Test 279 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
age 0-1.5
Axon terminals:
contains neurotransmitters
Basic units of heredity.
Type B People
more easygoing/relaxed. 
block a neurotransmitter's functioning.
Psychedelic drugs, that distort percepts and evoke sensory input.
neurotransmitter that regulates basic bodily processes such as movement
intense irrational fears clearly related to a specific category or event
Broca's area
brain structure involved in expressive speech.
Developmental Psychology
Language acquisition Personality change and development Logical thinking and reasoning skills Making friends and forming relationships Intelligence and special educational needs
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
surround neurons, perform cleanup tasks, and insulate one neuron from another.
a self-report personality test, discriminates between “normal” and psychiatric categories, also assesses personality
william james
first psychologist in America
studied functionalism
Behavior and mental processes largely shaped by biological processes. Brain activity; hormones, genes, and nervous system.
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to recepter sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
functions as the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain; it is released by 90% of the neurons in the brain
Neurotransmitter found in the brain and in the  parasumpathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
Any environmental agent like drugs that can cause harm to the developing embryo or fetus.
Propensity for plasticity is greatest in __________
EGO defense mechanism that operate unconsciously to resolve emotional conflict and to reduce ANXIETY by REFUSING to perceive the more unpleasant aspects of external reality
reaction time
correlation between faster reaction time and higher IQ scoretoo weak to use RT to evaluate intelligence
a blend of stereotypically feminine and masculine qualities in a person
'Organizational Systems'
mind is filing cabinets/files according to similaritiesfiling errors=cant remember
This treatment is called _________ someones depression is being treated by placing electrodes on both sides of head and current is triggered
Learn best when looking @ material/writtendown, reading texts/using notes, slides,whiteboard, study alone
Intrenched false beliefs that are often bizzare.
an irresistible impulse to steal, stemming from emotional disturbance rather than economic need
Alzheimer's disease
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, resoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning.
Medulla oblongata
regulates heart rhythm, blood flow, breathing rate. digestion, vomitting
the creative child
freedom, originality, humor, agression playfulnessmore pretend playopen to new ideascreative home environments
cephalocaudal trend
the head-to-foot direction of motor development (crawling before walking)
Neurons are the nervous system's ...
building blocks.
vestibular senses
equilibrium and body position in space.are you standing? sitting?
Motor Performance
athletic ability peaks between 20-35, declines until 60s and 70s
Sensorimotor Stage
Piaget's First Stage of Cognitive Development (0-2), Learn about the world through senses and movement.
Ebbinghaus’ results on forgetting
Learning is forgotten quickly
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
1. make less comparisons to others2. better at seeing the silver lining, more optimistic3. Linked to personality, more extrovertedlower on neuroticism, not worriers, reach out to people4. genetically based, happy parents, happy child
operant learning
skinner says language is encouraged, so learned and imitated and associated
positive reappraisal:
looking for positive aspects of current situation
myelin sheath
insulating material that encases some axons; speads up transmission of of signals that move along axons; if deteriorates signals may not be transmitted effectivley
stranger anxiety
distress over contact with unfamiliar people
Correlation Coefficient
a statistical index of the relationships between two things
the idea that the brain has specialized parts--it's not just one big whole
working memory
used for thinking and problem solving
the actions by which and orgnism adjusts to its environment
Amount of influence behaviors, circumstances, genetic set-point have on happiness
behavior- 40%circumstances- 10%genetics- 50%
creating new file drawers for when material can't be grouped with others
in dealing with verbal info, people engage in three progressively deeper levels of processing which are:
the view that all knowledge and thoughts come from experience.
perceiving by intuition, as a person or the mind.
instinctive drift
Breland and Breland description of how animal's innate responses can distort conditioning processes
individual sexual identity
recognition and acceptance of ones sexual needs, preferences, values, orientation identity, and preferred modes of sexual expression and activities
independant variable
the experimental factor that that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
binocular depth cues
rely on input from both eyes
Cliques and Crowds
cliques are smaller with similar everything for intimacy and loyalty, crowds are larger for reputation and identity
parietal reach region
region in the medial posterior parietal cortex that plays a critical role in control of pointing or reaching with the hands
McNamaras study with rats
"a. Moved through maze overhead
binaural cue
involves both ears; sounds each other slightly ahead of the other, time difference between sound waves reaching the ears allows us to judge location
-To be affective, they "must be tied to the behaviour you are trying to increase."Extrinsic reinforcers: Not related to the task. Rewards like stickers, hugs. Should be used sparingly, so intrinsic pleasure isnt comprimised.Intrinsic reinforcers: Inherantly related to the task, like enjoyment of doing it, satisfaction in job well done.
a sudden change in a segment of DNA
Self concept
Roger's term for all the information and beliefs individuals have about their own nature qualities and behavior
alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
Selye’s General Adaption Syndrome consists of three stages: _____, _______, and ______
Chapter 1: (4)Who founded Structuralism?
