Test 16 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Megaron. Mycenaean.
Altes Museum
Apartment Blocks. Rome
St. Paul's Cathedral
Ziggurat, Ur
2100 BC
Theater at Epidauros. Greek.
Felix Candela
Thin Shell Concrete.
moment of greatest intensity
Wright; Modern; 20th century
Persian Empire, 400bce, Darius, machtkunst, palace, city, tomb
White Temple
Uruk, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)
ca. 3500-3000 BCE
-Stands atop ziggurat
-represents communal effort
-humans were servants of the gods, who offered protection
MATERIALS: sun-dried mudbrick, timber, covered with white plaster
-stands atop ziggurat
-design reflects religious rituals, orientation to points of compass
-dedicated to the god Anu
Adler and Sullivan, Auditorium Building, Chicago (1890)
Sound speed
24 frames per second
The Capitol in Rome, Rome
an upright pillar, typically cylindrical and made of stone or concrete, supporting an entablature, arch, or other structure or standing alone as a monument.
In Christian Romaneque churches, an open court, usually colonnaded, in front of the main doors of the structure.
engaged column
semi-detached column exactly or slightly more than semicircular in plan
The Greeks considered the Egyptian Civilization to be
Responsible Design.
Socially responsible. Useful, usable, ethics important. often has connection to market, but not primary. To serve the under served.
what is frederick law olmstead associated with?
Scott, St. Pancras Station, London (1870)
direct address
character acknowleges audience and speaks to camera
Grand tour
Traditional travel of upper-class European young men, seen as an educational right of passage.
Catal Huyuk
Turkey, pottery and obsidian mirrors
La Tourette
Le Corbusier
France, for Dominican order of catholic church. Experience being apart from world, cloister. Hovers above ground,detached from world. Made of concrete, skews physical comfort, not friendly. Linoleum padded floor so can't hear footsteps
Sagrada Familia
Barcelona 1883
Church of the Holy Family
Neo-Gothic and Art Noveau design
Project abandoned for about 100 years
Laon Cathedral
Early Gothic, France, 1190ce, gallery and triforium
Fallingwater, Frank Lloyd Wright
Bear Run, Pennsylvania, 1935
Techniques used by designers
Transference, rescaling, inversion, reassembly
Coastal plain
what physiographic province is Cape Hattaras located in?
Villa Savoye
Le Corbusier
Poissy, France - 20th century
The crossing arms projecting from the central axis of a cruciform church
order that is associated with asia minor
Experiencing the design as a whole rather than collection
Baker House
Alvar Aalto
MIT, Cambridge, MA
Try to make a community of people. Interested in sun, view, and privacy. 12 designs, 16 dif types of rooms. Stairwell is social point, living and dining room is major social area. Fr/So grouped and Jr/Sr grouped in same hall
Belt course
a molding or projecting course running horizontally along the face of a building
Forum Of Trajan
High Empire Rome, Rome, 112ce, conquest of Dacia, arch of trajan, column of trajan, basilica upila
San Francisco Plan, Daniel Burnham
SF/City Beautiful movement, 1905
TWA Terminal at JFK Airport (New York City)
Grand Canyon
Major John Wesley Powell is associated with what nat. park?
Guggenheim Museum
Frank Lloyd Wright
New York - 20th century
landscape architect
the designer of outdoor and public spaces to achieve environmental, socio-behavioral, and/or aesthetic outcomes
column order that was used at the temple of zeus
A supporting wood or stone beam across the top of an opening, such as that of a window or door or fireplace
a roof used over an entryway or a complete structure in the form of a hemisphere
Height of bozar architecture
Academie nationale de musique, opera. Neuvo-riche obnoxious every surface has an ornament.
George Grey Barnard
built Abe Lincoln statue, took 5 years
means All God. "Dome on a Drum" 80 AD
Sir Arthur Evans
Who was the "archeologist" who did inaccurate restoration at the Minoan city of Knossos?
a tablet in a Doric frieze with three vertical grooves; alternate with metopes.
Range of motion
things that may be missing from a program can really be imperative and important
big speech of the drama. act as if one is speaking alone. most famous is to be or not to be by shakespeare in hamlet
The 10 Books of Architecture
25 BC
By Marcus Vitruvius - Roman Architect
characteristics of utah rural town
settled by groups of people instead of frontiersmen. Because of this towns where established near the bottoms of the mountains. This expressed religious ideas of teamwork.
