Test 34 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Phylum Foraminifera
HIV life cycle
Domain Bacteria
Bacteria, haploid
prepares new viral proteins
Evolutionary history of organisms
Genus of rod-shaped bacteria
transitional form between dinosaurs and birds (reptile with wings)
Natural selection
Overproduction of offspringVariation among individualsVariations affect survival and reproduction based on environmentVariations are heritable
tiny particles carrying heredity (later known as genes)
Cyanobacteria created our oxygen atmosphere, and account for most of the oxygen being added today.
Random alterations in genetic information, can occur during DNA replication.
gene duplication
parsimony assumes duplication preceded branching
Lord Kelvin/William Thompson
earth is too young
nested! predicted by branching evo. explains fxn from ancestral traits. explains useless traits. except when same trait evolves twice. predicts which traits conserved.
Resample the characters replacement at random, Construct a new tree from this data set. % of time present is reliability number. 70+ certain
shared derived: not possessed by common ancestor of ALL taxa
Geographic Isolation
splits homogenous populations into smaller groups
Many protozoans are important disease causing organisms (malaria, toxoplasmoisis, amoebic dysentery)
Many bacteria, like Rhizobium, can perform nitrogen fixation, creating fertile soil for plants.
Ability to move spontaneously and actively
Similar DNA, ability to breed together, same ancestral heritage, etc.
Branch on the tree of life
Three Domains of Life
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Crossing Over
During reduction division, homologous chromosomes are briefly joined, exchange genes or groups of genes.
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
artificial selection
dogs, pigeons, wild cabbage, tomatoes, potatoes, etc. livestock
theory that successive members of an evolutionary series become increasingly modified in a single undeviating direction.
splices DNA genome into host cell's genome
midpoint rooting
Assume most changes between most distant. no outgroup, assumes evo. is constant
selection on individuals
not for good of species
species evolves to use a preexisting structure inherited from an ancestor for a potentially unrelated function
Thomas Malthus
Radical family, popularized idea about population growing exponentially, resources not.
Natural Theology
Everything was perfectly adapted to its way of life (Paley, Ray)
Protozoans gave rise to all higher forms of animal life.
Get their energy from dead and decaying matter, secrete enzyme that digests outside of the cell
Nitrogen Fixation
Bacteria can turn atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into a form that plants can use (NH3-ammonium)
Algae and protozoa are important prey in food chains. Even humans eat algae
Bacteria and fungi are the primary decomposers of dead organic matter, recycling materials on a planetary scale for other organisms to use.
As a result of photosynthesis, plants release ________ into the atmosphere. A) nitrogen B) carbon dioxide C) ozone D) minerals E) oxygen
Stabilizing Selection
Acts to stabilize the population around some average value
Thick mats of cyanobacteria that for back 2.7 million years. One of the first ecosystems on earth.
What wasn't in Hawaii?
reptiles/amphib: -sea turtle. mammals: -seals/bats. fresh h20fish: -evolved from salt h20
Robert Chambers
Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation (1844) Man descended from lower animals --System of Linear Development
Disruptive Selection
The environment selects for the two extremes, against the average, splitting the population in two or more types.
Evidence of Evolution
1. Biodiversity, 2. Biogeography, 3. Fossil Records, 4. Embryology, 5. Comparative Anatomy, 6. Molecular Evolution
Which type of fatty acid would offer the greatest benefit for membranes of the plants, algae, and bacteria in the coldest habitats on earth? A. Saturated B. Mono unsaturatedC. Poly unsaturated
Georges Comte de Buffon
wrote Histoire Naturelle. Theorized that animals were formed from an internal mold. Each family of animals had diverged from a common ancestor and that common ancestor had been specially created.
Carolus Linnaeus
Swedish botanist. Set out to reveal the divine plan by collecting and classifying plants. Believed that species were fixed and distinct types, and therefore could not evolve or change. Grouped similar plants together, based on their reproductive structures. Wrote Systema Natura. Invented the modern system of classification, binomial nomenclature.
problem with AZT
virions evolved to be resistant via mutation rate (no correction machinery)
Trait that is shared by two or more taxa
Eukaryote Cell
Much more complex, took 2 more billion years to evolve
Spontaneous Generation
Idea that life is an innate property of organic matter.
