is the OS mostly designed?
Ease of use
What does the "NT" In Windows NT stand for?
("New Technology")
mutual exclusion
at least one resource must be held in a non sharable mode; that is, only one process at a time can use the resource. if another process requests that resource, the requesting process must be delayed until the resource has been released.
What is the purpose of the Directory Structure?
To organize files.
What happens when a parent dies?
Children can die (cascading termination) or children can remain executing
digital certificate
form in which a public key is sent from a Web server to a Web browser so that the browser can decrypt the data sent by the server
In Windows, which of the following two network components must be present to make a dial up connection to the internet?A TCP/IPB DHCPC Client for Microsoft NetworksD Dialup AdapterE NetBEUI
A TCP/IPD Dialup Adapter
What is thread cancellation?
Thread cancellation is the task of terminating a thread before it has completed. Eg, if multiple threads are concurrently searching through a database and one thread returns the result, the rest can be canceled.
What is RPC?
Remote procedure calls. This is one of the most common forms of remote service. The messages exchanged in RPC communication are well structured, not just packets of data. They are each addressed to an RPC daemon listening to a port on the remote system. Each contains an identifier of the function to execute and the parameters to pass to that function. The function is then executed as requested and any output goes back to the requester in a separate message.
What is a thread library?
A thread library provides the programmer with an API for creating and managing threads. You can provide a thread library entirely in user space with no kernel support, which means invoking a function in the library requires no system calls. Alternately, you can implement a kernel level library supported directly by the OS. In that case, invoking a function results in a system call.
How do we keep race conditions from happening?
With process synchronization.
Which of these is one of the major categories of system calls?
Process Control
File Manipulation
Device Manipulation
Information Maintenance
Communications
Protection
seek time
the time it takes for the heads to be moved to the appropriate track
What is contiguous memory allocation?
Main memory is split into two partitions, one for the OS and the other for user processes. Continuous means that each process is contained in a single contiguous section of memory.
Advanced Startup Options menu
Menu that can be reached during the boot process that offers advanced OS startup options, such as boot in Safe Mode or boot into Last Know Good Configuration
What is a race condition?
A situation where more than one process is touching the same data and the outcome depends on the order in which the access takes place.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of automatic buffering?
Automatic buffering means that the programmer doesn't have to worry about how many messages can be stored. The down side is that an arbitrarily large pile of messages may gather, eating memory.
What are the two flavors of threads?
User threads and kernel threads.
What's a thread pool?
You create a number of threads at startup and put them in the 'thread pool' where they sit and wait for work. When a server receives a request, it awakens a thread from this pool if one is available and passes it the request for service. When it's done, it goes back to the pool.
Which of the following is a benefit of allowing a program that is only partially in memory to execute?
All of the above
Describe a hold and wait.
this happens when a process holding at least one resource is waiting to acquire resources held by other processes.
What are the different threading models?
- Many-to-one (Many user threads to one kernel thread)- One-to-one (One user thread per kernel thread)- Many-to-many (Many user threads to many kernel threads)
You have multiple folders shared successfully. You create a new shared folder, but it is not displayed as a shared folder. What is causing the problem?A Disk quotas.B Insufficient hard drive space.C Insufficient RAM.D More t
D More than 300 shared folders already exist.
What are the differences between a trap and an interrupt?
A trap is a software-generated interrupt. It's the kind of thing you do on purpose.
When is a cache useful?
Caches are useful when two or more components need to exchange data, and the components perform transfers at differing speeds.
How does the distinction between kernel and user mode function as rudimentary security?
In user mode, some hardware, CPU calls, timer data, and interrupt controls are not available, limiting how much the user should be able to break the system.
Plug N Play aka "PnP"
The Standard in which allowed a technician to install a device or card into a machine and the OS would automatically recognize and configure itself to run the device.
What does the extension .png stand for?
it is a graphic image file format
Explain the first first storage allocation solution.
Allocate the first hole that is large enough.
Which scheduling algorithms can be preemptive?