Rod-shaped bacterium
cellular adhesion molecules
little organic matter
Middle (mesomorph, mesoamerica, mesosphere)
the study of x-rays
endosymbionts; contain DNA (bacteria-like), robosomes, liberate energy stored in glucose (ATP, eorobic respiration); had 2 membranes
life cycle
The generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism, from conception to production of its own offspring
functional unit of the kidney
Embedded in the protein
Intrasulfide bridge
A single cotlyledon is called
structures in flowers bearing microsporangia. consist of filament and anther
Bottom-up model
nutrients -> plants -> consumers
Dense fibrous tissue forming the pericardial sac surrounding heart
came before phylogenetics based upon characteristic similarities
hollow rods made of polymerized tubulin proteinradiate through cell to give it supportframework for organelle movementmake up centrioles
systemic circuit
-_____ to rest of body
-drop of _____
-type of cell division-reduces number of chromsomes in half
Expand the abbreviation MVP
mitral valve prolapse
native to Florida; small, grape-like berries, big textured leaves
RNA is used to make protein
Without contamination. The lack of contamination by foreign, unwanted organisms
adenosine triphosphate: an ester of adenosine and triphosphoric acid, C10H12N5O4H4P3O9, formed esp. aerobically by the reaction of ADP and an orthophosphate during oxidation, or by the interaction of ADP and phosphocreatine or certain other substrates, an
Alcohol with three coarbons, each has a hydroxyl group
DNA Replication
during DNA replication, the parental DNA molecule unwinds and unzips. THen each old strand serves as a template. 230
Somatic Cells
Genetic information cannot be passed on, non reproductive cells
What is mitosis
Cell reproduction or cell division
hyphae of parasitic fungi modified to penetrate and absorb nutrients from host tissue (ex. namatode)
lag phase
cells adusting to new environment (instead of reproducing, they are synthesizing enzymes to utilize the nutrients that are in the medium)
Red algae
Marine systems/ warm deep clear waterSoft bodyMulticellularEx- nori (sushi), carrageenan (diary thickener) and agar (polysaccharide used to growbacteria)
One of several bodies with a specialized function that is suspended in the cytosol of the cell
Part of the Eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
The default state of most eukaryotic cell genes is
True or False:During a heartbeat the semilunar valves open at the same time
Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
Facilitated Diffusion
Several different snRNPs join with a variety of proteins to form a larger assembly
interacts with certain sites along an intron, releasing the introns and joining together the two exons that flanked the introns
a form resulting from any such change.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Sex-linked disorder that results in the progressive weakening of and loss of skeletal muscle
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
Acquired characteristics
are traits gained during an organism's life and not determined genetically.
a molecular complex of DA and its associated proteins that makes up CHROMOSOMES
Active Transport
The process by which cells move substances against a concentration gradient
A tough, outer covering over the body of ascidians
a signal in a nucleotide sequence that tells them to starts transcribing. it is located in the DNA next to the beginning of the gene. it is also the specific binding place of RNA polymerase
monohybrid cross
crosses of f1 offspring (offspring of true-breeders from 2 different types)
The concept of ___________ states that living things could arise from nonliving things.
Spontaneous Generation
Hunter-gatherer lifestyle
The lifestyle of looking for food instead of growing it.
CO2 + H2O + light energy = carbohydrate(food) + Oxygen
One of two identical "sister" parts of duplicated chromosome
an ultramicroscopic (20 to 300 nm in diameter), metabolically inert, infectious agent that replicates only within the cells of living hosts, mainly bacteria, plants, and animals: composed of an RNA or DNA core, a protein coat, and, in more complex types,
either of a pair of bean-shaped organs in the back part of the abdominal cavity that form and excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and act as endocrine glands.
Angiosperm (flowering plants)
-Largest of the major land plant clades.
-Date to about 135 million years.
Light Microscope
bends light to show the image. 2D, shows parts of a cell. EX: chloroplast
When a sperm fertilizes an egg it creates a one celled structure with what number of chromosomes?
Zygote: Diploid
3 domains used in current taxonimic classification system
bacteria, Eukarya, Archae
Compound Light Microscope
Microscope that allows light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image
In the United States, acid rain is most prevalent in:
the Northeast.
Low power objective
used to focus broadly on an object
Point Mutation
A mutation that results from a small, localized alteration in the chemical structure of a gene; can revert to wild type.
Elongation (RNA synthesis)
In RNA synthesis, the process where the polymerase moves downstream, unwinding the DNA and elongating the RNA transcript 5' to 3' in the wake of transcription, the DNA strands re-form a double helix.
C 12
makes up 99% of all carbon on earth and is a stable element
Give me two examples of cells that can do both aerobic and anaerobic reactions
E. coli
T or F Dna serves as a template for synthesis of DNA
How could water be boiled at room tempature?