An extract of red algae is used to make paint, cosmetics, and ice cream.
Energy provided by electron transport along the mitochondrial electron transport chain is used to pump H+ into which location? A. Mitochondrial intermembrane spaceB. Cytosol/ cytoplasmC. Mitochondrial matrixD. Mitochondrial outer membraneE. Inner thylakoi
A. Mitochondrial intermembrane space
HIV evolution step 3
during AZT treatment, some virions > survival and reproduction than others
acute/initial phase of HIV
virions enter body, attach to CD4 protein w/coreceptor CCR5, replicate infecting dendritic, macrophage, regulatory T cells, memory and effector. THEN [] virions climbs steeply, CD4 T cells plummets
During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.A. NADH and FADH2 ... intermembrane spaceB. NADH and FADH2 ... mitochondrial matrixC. NADH ... intermembrane spaceD. NADH ... mitochondrial matrixE. acetyl CoA ... i
A. NADH and FADH2......intermembrane space
Jeane Baptiste de Lamarck
believed that organisms were shaped by their environment and could evolve. Theory of the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics. First person to study invertebrates. Thought that evolution had to be both predetermined and progressive.
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?A. thylakoid membranesB. stroma of the chloroplastC. cytoplasm surrounding the chloroplastD. chlorophyll moleculeE. outer membrane of the chloroplast
B. Stroma of the Chloroplast
What is the fluid-mosaic of a membrane and experimental evidence for it?
Membranes are typically fluid with consistency of salad oil (changes with temp), membranes are a mosaic of phospholipids and proteins 
Freeze fracture membrane and observe protein bumps: discovered by Andrew Staehelin
The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration participates DIRECTLY in what process?A. The phosphorylation of ADP to form ATPB. glycolysisC. accepting electrons at the end of the mitochondrial electron transport chainD. the citric acid cycleE. transferr
C. Accepting electrons at the end of the mitochondrial electron transport chain
why use amino acids not DNA for evolution?
single base pair (esp. 3rd base) mutations seem significant without changing proteins.
he rate of O2 production by the light reactions varies with the intensity of light because light is required as the energy source for O2 formation. Thus, lower light levels generally mean a lower rate of O2 production.In addition, lower light levels also
D. The rate of O2 production would decrease because the rate of ADP and NADP+ production by the Calvin Cycle would decrease
predator/prey cycles
Lyme Disease
compound eyes
solo pursuit
lone predators
open circulatory system
pelvic fins
hip fins
analogous structures
convergent evolution
Warm-blooded animals (endothermic) need more energy to sustain themselves that cold-blooded animals
Fusion/specialization of segments, like cephalothorax
uniramous appendages
single-branched appendages- insects.
self-feeder, autotrophic organisms produce their own energy
runaway selection- trait becomes reinforced generation after generation until it is greatly exaggerated, can be a dangerous burden. Irish Elk
Phylum Chordata
lancelets, tunicates, vertebrates. share three basic traits:
Pharyngeal gill slits
Dorsal hollow nerve cord
Phylum Rotifera
rotifers, Pseodocoelomate Body Plan,
large scale- more circumstancial evidence. above species level
Modification of RNA transcripts, including splicing out of introns, joining together of exons, and alteration of the 5' and 3' ends.