Round robin, shortest job first can be either and priority can be either
How is the disk defragmenter utility started in Windows 9x? (choose two)A Start, Programs, Defragmenter.B Right click on drive, click Disk Defragmenter.C Right click on drive, Properties, Tools, and Disk Defragmenter.D Start, Prog
C Right click on drive, Properties, Tools, and Disk Defragmenter.D Start, Programs, Accessories, System Tools, Disk Defragmenter.
What are the benefits and disadvantages of asynchronous (nonblocking) communication?
The benefit is that a process doesn't have to wait for a message to do its business. The disadvantage is that it may get its information at a time when it's just not relevant anymore.
Why do some systems store the operating system in firmware while others store it on disk?
Some small devices like video game systems and cell phones just have rom or some relative of rom and they have their OS on board because there's nowhere else to put it.
What are the five services provided by an OS?
Program execution (good because you don't want user programs doing this), IO operations (manage usage), file system manipulation (don't want user programs doing this), communications (message passing and packet ordering and other complicated things requiring coordination are involved), error detection (for data security, os should do this, also because something centralized should handle errors)
d) Select start, Shutdown, choose shut down and turn off computer
To turn off a Windows 2000 machine, you should ________.a) run the shut down (turn off) command at a command promptb)Turn off the switch and unplug the machinec)Press CTRL+ALT+DELd) Select start, Shutdown, choose shut down and turn off computer
What does the My Documents folder consist of?
The My Documents folder consists of a collection of user-specific settings and folders known as the User Profile.
What are the different types of ready queues and describe them?
- Local: dispatch to a specific processor- Global: dispatch to any processor ("load sharing")
What is the short term scheduler for?
It chooses processes to run from the ready queue.
How do average turnaround time and max waiting time conflict?
Things that give us very short turnaround time, like shortest job first scheduling, can leave jobs to wait a long time or potentially never even get done. If short jobs are preferred, some system has to be in place to make sure nothing is starved.
Which of the following is true of compaction?
It is possible only if relocation is dynamic and done at execution
What needs to happen in order for a context switch to occur?
Save context of current process, load the context of the next process
When is it okay to waste computing resources and why is such a system not really wasteful?
Single user systems are all about the user. A gui might be wasteful for resource, but it's nice for the end user.
Why does the OS need to enforce "exactly once" rules on an RPC?
Common network errors can cause an RPC to be received more than once, and thus executed more than once. The OS needs to make sure that incoming requests that already have a timestamp in the history should be ignored. We also have to remove the risk that the server will never get the RPC. So client should keep sending until it gets confirmation (an ACK message) from the server that it got and did the RPC.
Why would you intentionally set a trap?
An interrupt can be used to signal the completion of an I/O to obviate the need for device polling. A trap can be used to call operating system routines or to catch arithmetic errors (like division by zero). Alternately, to catch a wabbit.
How can you pass data from a parent thread to a child thread?
pass an object instance to the child thread constructor, and retain that object instance in a data member.
A guy walks into a bar and the specials sign reads 1) Domestic draft 3.00 2) Hamburgers 4.00 3) Hand jobs 10.00.
He stops and asks a pretty little waitress, "Are you the one doing the handjobs?" She says, "Why, yes." He replies, "Well, wash your hands damn good, I want a hamburger."
In figure 1.6, there are three CPUs, each with their own registers and cache and the system memory talks to all three. How can data living in memory differ from the local caches?
Processor 1 reads a piece of data from memory into its cache, its value is 10. Processor 2 reads the same data from memory and puts it into its own cache. Processor 1 does something that updates that piece of data to 11. Now cache 2 has A=10, but cache 1 has A=11.
Compare fixed size and variable sized messages.
If you have a fixed size, you can have an explicit buffer because you know how much you will need to hold. Variable size messages preclude explicit buffering because you don't know how much space you'll need.
Moving the mouse pointer to the top of the taskbar, pausing until the pointer turns into a double-headed arrow, and then clicking and then dragging
How can you increase the size of the Taskbar?
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