Lower the pressure
1.      Most of the changes associated with LTP take place in the postsynaptic neuron. Does that mean that there are no changes at the presynaptic level? (hint: what is a retrograde transmitter?)
stimulation of the postsynaptic cell releases a retrograde transmitter that feeds back to presynaptic cell increases presynaptic release of neurotransmitter and production of GAP-43, facilitating growth of axons
The proteins may be separated in their ________ ________ or in a ________ ________. If the separation will occur with the proteins are in their _______ _______, the solution of proteins is carefully placed onto the PAGE, a current is applied to the gel th
Native state, denatured state
Which of the following is a common gardening practice?
using genetically-identical clones produced by a plant through asexual reproduction
Dosage compensation and Lyon hypothesis
Humans regulate the effects of the X chromosome (since males have 1 copy and females have 2) by inactivating one x chromosome in females. This process, called lyonization, produces an inactive x chromosome called a barr body. Which is is inactivated is randomly decided in every cell
The xylem in a flowering plant is made up of two kinds of cells, which are called:
vessel elements and tracheids
What does a habitat typically consist of in terms of a plant?
sunlight, space, water and mineral nutrients
a process that occurs as a result of differences in fitness.
Evolution by natural selection is
A mutant plant cell with no chloroplasts would: 
still be able to use carbohydrates as an energy source
Why is gas exchange more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs?a) Water is denser than airb) Water contains much less O2 than air per unit volumec) Gills are difficult to keep wetd) A and Be) A, B and C
d) A and B
a) Water is denser than air b) Water contains much less O2 than air per unit volume
implicit memory
emotion, behavior regulation
What is Perception?
Jean Piaget
Cognitive Development 0-12
Definition of Neurotransmitters
Chemical Messengers
left brain
landuage and logic
Protecting one's self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure.
regulate motivation behaviors: eat, drink, sex/ emotional behaviors/ secretion hormones
Defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.
Regulates movement, balance and coordination
Primary inhibitory NT in brain.
Qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development.
the phsycological expression of internal needs or valued goals, for example hunger, thirst, or a drive for success
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)
systematic error
reflects influences from other constructs besides the desired one
Roger's theory of personalityUnconditional Positive Regaurd
Unqualified caring non-judgmental acceptance of another.Thought pyschiatrists should give this to the client so they bring the person back to tune with themselves.
neurotic dimension
encompasses emotional stability. ex: anxious, depressed, guilt feeling, low self-esteem, tense
Psychological treatment
Uncovering, recalling and processing these unresolved conflicts
sympathetic branch
Increases the physiological responses such as heart rate and respiration. Responses are not under voluntary control
positions regulated by nrmals: gender rolls, occupational rolls, family rolls
Random Assignment
Assigning participants to conditions in such a way that every participant has an equal probability of being placed in any condition
Alfred Adler
individual psychology, motivated by purpose and goals, strive for superiority, as kids we feel inferior to adults
sleep cycle stages
4 stages & REM
Illusionary correlation
A perceived, but non-exsisten correlation
social influences
informational influence, and normative influence
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection - procedural memory.
Middle Ear
What is the Auditory Nerve?
Effective Ways to Deal with Stress
the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities
one whose personality type is intermediate between extrovert and introvert.
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
independent variable
experimental factor that is being manipulated
The average babies length
is 20 inches long.
This person attempted to organize the list of human urges or, as he called them, needs.
conditional stimulus (CS)
classical conditionining, stimuls that elicits a behavior that is dependent on the way it is pared with the unconditional stimulus (UCS)
A schema that guides behavior in social situations
Reward Ommison
removing the posotive stimuli (time out)
ex--no desert taking car keys 
behavior sampling
observing subsets of a participants behavior by observing behavior at different times and/or in different situations
Score highest on measures of anxiety; show the highest levels of conflict over issues of authority and are the least rigid and least authoritarian
conditioned response
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
Flashbulb memory
vivid memories of emotionally charged events
Stimulus Discrimination
When the organism discriminates a stimulus so it doesn't apply to other similar stimuli
Autonomic Nervous System
Nervous system that controls involuntary body functions, includes sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
You think something someone does or says, or something that happens, is some kind of personalized reaction to you, when really it may not be (or is not). EX: “I didn’t get that job because God is punishing me”, or “No one is calling me because I am such a drag to be with”.
Drug that relieves pain and induces sleep
Dissociative Disorder
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Extraversion (OCEAN)
desire to engage in social interaction
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
the capacity to engage in a supportive, affectionate relationship without losing one's own sense of self
What % of people become addicted within 10 yrs of first using?
Emotion-focused coping
Managing one's emotional reactions to a stressful situation.
a visual image or other sense impression that persists after the stimulus that caused it is no longer operative
the state of being concerned primarily with one's own thoughts and feelings rather than with the external environment
Confirmation bias
the tendency to attend to evidence that complements and confirms air beliefs or expectations, while ignoring evidence that does not
giving priority to the goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly
social categorization
the tendency to sort people into groups according to characteristics that appear to be common to their members
there is increased activity in the limbic system and decreased activity in the cortex when we...
experience emotions
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display
pituitary gland
the controller of other glands and hormones, as well as the producer of its own hormone that regulates growth
Episodic memory
Memory of an evcent that happened while one was present
daily hassels
daily irritations and hassles, such as getting stuck in traffic.