courtship display
elaborate ritualized behaviors that include songs and dances
any organism that eats another organism
transfer effect
certain physical traits (bright plumage etc.) attract a mate, these traits can be replaced by external objects
practice bower
Juvenile males practice building- older males help them out
Bachelor males without a territory, bachelor males of species in which only territory holders mate
keystone predators
predators that affect their communities that are proportionaly much greater than their abundance
detritivore = feed on detritus. decaying vegitation
tentacled bell shaped, free swimming sexual stage of a cnidaria
only placental mammals have. attached by an umbilical cord to a placenta (hence the navel)
animals bleong to this larger monophyletic group; incudes Phylum Choanoflagellata, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Animalia (all 3 share common ancestor)
false feet, pair of paddle-like appendages covered with setae; provide more surface area for respiration by diffusion
modified for manipulating food - usually fangs or pincers
armlike structures that have stinging cells and surround the mouth of most of the cnidarians
forces that disrupt a natural ecosystem
> Abiotic - forest fires, floods
> Biotic - diseases, parasites
A suborder of the order chiroptera(bats) 725 sp., 140 genera, smaller bats that feed on insects, most of which are captured in flight
determined by traits they share, traits that are different from their ancestors. Each taxon is a clade, a branch on the tree of life (cladogram)
independent assortment
chromosomes assort independently of one another, adds to variation , random distribution of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
red tide
Phylum Dinoflagellata caused it, certain species released toxins-killed a ton of dolphins
After synthesis of a eukaryotic primary RNA transcript, the removal of portions (introns) of the transcript that will not be included in the mRNA.
organism that obtains energy by eating animals
true predator
kills its prey and eats it
dominance hierarchy
fighting other males to establish dominance within the pack
any area that an animal defends against another animal
niche overlap
The intensity of the competition between them depends on the extent to which their niches overlap,
Handicap model, if male can carry around huge tails or antlers and still avoid predators, feed himself, etc.. he must be really great
many ways possible- Live in same geographic area, but in a different habitat. same habitat, but use it at a different time of day. exploit the resource in a different way - resource partitioning
realized niche
competition forces organisms into a much narrower niche - the realized niche, When grown together, competition forced them into a realized niche
ability to hunt by sound- mainly microchiropterans. sound waves tell bats where lil prey is moving, etc. ultrasonic. also whales-dolphins
dominance heirarchy
Linear sequence of dominant and sub-dominant males (alpha male, beta male
all large sponges; no central cavity, narrow canals, many small, interconnected chambers
planula larva
the sexual reproduction stages are external fertilization, zygote develops into this, and larvae mature into new polyp
The organ of balance in a crustacean
animal lacking a coelom, or body cavity
tiny tubes, lose water vapor through. spiracles open up into these
Phylum Arthropoda
huge amount of species, Jointed appendages, Eucoelomate protostomes, molt to grow
Class Scyphozoa
true jellyfish, coelenterates in which the polyp stage is absent or at least inconspicuous: jellyfishes
Class Merostomata
horseshoe crabs. only 4 species. abundant in deep water. nocturnal. important food source for migratory birds.
Class Arachnida
spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites. Body = cephalothorax + abdomen. 8 legs.
Class Amphibia
frogs, toads, salamanders. Gave rise to all higher vertebrates.First vertebrates on land External fertilization in water. Eggs have no shells, so must stay in water. Skin must stay moist to breath.
Female Choice
sexual selection, females chose the male they want to impregnate them
Intraspecific Competition
Competition between members of the same species
behavioral isolating mechanism
changes in behavior, especially courtship and mating behavior. Animals often have complex stereotyped behavior patterns that are under genetic control
taxon contains the common ancestor and all of it's descendants. cladists only recongize
process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris. Pinch off membrane to form a vacuole
Phylum Euglenozoa
Plant or animal? Heterotrophs, but 1/3d are also photosynthetic. May have formed by endosymbiosis, engulfed green algae cell
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer using the parental DNA strand as a template.
DNA polymerase can only build new strands 5' to 3'But...it reads the parental template from 3' to 5'AND...it synthesizes the new strand by building onto the 3' end of the primer or newly made strand.
insects which lay their eggs in hosts, (often paralyzed), young hatch, eat host alive
mixed-species foraging flock
specialize in different feeding zones, higher rates of food capture than solitary birds
the organism that is injured or killed by the predator
gemmae cup/ Phylum Hepaticophyta
little specialized structures that contain tiny cloned plantlets (gemmae) in liverworts
active pursuit
chase it and eat it-lion, cheetah, etc.