Edward Titchner founded Structuralism.
Watson and Skinner
behaviorists that observed behavior in classical and operant conditioning
• Psychological dependence
pattern of compulsive or habitual use of a drug to satisfy a psychological need
Electroencephalograph (EEG)
A device designed to detect, amplify, and record electrical activity in the brain.
The tendency for a system to take action to keep itself in a particular state
manic episode
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
Nolan loved tequila. One day he drank to much tequilla and became very very sick. his drinking of tequilla decreased in the future due to the sequence of?
word association test
a technique for determining a subject's associative pattern by providing a verbal stimulus to which a spoken response is required
EEG( Electroencephalogram)
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
Color Deficiency- what is is?
Impairment in percieving color differences
- caused by abnormal cones
- most common between red and green cones
Sympathetic Nervous System
A division of the Autonomic Nervous system that energizes when body is stressed. More less body works itself up because of arousal.
all-or-none law
the neuron either fires or it doesnt, neurons convey strength of stimuli by varying the rate at which they fire, thicker axons transmit neural impulses more rapidly
funnel questions
a set of survey or interview questions ordered from the most general question to the most specific question
watch t.v.
Obesity is more common among those who ___________.
telegraphic speech
the kind of verbal utterances in which words are left out but the meaning is usually clear.
The Diathesis - Stress Model
Diathesis and Stress...
Diathesis: pre-disposition to a particular disorder.
Stress: environmental factors that increase the likelihood of a disorder appearing.
You can have a pre-disposition to a disorder without it ever manifesting it when there is no stress. 
Biological Influences on Sexual Motivation
Sexual maturity, sexual hormones (especially testosterone), sexual orientation.
Zero correlation
knowing value of one measure does not allow you to predict the value of the other measure
recency effect
remembering things at the end of a list better
Last night I shot a burglar in my pajamas.
A powerful laxative for mind and body purification; taken by Lewis and Clarke
Rush's Thunderbolt
Allostatic Load
Stress carried by the body to maintain equlibrium
The part of a pattern that does not command attention; the background.
When Murli told his therapist, "I came to see what you could do for me," the therapist responded, "It sounds like you're feeling you need some help. Am I right?" The therapist's response illustrates the technique of
C) active listening
at what distance do infants prefer to look at objects
8 inches away
"A unit of meaning that is made up of concepts and expresses a single idea."Strawberrys make good jams.Llamas will spit at you.
Underlying assumption of Gestalt psychology?
They studied thinking, learning, and preception
behavioral component of attitude
predispositions to actin a certain way toward an attitude object
2 typed of photoreceptors
1st acts fast, adapts less2nd acts slowly, adapts morework in dim and bright lightprovide sensitivity and claritywork in B&W and Color
This is the part of the self which wht individual sees as who they are. Although partly at the unconscious level, it is usually interacting with situations and our environment with one beng aware that they are performing in a particular manner.
example of emotion-focused coping
family fight -> search for relief from stress by confiding in friends and reaching out for social support and comfort
Research indicates that in an emergency situation, the presence of others often __________.a)leads to all of these behaviorsb)prevents people from even noticing the situationc)prevents people from interpreting an unusual event as an emergencyd)prevents pe
leads to all of these behaviors
3 mental processes (stages) involved in memory
Encoding- get info into the brainStorage- keeping it in your brainRetrieval- access info/bring to awareness
Describe the effect of alcohol.
It acts as an antagonist and blocks the receptor site for neurotransmitters
What is the definition of psychology?
o We define psychology today as the scientific study of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (inner thoughts and feelings).
What is Rene Descartes associated with?
The pineal gland, in which he found that the mind and body are interact through that gland
How do you improve the capacity of your short term memory?
chunking: combining small stimuli into larger meaningful chunks
What are the rates of mental disorders? 
- 50% of people between 15-54 have had at least 1   episode of some kind of disorder.
- Highest frequency between the ages of 25-34
- Most common disorders in US population:
- Major Depressive Disorder ~ 17%
- Social Phobia ~ 13%
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