Erickson's Identity Statuses
The normative crisis characteristic of the fifth stage of psychosocial development, predominant during adolescence
Sharon wants to study student perceptions of the residence halls at her university. She contacts every 20th name on an alphabetized list from the registrar's office. In this situation, the students contacted by Sharon represent:A) a random sample. C) th
a random sample.
behavior therapies
learning -direct efforts to alter problematic responses and habits
The idea that interactions designed to help a client develop self-knowledge and thus progress to healthy changes in personality and behavior is the basis for
Insight Therapy
observer effect
subjects modify behavior bc aware of being observed; jane goodall incorporated into chimp society
extrinsic motivation
performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment
Perceptual sensitivity
An organism's ability to detect a signal
Positive Reinforcement(p 249)
A reinforcement procedure inwhich a response is followed by the presentation of, or increase in intensity of, a reinforcing stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur.
he idea that the mind operate by combining subjective emotions and objective sensations
temporal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear.
medical model
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, an in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
life expectancy
the average number of years of life
proximity rule
A perceptual rule stating that, in organizing stimuli, objects that are physically close to one another will be grouped together.
dependent variable
a variable in a functional relation whose value is determined by the values assumed by other variables in the relation, as y in the relation y = 3x2.
Rorschach test
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual, using a series of inkblot designs which the subject describes in his own words
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
Margaret Floy Washburn
1st woman to recieve PHD in psychology
2nd to lead APA
3rd performed early research in crossspecies psychology (The Animal Mind 1908)
somatic nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system carrying messages from the CNS through the body to control movement
The Amino Acids
Along with serotonin, the most widely used and important transmitters are the amino acid neurotransmitters.
Is contiguity necessary for learning?
NOPE.... Pre-1960s many people would've said that it was.
Structured (Language)
rules for how we can combine words into phrases and setences. IE- the swimmer jumped into the pool VS the pool into jumped swimmer the
conditions or worth
the behaviors and attitudes for which other people, starting with our parents, will give us positive regard
Computerized Axial Tomography
a procedure used to locate brain abnormalities that involves rotating an X-ray scanner around the skull to produce an accurate image of a living brain.
The belief that one is the center of the world is called, by Piaget:
Population generalization
do the findings apply to people other than the ones we tested?
learning and effectiveness perspective
makes them effecient and thus profitable
visual imagery encoding
process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures.ex. parked car might make you think of your first kiss
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family
a person who draws a source of control from the external world, depending on others as a source of values, ideas, and security
Empathy/Altruism Hypothesis
The idea that when we feel empathy for a person we will attempt to help that person purely fopr altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain.
Negative symptoms in schizophrenia include:
1. Behavioral deficits such as flattened emotion, apathy and poverty of speech.
blocking from conciousess of anxiety loaded material during therapy
according to psycho-analys resistance refers to the __________.
sensorimotor stage (one to four months),
Primary circular reactions  occur early in the ...when a child’s own action stimulates the child to perform that action more.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
cluster of defects occuring in infants born to mothers that drink heavily during pregnancy....leading cause of mental retardation..CAN BE PREVENTED
scientific method -what is it
test out predictions derived from theory, observation, experience, or commonly held beliefs. It is a method of inquiry involving careful observation and use of experimental methods
What are the different types of insight therapy?
psychoanalysis, client centered therapy, group therapy
The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for
D) food and water
Effects of Socio emotional stress on puberty
Hormonal- Pheromones of unrelated menEvolutionary Model- exposure to different environments biases children toward acquisition of different reproductive strategies- in a stressful environment it is adaptive to mature early individuate from family, reproduce early-Psychological effects vary be sex. Early: boys tend to fare better than girls. Later: Girls fare better than boys.
Threats to Internal ValidityRegression
an outlier returning back to normal, a high score is most likely to return to the meancontrol by using multiple tests to see if it is an outlier by chance
describe the strength and direction of relationship between two variables
can be hard to interpret
What does research show about eyewitnesses testimony in so far as the reconstructive nature of memory is concerned?
Eyewitness testimony can be thrown off because we dont always remember everything after retriving it
A pea-sized gland just beneath the hypothalamus that controls growth and regulates other glands.
What pea-sized gland, located just beneath the hypothalamus, controls growth and regulates other glands? P
What is the profile of alcohol/substance abuse and suicide?
Men have higher rates of alcohol abuse and women have higher rates of drug abuse, increased # of substances used, recent to impending interpersonal lost. (There is a correlation between the number of drugs and successful suicide)
What did E. C. Tolman emphasize, and what is it?
Purposiveness- the idea that much of behavior is goal-directed
are you born with a certain number of fat cells?
yes you are born with a certain number of fat cells
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