community structure
how many different species in the community + how many individuals of each different species. Elton believed food most important factor in shaping CS
intrinsic limiting factors
regulate the growth of populations- act from inside population. ex- Changes in reproductive physiology, Changes in behavior
segmentationallow efficient locomotion
evolved separatly in two groups, protostomes (annelids and arthropods) and in deuterostomes (chordates like us)
Tiny medusae that comes off the polyps in sexual reproduction
coelom forms as a split in the mesoderm
One of the segments of a tapeworm, containing both male and female reproductive organs
silky envelope spun by the larvae of many insects to protect pupas and by spiders to protect eggs
a depression formed when cells of the blastula move inward
The hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development
Class Echinoidea
sea urchins, sand dollars. lack arms. urchins economically important-can devastate coral reefs, harvested for their gonads,
1 of 3 body patterns for sponges; spongocoel is folded canals, canals lined with choanocytes, increases surface area.
mantle cavity
a water-filled chamber that houses the gills, anus, and excretory pores of a mollusc
one of the small openings in a sponge's body through which water enters
Occurs when two or more organisms use the same resource in a way that affects the birth rate or death rate of the competitors.
•The intensity of the competition will depend to a large degree on the density of the population in the parking lot outside the arena
genetic drift
change in allele frequencies in small isolated populations due to random events, it is strictly a statistical phenomenon
Stanley Miller
device in the laboratory that would mimic the early conditions of the earth so that he could use it to synthesis organic compounds from the precursing inorganic compounds. primordial reducing atmosphere
halophilic archaens
salt-loving, live in Great Salt Lake or the Dead Sea, can live in a salt solution up to 36%!
thermophilic archaeans
heat-loving, live in boiling mud in hot springs, hot briny water, near volcanic vents under the sea
chain of being
Species were fixed, distinct types, that could be arranged in a linear sequence, like links in a chain, scala natura
A sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed.
RNA splicing
clitellum/ Phylum Annelida
series of segments swollen by large mucus glands
balance of nature
force that keeps the balance between organisms and their environment
conidiophore/ Phylum Ascomycota
an a-sexual non-motile spore of a fungus
ambush predator
hide, wait for prey to come to you
behavioral ecology
examine the ways in which behavior is adaptive, how it varies, how it evolves.
visceral mass
area beneath the mantle of a mollusk that contains the internal organs
runaway selection (Fisher)
Regardless of how females make choice future generations will always look for the same trait and it becomes reinforced generation after generation until it is greatly exaggerated, can be a dangerous burden
Intrinsic Limiting Factor
Limiting factors can also act from inside the population - intrinsic limiting factors, Changes in reproductive physiology, Changes in behavior
Density Dependent Limiting Factor
Limiting factors that act in proportion to how dense the population has become.
root nodules
Forms nodules on roots of legumes like clover, soybeans, alfalfa. for nitrogen fixation.
The tandemly repetitive DNA at the end of a eukaryotic chromosome's DNA molecule that protects the organism's genes from being eroded during successive rounds of replication.
DNA replication
Using parental DNA as a template, synthesizes new DNA strand by covalently adding nucleotides to the 3' end of a pre-existing DNA strand or RNA primer.
capsule/ Phylum Bryophyta
on top of sporophyte stalk, only on moss, cells in it undergo meiosis
net primary production (NPP)
Subtract from this GPP the fraction that the plant uses for itself (~25%), what's left is called net primary production. Used to compare efficiency. Highest-wetlands, tropical forests, estuaries, coral reefs. lowest-desert, open ocean
incurrent siphon
the siphon on a clam that takes water and nutrients in
good genes model (Borgia)
Women choose mate based on male's appearance, his ability to thrive, suggest that he has good genes, great for making your babies
, the number of songs he can sing, is directly correlated with his reproductive success
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection
evolution depends on variation! Individuals with adaptive variations would survive better, survive better, reproduce more often. More of their genes would be passed on to the next generation - change in gene frequency over time
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists in its dispersed form, as a mass of very long, thin fibers.
The Central Dogma
geographic isolating mechanism
a factor that acts to reduce or block the flow of genes between two populations, a split in two islands
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