Test 280 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
flashbulb memory
gate keepers
molecule detectors
What is Functionalism?
2-8 weeks after conception
Fovea contains ?
Only Cones
right brain
creative and spatial
AOP: Good individual assessment techniques
Behaviors, practices and decisions that address such basic and fundamental questions as; What is the right thing to do? What is worth doing? What does it mean to be a good behavior analytic practictioner.
Adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
German meaning "form" or "whole"
A neurotransmitter affecting eating, alertness, and sleep.
repeating observations or experiments to confirm prior conclusions
internal process that initiate, sustain and direct activities
theorist that studied types of attachment by use of the strange situation test
the hypothetical population of all times relevant to the construct we wish to measure
Objective personality testsMBTI
Measures normal individual differences, based on Jung's theory of personality. Often used by career counselors.
standards of test perfomance that permit the comparison of one person's score on a test with scores of others who have taken the same tests.
Wilhelm Wundt
• Created the first psychology laboratory in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany• This is often referred to as the birth of psychology as a formal science
An anti-obesity drug that works primarily because it stimulates metabolism
positive negative punishment:
positive: unpleassand added: spankingnegative: something pleasant removed: no tv
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Self-serving Bias
attributes success to internal factors, and failures to external factorsabout ourselves
conscious awareness of stuff taking place in environment/inside our minds
Persistent learning and gathering of information overtime through storage and retrieval of info
hypochondriasis (hypochondria)
is characterized by excessive preoccupation w/ one's health & incessant worry about developing physical illness, often accompanies anxiety disorders and depression
need only identify items previously learned - multiple choice test.
The Population
What is a Random Sample?
Effective Ways to Deal with Stress
interpersonal theory
the theory that personality development and behavior disorders are related to and determined by relationships between persons
These are specialized neurons which are found in the brain and spinal cord and help with neural processing and communication within that network.
Industrial-organizational psychology
subfield of psychology that studies and advises on issues related to optimizing behavior in workingplaces
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the system
- extent to which variations amoung individuals or between individuals is due to their differing genes.
A hormone called _______ (DHEA) seems to be involved in the initial onset of sexual desire.
a feeling state produced by the distinctive physicological responses and cognitive evaluations that motivate action
eidetic imagery
photographic memory, these people can supposedly hold a visual image in their minds with such clarity that they can describe it perfectly
applies both the cs and cr
the aquisition is never forgotten
ex.---after extinction bell rings----dog does cr but not as much as before 
multiple time-series design
a quasi-experimental design that combines the time-series design and the pretest-posttest design with nonequivalent groups by making multiple observations of an experimental group and its nonequivalent control group
The grouping of students, according to ability, into different levels of classes within the same school grade
proactive interference
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
refers to the consistency of people's scores on a test
Stage of development that begins at about 18- 24 months and lasts until adolescence (6- 11 years)
A neural structure lying below the thalamus which works with the pituitary (master) gland and monitors three pleasurable activities: Eating, drinking, and sex… as well as body temperature and blood pressure
Ways of viewing self, others, world, future and making meaning
Set of techniques that provides people with suggestions for alterations in their perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors 
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
attitudes are more likely to influence behavior
in Piaget's theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view.
___% of second marriages end in divorce.
Which quality of attachment appears to be lacking?
If the stressor remains, your body attempts to endure the stressor, and enters the resistance phase. Phsiological arousal remains higher than normal, and there is a sudden outpouring of hormones. Selye maintained that one outcome of this stage for some people is the development of diseases of adaption, including asthma, ulcers, and high blood pressure.
coping mechanism
an adaptation to environmental stress that is based on conscious or unconscious choice and that enhances control or gives psychological comfort
proceeding from or dependent on a conditioning of the individual; learned or acquired behavior patterns
the process of reporting on one's own conscious mental experiences
mediates the demands of the Id, and Superego, operates on the reality principle
instrumental aggression
behavior that happens to harm another person as the aggressor tries to obtain something
hedonic principle
the notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain. (dentist example: people visit the dentist willingly and experience pain only because it is pleasurable in the long run)
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy
Maintenance rehearsal
Repeating information over and over to keep it active in short-term memory
thalamus (LGN)
major relay station of visual signals (lateral geniculate nucleus)
Routine Activity Theory
A Perspective on adolescence that views unstructured, unsupervised time with peers as a main cause of misbehvaior
Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the strongest relationship?
B) -.81
client centered therapy
an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction ot their therapy
Grayson seems to be preoccupied with the possibility that he might miss an important message from someone in his family. He checks for new messages on his answering machine every 15 minutes. Grayson's constant checking for messages could be considered an
A compulsion
inferential stats
using math to draw conclusions about meaning of data- allows you to ask ?s of data, create a hyp
the body's rate of energy (or caloric) utilization
Sensory coding
The process through which the nervous system represents the qualities of teh incoming stimulus- whether auditory or visual, for example, or whether a red light or a green one, a sour taste or a sweet taste
G Factor(p 342)
A general intellectual ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities and talents.
John Watson
Behaviorlism - studied Ivan Pavlov and declared psych must limit itself to observable phenomena - reflexes (dog salavting experiment)
freud's term for the part of the personality that mediates between environmental demands (reality), coscience (superego), and instinctual needs (id); now often used as a synonym for self.
anterograde amnesia
inability to form new long term memories
the voice box that houses the vocal cords
real motion
Our perception of any stimulus or object that actually moves in space; the opposite of apparent motion.
the middle number in a given sequence of numbers, taken as the average of the two middle numbers when the sequence has an even number of numbers:
harmony of or agreement in feeling, as between persons or on the part of one person with respect to another.
sensory cortex
area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
Cognitive Perspective
human thought and all the processes of knowing, such as attending, thinking, remembering, and understanding
An individuals subjective reality is more important than it's objective reality
Jean Piaget/Noam Chomsky (language aquisition)
central nervous system
part of the nervous system containing the brain and spinal cord and their associated functions
Functions of Sensory Systems
sensory stimulation of the sense organs is transmitted into the CNS where in some cases very basic initial sensory processing is done in lower brain regionsmain target is the thalamus where the projections are organized and sent to the appropriate cerebral cortical target for intensive processingexception is for the sense of smell (olfaction) which bypasses the thalamus. smell goes directly to nose
Summation Test
Ex: (Light and Shock paired while tone is a fear inhibitor) When tone and light presented at same time (IS and CS), the fear is lower than when just the CS was presented
Sensory Memory
Everything we sense in this kind of memory is held ever so briefly and is easily displaced by new information.
spina bifida
neural tube degect in which the child is born with a hole in the tube surrounding the spinal cord
Synaptic Facilitation
an increase in the size of a postsynaptic potential to weak stimulus resulting from neuronal changes that underlie learning and memory.
Based on Piagetian theory, which of the following relationships is NOT correct? (a) formal operations --egocentrism; (b) sensorimotor--developing object permanence; (c) concrete operations--have attained conservation; (d) preoperational--animism
(a) formal operations--egocentrism

