Agriculture Vocab

Agriculture vocabulary Standardized Tests
Terms Definitions
Hearth of tomato
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
North America
"world's bread basket"
Hearth of the cow
McCormick reaper
1830s-________________ __________ cut wheat
another name for Pastoral Nomadism
A flooded field for growing rice.
The outer covering of a seed.
Commercial agriculture
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
_________=one of the most important grain crops and the world's leading export crop
service sector
another word for tertiary sector
Mediterranean Agriculture
located in Mediterranean climates; crops grown for human consumption; focus on horticulture and tree crops
using organisms to improve other organisms
Seed agriculture
Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds.
Pastoral nomadism
A form of subisistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
growing one crop over a large area
areas of Earth's surface that have been permanently settled (the inhabited world)
truck farming
synonym for Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming
Angus and Hereford
two cows we use now
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
Vegetative Planting
Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
To beat out grain from stalks by trampling it.
Crop rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season
Plantation Farming
practiced in sub/tropic LDCs but owned by MNCs in MDCs
salinization, monocropping, homogenization, top, capital, pests, run, some, mechanization, MNCs
Negetive consequences of the Green Revolution: ___________, _____________/_______________ of crops, _____ soil loss, ___________ intensive, super _______, ____ off, four main crops can't be grown in ______ places, _______________ decreased need for workers, makes periphery more dependent on _____
Mediterranean Sea, California, Central Chile, South Africa, South West Australia
location of Mediterranean climates
Dakotas, Montana, Canada
Where is the spring wheat belt?
Grain Farming
grown for sale to manufacturers; not always for "immediate" consumption by humans and livestock
The area surrounding a city in which milk is supplied
Winter Wheat
Wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early Summer
Wet rice
Rice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
Intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximim feasible yield from parcel of land.
primary sector
the group of jobs that extract raw materials from Earth
import; debt; money
developed countries with one cash crop (plantation): forces periphery countries to _______ food-huge _____; must rely on world demand for _________
First Agricultural Revolution
occured 10-12,000 years ago during the Holocene
What did the New World lack that the Old World had?
late 16th century-19th century
when the 2nd Agricultural Revolution took place
subsistence farming
type of farming where farmers grow for personal use/consumption
Shifting Cultivation
A form of subsistence farming in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period
mixed crop and livestock farming, dairy farming, grain farming, livestock ranching, Mediterranean Agriculture, commercial gardening and fruit farming, plantation farming
Types of Commercial Farming (7)
land, transportation, soil, climate, social
assumptions the von Thünen model make: uniformity of _____; no obstacles to ______________; _____ and _________ the same; _________ factors
quaternary sector and quinary sector
two sub sections of the service sector
root crop, rest crop, winter cereal, spring cereal
18th Century-4 field system, need for _____ ______, _____ _______, ______ ______, and ______ ______
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