Test 203 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
antigen-antibody interactions
group VI virus
Tryptophan (aromatic)
Trp, W
visual sensory pathway
photoreceptor cells
3 examples of sugars
seizure disorder (chronic)
- idiopathic
- surgical treatment - brain lesion
Simple proteins
Chain of amino acids
automatic (reflex) patterns associated with visual and auditory systems
used by organisms for conjugation
Identify the following reaction:Sucrose + H2O --> glucose + fructose
Hydrolysis reaction
devices that combine bacteria with electronic measuring devices to detect other bacteria.
death angel
member of basidomycota, aminta phalloides produces toins alpha amanitin and phalloidin
Granule Cells
• Spinocerebellar pathway ends with “mossy fibers” -> axons spread out like moss
• Granule cells receive stimulatory input from mossy fibers
• Deliver powerful stimulatory input to Purkinje cells via parallel fibers
table sugar (sucrose) is the substrate of the enzyme _____
the substrate that act upon urea
Frontal lobe
Function: voluntary skeletal motor control, higher cognitive functions
a small, smooth, plane surface, usually used for an articulation
impairment in color discrimination, but still can perceive all colors

- more prevalent in men (6%M, 0.4%F)
discovered DNA alpha helix
attempted to construct DNA structure - unsuccessful
t-dependent antigens
smaller antigens.b cells require help from helper t cells to target themneed to be processed
___% of mericans drink unsafe or inadequately treated water
group 4 virus; inhabits GI; causes paralysis; vaccines have nearly eradicated it
Solitary Nucleus
• Deals with sensory input from internal organs
• Associated with the vagus nerve
organisms that require oxygen to live
obligate aerobes
refers to all the fluid substances enclosed in the cell membrane
Portals of Entry: Urogenital tract
Sexual, displaced organisms
Resident flora is absent from the ?
What do genes consist of?
nucleic acids (DNA,RNA)
runs and tumbles - random walk

- detects chemicals in environment
- has receptor proteins
CNS blood vessels constructed without pores (normal veins have pores)

passage: hydrophobic molecules, transported molecules
What is a multicellular organism that has chitin cell walls and absorbs organic material?
green house effect
greenhouse gases (co2, methane) absorb solar radiation and increase surface temp. microbes also fix co2
fd phage
group 2 virus; circular, pos. DNA; infects F+, F', and HFr cells through the pilus; do not kill host through lytic cycle (continously secrete virions instead)
What brain center controls the autonomic system?
Hypothalamus and brainstem
inhibition where the enzyme ceases to be made when the product is present
repressible inhibition
a solution that has a higher concentration of solutes (outside cell) than an isotonic solution
hypertonic solution
The study of where and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted
One portal of entry dealing with the mother and child?
Fossil evidence indicates that prokaryotic cells first existed on the Earth when?
3.5 billion years ago
- prevents closure of voltage gated Na+ channels (cell continuously depolarized)

- amazon frog, new guinea bird (eats orgs with BTX)
inhibition of cell wall synthesis
prevent cross-linking of NAM subunits.beta-lactams bind to the enzymes that link them.doesn't allow them to build a cell wall so they lyseie. PENICILLIN AND VANCOMYCIN
areas 3,2 & 1
primary (somato)sensory area of the neocortex; receives all information concerning touch, pain, temperature, and taste
average generation time for tuberculosis
3 days to 6 weeks
PCR Amplificaton
- use rRNA GENE, release DNA - universal rRNA gene primers bind to conserved regions - denature, add primers, DNA polymerase, denature add primers, cycle - AMPLICON sequenced and compared to rRNA database - Problems - annealing temperature affects specificity - contamination, very sensitive - lysis bias, need to release DNA - presence of inhibitors
True pathogens ?
Capable of causing disease in healthy persons with normal immune defenses
e.g. influenza virus, plague bacillus, malarial protozoan
Assume you have discovered a cell that produces a lipase that works in cold water for a laundry additive. You can increase the efficiency of this enzyme by changing one amino acid. This is done by what?
Site-directed mutagenesis.
magnetic field detection/navigation
animals can get info from earth's magnetic field

- magnetic field receptors

ex. pigeon: navigation of homing pigeons- magnets mess up navigation on a cloudy days

ex. green turtles
plus strand
The plus strand is the same as the sense strand and can also be called the coding or non-template strand. This is the strand that has the same sequence as the mRNA (except it has Ts instead of Us).
What neurotransmitters are the cause of the reflexes controlled by the hypothalamus?
1. Epinephrine (Adrenalin)
2. Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline)
3. Cortisol
Causing Disease: Virulence factors
Traits used to invade and establish themselves in the host, also determine the degree of tissue damage that occurs -- severity of disease
Know the advantages of the standard plate count.
advantage: determines viable cells

disadvantage: cells may form aggregates, requires incubation time, chemical and physical requirements are determine by media and incubation
Type 4 delayed or cell-mediated hypersensitivity
inflammation due to contact with certain antigens 12-24 hours after ontactantigen, APC's, and T-cells slow bc of t- cellsexamples: tuberculin responseallergic contact dermatitisgraft rejectiongraft vs. host disease
What are the 3 main blood vessels that supply blood to the forebrain
• Anterior cerebral artery
• Posterior cerebral artery
• Middle cerebral artery
Table 13.7 Adhesion properties of Microbes -- NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE
Adhesion: Fimbriae attach to genital epithelium
Disease: Gonorrhea
Regular use of antibacterial cleaning products promotes what?
survival of bacteria that are resistant.
Requirement for an Infectious Dose (ID)
- Minimum number of microbes required for infection to proceed
- Microbes with small IDs have greater virulence
What is the function of the anterior lobe?
• Anterior lobe is involved in muscle tone which keeps muscles contracted and ready to react
Gene silencing blocks an undesirable product by what?
natural process that occurs in a wide variety of organisms and is a defense against viruses and transposons
PCR can be used to identify an unknown bacterium. Explain why.
because the RNA primer is specific.
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