¡Quasi-experimental design
We can randomly select people in this case, but we cannot randomly assign

¡This violates one of the primary assumption of experimental psychology

§That the two groups are equal before the experiment starts
speed test
have a strict time limit.      i. They are often designed so almost no one can finish.        ii. Two possible uses:        (a) To test mastery of material by testing how quickly someone can deal with it.       (b) To test someone’s speed at a task (typing).
long term memory
info kept for hours,days, weeks and years. stores of a person's permanent or relatively permanent memories
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
stream of consciousness
thought regarded as a succession of ideas and images constantly moving forward in time
Mass Psychogenic Illness
The occurence, in a group of people, of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause.
IQ tests have been proven to be good predictors of:
School performance.
a detachment from social relationships.
A schizoid personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by
A class is given a list of words and is asked to choose the word that grabs their attention the most.
Skinny, funny, joyful, affectionate, hostile, blonde, tell, friendly, nice
Infant Perception
not just a buzz or blur..in the first week of life, they will recognize mother smell, show preferneces for novel stimuli, and gaze at face like patterns more than no face like patterns
• Rapid-eye movement REM sleep
the stage of sleep that involved rapid eye movements and that is most closely associated with periods of dreaming
what is personal perception influenced by?
physical appearance; social schemas; stereotypes; prejudice; discrimination
Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by
D) an obsessive fear of becoming obese
five developmental tasks of adolescence
1. Accept full-grown body and changes of puberty2. Acquire adult ways of thinking3. Develop more mature ways of relating to peers of both sexes4. Construct/consolidate and identity5. Attain greater emotional and economic independence
Threats to Internal ValiditySubject Attrition
people drop out of one group especially compared to another group (usually due to your IV)control it by random design and measuring why everyone dropped out then recognizing similar characteristics between participants
psychology as a science
a basic assumption is that behavior is not random and results from natural causes
What are the three theories of forgetting?
1) Lashley's Trace Decay2) Freud's Delibrate forgetting3) Proactive and Retroactive Interference
A model emphasizing that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item with the most typical item(s) in that category and look for a \"family resemblance\" with that item's properties.
Which model emphasizes that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item with the most typical item(s) in that category and look for a \"family resemblance\" with that item's properties? P
WHat does equivocal deaths mean?
When the manner of death can not be clearly determined; when autopsy may be requested.
Levinsons' Seasons of Life Organizing Factors
Dream- an image of the self in the adult world that guides decision making - inspiring a person in hes/her present endeavors1.Gender Differences2. Refine and update dreamsMentor- facilitates realization of the dream. Mentor provides a transition from parent-child relationship to world of adult peers.
What is the outcome data on SVP and sex offenders?
There is little to do data on SVP outcomes. There is recidivism among sex offenders. There is no outcome data to date on re-arrest rates
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